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Technical Paper

Effect of Methane Number in a Diesel Engine Converted to Natural Gas Spark Ignition

2019-09-09
2019-24-0008
Natural gas (NG) is an alternative fuel for spark-ignition engines. In addition to its cleaner combustion, recent breakthroughs in drilling technologies increased its availability and lowered its cost. NG consists of mostly methane, but it also contains heavier hydrocarbons and inert diluents, the levels of which vary substantially with geographical source, time of year, and treatments applied during production or transportation. To investigate the effects of NG composition on engine performance and emissions, a 3D CFD model of a heavy-duty diesel engine retrofitted to spark ignition operations simulated engine operation under lean-combustion, low-speed, and medium load conditions. To eliminate the effect of different gas energy density, three NG blends of similar lower heating value but different H/C ratio have been investigated at fixed spark timing.
Technical Paper

Greenhouse Gas Emissions of MY 2010 Advanced Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Measured Over a Cross-Continental Trip of USA

2013-09-08
2013-24-0170
The study was aimed at assessing in-use emissions of a USEPA 2010 emissions-compliant heavy-duty diesel vehicle powered by a model year (MY) 2011 engine using West Virginia University's Transportable Emissions Measurement System (TEMS). The TEMS houses full-scale CVS dilution tunnel and laboratory-grade emissions measurement systems, which are compliant with the Code of Federal Regulation (CFR), Title 40, Part 1065 [1] emissions measurement specifications. One of the specific objectives of the study, and the key topic of this paper, is the quantification of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (CO2, N2O and CH4) along with ammonia (NH3) and regulated emissions during real-world operation of a long-haul heavy-duty vehicle, equipped with a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and urea based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) aftertreatment system for PM and NOx reduction, respectively.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Particulate Matter Emissions from Different Aftertreatment Technologies in a Wind Tunnel

2013-09-08
2013-24-0175
Stringent emission regulations have forced drastic technological improvements in diesel after treatment systems, particularly in reducing Particulate Matter (PM) emissions. Those improvements generally regard the use of Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) and lately also the use of Selective Catalyst Reduction (SCR) systems along with improved engine control strategies for reduction of NOx emissions from these engines. Studies that have led to these technological advancements were made in controlled laboratory environment and are not representative of real world emissions from these engines or vehicles. In addition, formation and evolution of PM from these engines are extremely sensitive to overall changes in the dilution process.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Exhaust Emissions from a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Retrofitted to Operate in Methane/Diesel Dual-Fuel Mode

2013-09-08
2013-24-0181
The need for a cleaner and less expensive alternative energy source to conventional petroleum fuels for powering the transportation sector has gained increasing attention during the past decade. Special attention has been directed towards natural gas (NG) which has proven to be a viable option due to its clean-burning properties, reduced cost and abundant availability, and therefore, lead to a steady increase in the worldwide vehicle population operated with NG. The heavy-duty vehicle sector has seen the introduction of natural gas first in larger, locally operated fleets, such as transit buses or refuse-haulers. However, with increasing expansion of the NG distribution network more drayage and long-haul fleets are beginning to adopt natural gas as a fuel.
Technical Paper

Chassis Dynamometer Emissions Characterization of a Urea-SCR Transit Bus

2012-06-01
2011-01-2469
West Virginia University characterized the emissions and fuel economy performance of a 30-foot 2010 transit bus equipped with urea selective catalytic reduction (u-SCR) exhaust aftertreatment. The bus was exercised over speed-time driving schedules representative of both urban and on-highway activity using a chassis dynamometer while the exhaust was routed to a full-scale dilution tunnel with research grade emissions analyzers. The Paris speed-time driving schedule was used to represent slow urban transit bus activity while the Cruise driving schedule was used to represent on-highway activity. Vehicle weights representative of both one-half and empty passenger loading were evaluated. Fuel economy observed during testing with the urban driving schedule was significantly lower (55%) than testing performed with the on-highway driving schedule.
Technical Paper

Relationship between Carbon Monoxide and Particulate Matter Levels across a Range of Engine Technologies

