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Technical Paper

CFD Investigation of the Effects of Gas’ Methane Number on the Performance of a Heavy-Duty Natural-Gas Spark-Ignition Engine

Natural gas (NG) is an alternative fuel for spark-ignition engines. In addition to its cleaner combustion, recent breakthroughs in drilling technologies increased its availability and lowered its cost. NG consists of mostly methane, but it also contains heavier hydrocarbons and inert diluents, the levels of which vary substantially with geographical source, time of the year and treatments applied during production or transportation. To investigate the effects of NG composition on engine performance and emissions, a 3D CFD model of a heavy-duty diesel engine retrofitted to NG spark ignition simulated lean-combustion engine operation at low speed and medium load conditions. The work investigated three NG blends with similar lower heating value (i.e., similar energy density) but different Methane Number (MN). The results indicated that a lower MN increased flame propagation speed and thus increased in-cylinder pressure and indicated mean effective pressure.
Journal Article

Roll and Pitch Produced During an Uneven Wing Deployment of a Hybrid Projectile

Uneven wing deployment of a Hybrid Projectile (HP), an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) that is ballistically launched and then transforms, was investigated to determine the amount of roll and pitch produced during wing deployment. During testing of an HP prototype, it was noticed that sometimes the projectile began to slightly roll after the wings were deployed shortly after apogee. In this study, an analytical investigation was done to determine how the projectile body dynamics would be affected by the wings being deployed improperly. Improper and uneven wing deployment situations were investigated throughout the course of this study. The first analyzed was a single wing delaying to open. The second was if only one wing was to lock into a positive angle of incidence. The roll characteristics when both wings were deployed but only one was locked into an angle of incidence resulted in a steady state roll rate of 4.5 degrees per second.
Journal Article

Finite Element Analysis of Composite Over-wrapped Pressure Vessels for Hydrogen Storage

This paper presents 3D finite element analysis performed for a composite cylindrical tank made of 6061-aluminum liner overwrapped with carbon fibers subjected to a burst internal pressure of 1610 bars. As the service pressure expected in these tanks is 700 bars, a factor of safety of 2.3 is kept the same for all designs. The optimal design configuration of such high pressure storage tanks includes an inner liner used as a gas permeation barrier, geometrically optimized domes, inlet/outlet valves with minimum stress concentrations, and directionally tailored exterior reinforcement for high strength and stiffness. Filament winding of pressure vessels made of fiber composite materials is the most efficient manufacturing method for such high pressure hydrogen storage tanks. The complexity of the filament winding process in the dome region is characterized by continually changing the fiber orientation angle and the local thickness of the wall.
Technical Paper

Innovative Dense Lightweight Design for On-Board Hydrogen Storage Tank

The hydrogen economy envisioned in the future requires safe and efficient means of storing hydrogen fuel for either use on-board vehicles, delivery on mobile transportation systems or high-volume storage in stationary systems. The main emphasis of this work is placed on the high -pressure storing of gaseous hydrogen on-board vehicles. As a result of its very low density, hydrogen gas has to be stored under very high pressure, ranging from 350 to 700 bars for current systems, in order to achieve practical levels of energy density in terms of the amount of energy that can be stored in a tank of a given volume. This paper presents 3D finite element analysis performed for a composite cylindrical tank made of 6061-aluminum liner overwrapped with carbon fibers subjected to a burst internal pressure of 1610 bars. As the service pressure expected in these tanks is 700 bars, a factor of safety of 2.3 is kept the same for all designs.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Wing Stowing Designs Focused on Increased Continuous Payload Volume for Projectile Applications

West Virginia University's Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department is studying the benefits of continuous payload volume in transforming projectiles. Continuous payload volume is the single largest vacancy in a vehicle that may be utilized. Currently there is a market for transforming projectiles, which are gun launched (or tube launched) vehicles stowed in an initial configuration; which deploy wings once exiting the launcher to become small unmanned aircraft. WVU's proposed design uses a helical hinge, which allows the wing sections to be externally stowed outside the UAV's fuselage. Additionally, the design positions the vehicles wing sections sub-bore (or smaller than the guns internal diameter), and flush (smooth and planer) to the surface of the fuselage. The typical transforming winged projectile design considered, stores its wing sections along the center axis of the fuselage. This bisects the payload space and limits the continuous payload carrying potential.
Technical Paper

Innovative Design Concepts for Lightweight Floors in Heavy Trailers

Currently, the chassis assembly contributes about 73 percent of the overall weight of a 14.63 m long haul trailer. This paper presents alternative design concepts for the structural floor of a van trailer utilizing sandwich panels with various material and geometric characteristics of the core layer in order to reduce its weight significantly below that of the current design configuration. The main objective of the new designs is to achieve optimal tradeoffs between the overall structural weight and the flexural stiffness of the floor. Various preliminary design concepts of the core designs were compared on the basis of a single section of the core structure. Six different designs were analyzed by weight, maximum displacement and maximum stress under bending and torsion loads. Each concept was kept uniform by length, thickness, loading and boundary conditions. Each design concept was examined through testing of scaled model for floor assemblies.
Technical Paper

