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Technical Paper

Speciation of Heavy Duty Diesel Exhaust Emissions under Steady State Operating Conditions

This paper presents results from a study on speciation of the emission profiles and on the ozone forming potential of heavy-duty diesel exhaust under steady state engine operation. Very limited attempts have been made at determining the ozone forming potential of heavy duty diesel exhaust emissions. In this study a proportional sample of the dilute exhaust was drawn from a CFV-CVS system using a temperature controlled sampling line. The particulate matter was collected on a 70 mm Teflon coated glass fiber filter (TX40HI20WW), the semi-volatiles on XAD-2 copolymer resin and volatiles in Tedlar bags. The samples were analyzed by gas chromatography after conditioning and chemical extractions. The initial phase of the study was directed towards developing techniques and establishing protocols to determine the ozone forming potential of heavy-duty diesel exhaust. A pre-chamber naturally aspirated engine was tested on steady-state modes 1, 3, 5, 7 and 8 of the ISO 8 mode cycle.
Technical Paper

Sampling Strategies for Characterization of the Reactive Components of Heavy Duty Diesel Exhaust Emissions

Techniques have been developed to sample and speciate dilute heavy duty diesel exhaust to determine the specific reactivities and the ozone forming potential. While the Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program (AQIRP) has conducted a comprehensive investigation to develop data on potential improvements in vehicle emissions and air quality from reformulated gasoline and various other alternative fuels. However, the development of sampling protocols and speciation of heavy duty diesel exhaust is still in its infancy [1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6]. This paper focuses on the first phase of the heavy duty diesel speciation program, that involves the development of a unique set of sampling protocols for the gas phase, semi-volatile and particulate matter from the exhaust of engines operating on different types of diesel fuel. Effects of sampling trains, sampling temperatures, semi-volatile adsorbents and driving cycles are being investigated.
Technical Paper

Determination of Heavy-Duty Vehicle Energy Consumption by a Chassis Dynamometer

The federal emission standards for heavy duty vehicle engines require the exhaust emissions to be measured and calculated in unit form as grams per break horse-power-hour (g/bhp-hr). Correct emission results not only depend on the precise emission measurement but also rely on the correct determination of vehicle energy consumption. A Transportable Heavy-Duty Vehicle Emission Testing Laboratory (THDVETL) designed and constructed at West Virginia University provides accurate vehicle emissions measurements in grams over a test cycle. This paper contributes a method for measuring the energy consumption (bhp-hr) over the test cycle by a chassis dynamometer. Comparisons of analytical and experimental results show that an acceptable agreement is reached and that the THDVETL provides accurate responses as the vehicle is operated under transient loads and speeds. This testing laboratory will have particular value in comparing the behavior of vehicles operating on alternative fuels.