2012-04-16
2012-01-1346
Relationships between diesel particulate matter (PM) mass and gaseous emissions mass produced by engines have been explored to determine whether any gaseous species may be used as surrogates to infer PM quantitatively. It was recognized that sulfur content of fuel might independently influence PM mass, since PM historically is composed of elemental carbon, organic carbon, sulfuric acid, ash and wear particles. Previous research has suggested that PM may be correlated with carbon monoxide (CO) for an engine that is exercised through a variety of speed and load cycles, but that the correlation does not extend to a group of engines. Large databases from the E-55/59 and Gasoline/Diesel PM Split programs were employed, along with the IBIS bus emissions database and several additional data sets for on- and off-road engines to examine possible relationships.
Technical Paper

ExhAUST: DPF Model for Real-Time Applications

2011-09-11
2011-24-0183
Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) are well assessed exhaust aftertreatment devices currently equipping almost every modern diesel engine to comply with the most stringent emission standards. However, an accurate estimation of soot content (loading) is critical to managing the regeneration of DPFs in order to attain optimal behavior of the whole engine-after-treatment assembly, and minimize fuel consumption. Real-time models can be used to address challenges posed by advanced control systems, such as the integration of the DPF with the engine or other critical aftertreatment components or to develop model-based OBD sensors. One of the major hurdles in such applications is the accurate estimation of engine Particulate Matter (PM) emissions as a function of time. Such data would be required as input data for any kind of accurate models. The most accurate way consists of employing soot sensors to gather the real transient soot emissions signal, which will serve as an input to the model.
Technical Paper

Effects of Oil Aging on Laboratory Measurement of Emissions from a Legacy Heavy-duty Diesel Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-1163
Diesel engines are highly reliable, durable and are used for a wide range of applications with low fuel usage owing to its higher thermal efficiency compared to other mobile power sources. Heavy-duty diesel engines are used for both on-road and off-road applications and dominate the heavy-duty engine segment of the United States transportation market. Due to their high reliability, there are considerable numbers of on-road legacy heavy-duty diesel engine fleets still in use in the United States. These engines are relatively higher oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) producers than post 2007 model year diesel engines. There have been various emission certification or verification programs which are carried out in states like California and Texas for different aftermarket retrofit devices, fuels and additive technologies for reducing NOx and PM emissions from these legacy diesel engines.
Journal Article

The Effect of Cetane Improvers and Biodiesel on Diesel Particulate Matter Size

2011-04-12
2011-01-0330
Heavy-duty diesel engines (HDDE), because of their widespread use and reputation of expelling excessive soot, have frequently been held responsible for excessive amounts of overall environmental particulate matter (PM). PM is a considerable contributor to air pollution, and a subject of primary concern to health and regulatory agencies worldwide. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has provided PM emissions regulations and standards of measurement techniques since the 1980's. PM standards set forth by the EPA for HDDEs are based only on total mass, instead of size and/or concentration. The European Union adopted a particle number emission limit, and it may influence the U.S. EPA to adopt particle number or size limits in the future. The purpose of this research was to study the effects biodiesel blended fuel and cetane improvers have on particle size and number.
Technical Paper

Mutagenic Potential of Particulate Matter from Diesel Engine Operation on Fischer-Tropsch Fuel as a Function of Engine Operating Conditions and Particle Size

2002-05-06
2002-01-1699
Further growth of diesel engines in the light-duty and heavy-duty vehicular market is closely linked to the potential health risks of diesel exhaust. The California Air Resources Board and the Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment have identified diesel exhaust as a toxic air contaminant. The International Agency for Research on Cancer concluded that diesel particulate is a probable human carcinogen [1]. Cleaner burning liquid fuels, such as those derived from natural gas via the Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process, offer a potentially economically viable alternative to standard diesel fuel while providing reduced particulate emissions. Further understanding of FT operation may be realized by investigating the differences in toxicity and potential health effects between particulate matter(PM) derived from FT fuel and that derived from standard Federal diesel No. 2 (DF).
Technical Paper

Relationships Between Instantaneous and Measured Emissions in Heavy Duty Applications