Performance Evaluation of Metal Matrix Composites Bolted Joints

Recent advances in Metal Matrix Composites have made them ready for transition to large-volume production and commercialization. Such new materials seem to allow the fabrication of higher quality parts at less than 50 percent of the weight as compared to steel. The increasing requirements of weight savings and extended durability motivated the potential application of MMC technology into the heavy vehicle market. However, significant technical barriers such as joining are likely to hinder the broad applications of MMC materials in heavy vehicles. The focus of this paper is to examine the feasibility of manufacturing and the behavior of bolted joint connections made from aluminum matrix reinforced with Silicon Carbide (SiC) particles. Two reinforcement ratios: 20% and 45% were considered in this study. The first part of the paper concentrates on experimental evaluation of bolted MMC joints.
Technical Paper

Methods to Assess Jolting and Jarring Events: A Surface Mining Case Study to Evaluate the Jolt-Duration Method

When operating a piece of heavy equipment, the equipment operator is exposed to Whole Body Vibration (WBV), with peaks in the acceleration called jolting and jarring. Various published consensus standards exist to analyze overall WBV, but a consensus standard does not exist for describing, detecting, and categorizing the jolting and jarring peaks. During previous research into methods of measuring jolting and jarring, a Root Mean Square (RMS) method was implemented and deployed in jolting and jarring event meters called Shox Boxes (invented by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, NIOSH). The RMS assessment was difficult for end users of the Shox Boxes to utilize for describing and categorizing the peaks. This paper offers a hypothetical standard, the Jolt-Duration (JD) method, based on the simple amplitude and duration of the peaks, as well as the time between peaks.
Technical Paper

Finite Element Analysis for the Interface of a Respirator and the Human Face -A Pilot Study

Comfort assessment of respirator fit plays an important role in the respirator design process and standard development. To reduce the cost and design time of respirators, the design, fit, and evaluation process can be performed in a virtual environment. Literature shows that respirator-induced discomfort relates to stress, area, and region of the face covered. In this work, we investigate the relationship between the strap tensions and the stress and deformation distribution on the interface between the respirator and the headform. This is the first step towards a comprehensive understanding of the contribution of contact stress to the mathematical comfort fit model. The 3D digital models for respirators and headforms have been developed based on 3D scanning point-cloud using a Cyberware® 3D digitizer. Five digital headform models have been generated: small, medium, large, long and short.
Technical Paper

A New Approach to Developing Digital 3-D Headforms

Facial measurements were collected during the 2003 National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) survey of 3,997 respirator users. In addition to traditional measuring techniques, 1013 subjects were scanned with a Cyberware 3-D Rapid Digitizer. Ten facial dimensions relevant to respirator fit were chosen for defining a principal component analysis (PCA) model which divides the user population into five face-size categories. Mean facial dimensions were then computed as a goal for a representative headform for each size category and used to identify 5 scans in each category. An average of the five scanned subjects was used to develop a single standard headform for each face-size category. Four digital 3-D models were developed: small, medium, large, and long. The new headforms include facial features not found on current standard headforms.
Technical Paper

Digital Human Modeling Goals and Strategic Plans

Digital human modeling (DHM) progress worldwide will be much faster and cohesive if the diverse community now developing simulations has a global blueprint for DHM, and is able to work together efficiently. DHM developers and users can save time by building on each other's work. This paper highlights a panel discussion on DHM goals and strategic plans for the next decade to begin formulating the international blueprint. Four subjects are chosen as the starting points: (1) moving DHM into the public safety and internet arenas, (2) role of DHM in computer assisted surgery and automotive safety, (3) DHM in defense applications, and (4) DHM to improve workplace ergonomics.
Technical Paper

Development and Testing of a Tag-based Backup Warning System for Construction Equipment

Incidents in which a piece of construction equipment backed into a worker resulted in an average of 17 deaths per year at road construction sites and 15 deaths per year at building construction sites from 1997 through 2001. This trend continues and researchers at the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health are evaluating methods to decrease these incidents. A new technology based on the detection of electronic identification tags worn by workers has been developed and evaluated at a road construction site. The tag-based proximity warning system consists of a magnetic field generator and communications system that mounts on the back of a piece of construction equipment such as a dump truck, road grader, or loader. Workers at a construction site wear a small tag that detects the magnetic marker field.
Technical Paper

Digitization of Farm Tractors and Body Models for the Evaluation of Farm Tractors

Feature-envelope technique is a method that describes the spatial location and orientation of areas or landmarks of interest with respect to a well-defined, easily duplicated coordinate system. This technique has been tested in a NIOSH study in guiding tractor designers in their placement of tractor control components in order to best accommodate the user population. NIOSH recently measured the human body dimensions of 100 West Virginia farm workers, including whole body surface scans, to examine body size accommodation issues associated with safe farm tractor operation and rollover protective structures. Multivariate anthropometric models were derived from this population based on measurements related to the workstation. The Euclidian distance of each subject for each model was computed, and those that scored the closest were identified as “nearest neighbors.”
Technical Paper

