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Technical Paper

Analysis of Compressed Air and Process Heating Systems - A Case Study from Automotive Parts Manufacturer in Mexico

Automotive industries in the US and around the world have enormous impact on the economy of each country. Not just the major vehicle manufacturer, but all the other companies in the supply chain are equally important. This was evident with the earthquake and Tsunami that happened in March 2011. Because of the massive destruction at suppliers' facilities, the automakers in the US and other countries struggled to get the necessary parts and supplies. This created a ripple effect throughout the world and led to the closure of several automakers' facilities for a long time. Thus, the automotive supply chains are as important as the main automotive manufacturing facilities. Since these suppliers produce a lot of parts and supplies, the corresponding energy usage is also significant. The current research is focused on compressed air and process heating system analysis at one of the automotive parts manufacturer in Mexico.
Journal Article

Investigation of Relationship between System Efficiency Curve & Measurement and Verification (M&V) of Energy Savings

This research attempts to investigate the effect of change in system curve on the energy intensity method of measurement and verification of energy savings. With recent push from US government on energy efficiency through EPACT 2007 and upturn in performance contracted energy efficiency project implementations the effective and accurate evaluation of energy savings as compared to the baseline is of paramount importance. The authors have studied different methods of Measurement and Verification (M&V) of energy savings from literature to compare and contrast and clearly bring out merits and de-merits of each. Finally, the role of production level variable plays in establishing the baseline energy usage is discussed. Though modern models proposed in the literature of determining baseline energy usage consider production level, this variable is compounded from two variables viz., time of usage of a system and fraction of total capacity usage.
Technical Paper

Defining the Hybrid Drive System for the WVU ClearVue Crossover Sport Utility Vehicle

West Virginia University (WVU) is a participant in EcoCAR - The NeXt Challenge, an Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, and General Motors Corporation. During the first year of the competition, the goal of the WVU EcoEvolution Team was to design a novel hybrid-electric powertrain for a 2009 Saturn Vue to increase pump-to-wheels fuel economy, reduce criteria tailpipe emissions and well-to-wheels greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) while maintaining or improving performance and utility. To this end, WVU designed a 2-Mode split-parallel diesel-electric hybrid system. Key elements of the hybrid powertrain include a General Motors 1.3L SDE Turbo Diesel engine, a General Motors Corporation 2-Mode electrically variable transmission (EVT) and an A123 Systems Lithium-Ion battery system. The engine will be fueled on a blend of 20% soy-derived biodiesel and 80% petroleum-derived ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel (B20).
Technical Paper

Application of the New City-Suburban Heavy Vehicle Route (CSHVR) to Truck Emissions Characterization

Speed-time and video data were logged for tractor-trailers performing local deliveries in Akron, OH. and Richmond, VA. in order to develop an emissions test schedule that represented real truck use. The data bank developed using these logging techniques was used to create a Yard cycle, a Freeway cycle and a City-Suburban cycle by the concatenation of microtrips. The City-Suburban driving cycle was converted to a driving route, in which the truck under test would perform at maximum acceleration during certain portions of the test schedule. This new route was used to characterize the emissions of a 1982 Ford tractor with a Cummins 14 liter, 350 hp engine and a 1998 International tractor with a Cummins 14 liter, 435 hp engine. Emissions levels were found to be repeatable with one driver and the driver-to-driver variation of NOx was under 4%, although the driver-to-driver variations of CO and PM were higher.
Technical Paper

Determination of Heavy-Duty Vehicle Energy Consumption by a Chassis Dynamometer

The federal emission standards for heavy duty vehicle engines require the exhaust emissions to be measured and calculated in unit form as grams per break horse-power-hour (g/bhp-hr). Correct emission results not only depend on the precise emission measurement but also rely on the correct determination of vehicle energy consumption. A Transportable Heavy-Duty Vehicle Emission Testing Laboratory (THDVETL) designed and constructed at West Virginia University provides accurate vehicle emissions measurements in grams over a test cycle. This paper contributes a method for measuring the energy consumption (bhp-hr) over the test cycle by a chassis dynamometer. Comparisons of analytical and experimental results show that an acceptable agreement is reached and that the THDVETL provides accurate responses as the vehicle is operated under transient loads and speeds. This testing laboratory will have particular value in comparing the behavior of vehicles operating on alternative fuels.