2001-09-24
2001-01-3536
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR), using urea injection, is being examined as a method for substantial reduction of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) for diesel engines, but the urea injection rates must be controlled to match the NOx production which may need to be predicted during open loop control. Unfortunately NOx is usually measured in the laboratory using a full-scale dilution tunnel and chemiluminescent analyzer, which cause delay and diffusion (in time) of the true manifold NOx concentration. Similarly, delay and diffusion of measurements of all emissions cause the task of creating instantaneous emissions models for vehicle simulations more difficult. Data were obtained to relate injections of carbon dioxide (CO2) into a tunnel with analyzer measurements. The analyzer response was found to match a gamma distribution of the input pulse, so that the analyzer output could be modeled from the tunnel CO2 input.
Technical Paper

Emission Reductions and Operational Experiences With Heavy Duty Diesel Fleet Vehicles Retrofitted with Continuously Regenerated Diesel Particulate Filters in Southern California

2001-03-05
2001-01-0512
Particulate emission control from diesel engines is one of the major concerns in the urban areas in California. Recently, regulations have been proposed for stringent PM emission requirements from both existing and new diesel engines. As a result, particulate emission control from urban diesel engines using advanced particulate filter technology is being evaluated at several locations in California. Although ceramic based particle filters are well known for high PM reductions, the lack of effective and durable regeneration system has limited their applications. The continuously regenerated diesel particulate filter (CRDPF) technology discussed in this presentation, solves this problem by catalytically oxidizing NO present in the diesel exhaust to NO2 which is utilized to continuously combust the engine soot under the typical diesel engine operating condition.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Emissions from Hybrid-Electric and Conventional Transit Buses

2000-06-19
2000-01-2011
Hybrid-electric transit buses offer benefits over conventional transit buses of comparable capacity. These benefits include reduced fuel consumption, reduced emissions and the utilization of smaller engines. Factors allowing for these benefits are the use of regenerative braking and reductions in engine transient operation through sophisticated power management systems. However, characterization of emissions from these buses represents new territory: the whole vehicle must be tested to estimate real world tailpipe emissions levels and fuel economy. The West Virginia University Transportable Heavy Duty Emissions Testing Laboratories were used to characterize emissions from diesel hybrid-electric powered as well as diesel and natural gas powered transit buses in Boston, MA and New York City.
Technical Paper

Development of A Microwave Assisted Regeneration System for A Ceramic Diesel Particulate System

1999-10-25
1999-01-3565
Specific aspects of a study aimed at developing a microwave assisted regeneration system for diesel particulate traps are discussed. Results from thermal and microwave characteristic studies carried out in the initial phase of the study are reported. The critical parameters that need to be optimized, for achieving controlled regeneration, are microwave preheating time period, regenerative air supply, regenerative air temperature, and soot deposition. Using a 1000 W magnetron, power measurements were made to select the best waveguide configuration for optimized transmission. A six cylinder naturally aspirated, indirect injection diesel engine was retrofitted with a customized exhaust system that included a Corning EX80 (5.66″ × 6.00″) type ceramic particulate trap. An automated exhaust bypass system enabled trap loading and subsequent regeneration with a customized microwave regeneration system. The paper discusses the salient details of both on-line and off-line regeneration setups.
Technical Paper

Contribution of Soot Contaminated Oils to Wear-Part II

1999-05-03
1999-01-1519
Diesel soot interacts with the engine oil and leads to wear of engine parts. Engine oil additives play a crucial role in preventing wear by forming the anti-wear film between the wearing surfaces. The current study was aimed at investigating the interactions between engine soot and oil properties in order to develop high performance oils for diesel engines equipped with exhaust gas re-circulation (EGR). The effect of soot contaminated oil on wear of engine components was examined using a statistically designed experiment. To quantitatively analyze and simulate the extent of wear a three-body wear machine was designed and developed. The qualitative wear analysis was performed by examining the wear scars on an AISI 52100 stainless steel ball worn in the presence of oil test samples on a ball-on-flat disc setup. The three oil properties studied were base stock, dispersant level and zinc dithiophosphate level.
Technical Paper

Diesel and CNG Transit Bus Emissions Characterization by Two Chassis Dynamometer Laboratories: Results and Issues