Mutagenic Potential of Particulate Matter from Diesel Engine Operation on Fischer-Tropsch Fuel as a Function of Engine Operating Conditions and Particle Size

Further growth of diesel engines in the light-duty and heavy-duty vehicular market is closely linked to the potential health risks of diesel exhaust. The California Air Resources Board and the Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment have identified diesel exhaust as a toxic air contaminant. The International Agency for Research on Cancer concluded that diesel particulate is a probable human carcinogen [1]. Cleaner burning liquid fuels, such as those derived from natural gas via the Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process, offer a potentially economically viable alternative to standard diesel fuel while providing reduced particulate emissions. Further understanding of FT operation may be realized by investigating the differences in toxicity and potential health effects between particulate matter(PM) derived from FT fuel and that derived from standard Federal diesel No. 2 (DF).
Technical Paper

Identifying Less Stressful Work Methods: Computer-aided Simulation vs. Human Subject Study

Engineering analyses of work methods can help identify approaches to reduce the risk of occupational injuries; computer-aided simulation technology is effective in terms of time and cost for evaluating multiple work methods. This paper analyzed scaffolding, a common activity in construction with high frequency of overexertion injuries, through a computer simulation model (3DSSPP) to identify less stressful work strategies. A laboratory study was also performed to verify the appropriateness of using the model for scaffolding job analyses. Seven commonly used end-frame lifting techniques were evaluated. Computer simulations of these work techniques show that considerable biomechanical stress occurs to most of the workers at their shoulders and elbows. A symmetric front-lifting at knuckle height appears to be the less stressful work technique, as determined by computer simulation.
Technical Paper

Development of A Microwave Assisted Regeneration System for A Ceramic Diesel Particulate System

Specific aspects of a study aimed at developing a microwave assisted regeneration system for diesel particulate traps are discussed. Results from thermal and microwave characteristic studies carried out in the initial phase of the study are reported. The critical parameters that need to be optimized, for achieving controlled regeneration, are microwave preheating time period, regenerative air supply, regenerative air temperature, and soot deposition. Using a 1000 W magnetron, power measurements were made to select the best waveguide configuration for optimized transmission. A six cylinder naturally aspirated, indirect injection diesel engine was retrofitted with a customized exhaust system that included a Corning EX80 (5.66″ × 6.00″) type ceramic particulate trap. An automated exhaust bypass system enabled trap loading and subsequent regeneration with a customized microwave regeneration system. The paper discusses the salient details of both on-line and off-line regeneration setups.
Technical Paper

Contribution of Soot Contaminated Oils to Wear-Part II

Diesel soot interacts with the engine oil and leads to wear of engine parts. Engine oil additives play a crucial role in preventing wear by forming the anti-wear film between the wearing surfaces. The current study was aimed at investigating the interactions between engine soot and oil properties in order to develop high performance oils for diesel engines equipped with exhaust gas re-circulation (EGR). The effect of soot contaminated oil on wear of engine components was examined using a statistically designed experiment. To quantitatively analyze and simulate the extent of wear a three-body wear machine was designed and developed. The qualitative wear analysis was performed by examining the wear scars on an AISI 52100 stainless steel ball worn in the presence of oil test samples on a ball-on-flat disc setup. The three oil properties studied were base stock, dispersant level and zinc dithiophosphate level.
Technical Paper

Crash Analysis Response of a Midsize Car Subjected to Side Impact

Crashworthiness is a measure of a vehicle's structural integrity during mechanical impact and of its ability to absorb energy and provide occupant protection in crash situations. Finite element modeling has been successfully used to simulate collision events; the present work uses these techniques to simulate the side impact of a mid-size car in order to investigate the crash characteristics of a 45 km/hr impact. Five different analyses were conducted on orthogonal and oblique impacts under varying conditions. The numerical results from the first analysis were compared with published experimental crash results, showing favorable comparisons for this numerical model prediction.
Technical Paper

Automobile Body Panel Color Measurement Test

It has been proposed that an automated remote color inspection of automobile body panels is possible with a reasonably precise color measurement. This paper outlines a test of a new 3D color measurement technology as applied to this task and presents the results of the first test. A camera is set up several feet away from a car body; a 3D orientation measuring system takes both 3D and color data from the car. The raw data is presented as a set of 3D graphs; the geometry-corrected data is also provided. Statistical analysis is presented to indicate system precision.
Technical Paper

An Approach to Simulate Chassis Dynamometer Test Cycles with Engine Dynamometer Test Cycles for Heavy-Duty Urban Buses

A mathematical model has been developed to transfer Chassis Dynamometer (CD) test cycles for heavy duty vehicles to the equivalent Engine Dynamometer (ED) test cycles. The model assumed a generalized drivetrain layout, and a variable drive line efficiency. An interactive computer code was written to represent the mathematical model for different drivetrain systems. Several CD test cycles were used to obtain equivalent ED test cycles for a sample based upon an urban bus equipped with an automatic transmission. Results showed the possibility of simulating CD test cycles with equivalent ED test cycles for heavy-duty urban buses under certain assumptions.