1999-05-03
1999-01-1469
Emissions of six 32 passenger transit buses were characterized using one of the West Virginia University (WVU) Transportable Heavy Duty Emissions Testing Laboratories, and the fixed base chassis dynamometer at the Colorado Institute for Fuels and High Altitude Engine Research (CIFER). Three of the buses were powered with 1997 ISB 5.9 liter Cummins diesel engines, and three were powered with the 1997 5.9 liter Cummins natural gas (NG) counterpart. The NG engines were LEV certified. Objectives were to contrast the emissions performance of the diesel and NG units, and to compare results from the two laboratories. Both laboratories found that oxides of nitrogen and particulate matter (PM) emissions were substantially lower for the natural gas buses than for the diesel buses. It was observed that by varying the rapidity of pedal movement during accelerations in the Central Business District cycle (CBD), CO and PM emissions from the diesel buses could be varied by a factor of three or more.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Combustion Pressure Characteristics of Fischer-Tropsch and Conventional Diesel Fuels in a Heavy Duty CI Engine

1999-05-03
1999-01-1472
The emissions reduction benefits of Fischer-Tropsch (FT) diesel fuel have been shown in several recent published studies in both engine testing and in-use vehicle testing. FT diesel fuel shows significant advantages in reducing regulated engine emissions over conventional diesel fuel primarily to: its zero sulfur specification, implying reduced particulate matter (PM) emissions, its relatively lower aromaticity, and its relatively high cetane rating. However, the actual effect of FT diesel formulation on the in-cylinder combustion characteristics of unmodified modern heavy-duty diesel engines is not well documented. As a result, a Navistar T444E (V8, 7.3 liter) engine, instrumented for in-cylinder pressure measurement, was installed on an engine dynamometer and subjected to steady-state emissions measurement using both conventional Federal low sulfur pump diesel and a natural gas-derived FT fuel.
Technical Paper

Application of the New City-Suburban Heavy Vehicle Route (CSHVR) to Truck Emissions Characterization

1999-05-03
1999-01-1467
Speed-time and video data were logged for tractor-trailers performing local deliveries in Akron, OH. and Richmond, VA. in order to develop an emissions test schedule that represented real truck use. The data bank developed using these logging techniques was used to create a Yard cycle, a Freeway cycle and a City-Suburban cycle by the concatenation of microtrips. The City-Suburban driving cycle was converted to a driving route, in which the truck under test would perform at maximum acceleration during certain portions of the test schedule. This new route was used to characterize the emissions of a 1982 Ford tractor with a Cummins 14 liter, 350 hp engine and a 1998 International tractor with a Cummins 14 liter, 435 hp engine. Emissions levels were found to be repeatable with one driver and the driver-to-driver variation of NOx was under 4%, although the driver-to-driver variations of CO and PM were higher.
Technical Paper

Emissions from Buses with DDC 6V92 Engines Using Synthetic Diesel Fuel

1999-05-03
1999-01-1512
Synthetic diesel fuel can be made from a variety of feedstocks, including coal, natural gas and biomass. Synthetic diesel fuels can have very low sulfur and aromatic content, and excellent autoignition characteristics. Moreover, synthetic diesel fuels may also be economically competitive with California diesel fuel if produced in large volumes. Previous engine laboratory and field tests using a heavy-duty chassis dynamometer indicate that synthetic diesel fuel made using the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) catalytic conversion process is a promising alternative fuel because it can be used in unmodified diesel engines, and can reduce exhaust emissions substantially. The objective of this study was a preliminary assessment of the emissions from older model transit operated on Mossgas synthetic diesel fuel. The study compared emissions from transit buses operating on Federal no. 2 Diesel fuel, Mossgas synthetic diesel (MGSD), and a 50/50 blend of the two fuels.
Technical Paper

Natural Gas and Diesel Transit Bus Emissions: Review and Recent Data

1997-11-17
973203
Natural Gas engines are viewed as an alternative to diesel power in the quest to reduce heavy duty vehicle emissions in polluted urban areas. In particular, it is acknowledged that natural gas has the potential to reduce the inventory of particulate matter, and this has encouraged the use of natural gas engines in transit bus applications. Extensive data on natural gas and diesel bus emissions have been gathered using two Transportable Heavy Duty Vehicle Emissions Testing Laboratories, that employ chassis dynamometers to simulate bus inertia and road load. Most of the natural gas buses tested prior to 1997 were powered by Cummins L-10 engines, which were lean-burn and employed a mechanical mixer for fuel introduction. The Central Business District (CBD) cycle was used as the test schedule.
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