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Prototype Powertrain in Motorsport Endurance Racing

2018-08-01
Racing continues to be the singular, preeminent source of powertrain development for automakers worldwide. Engineering teams rely on motorsports for the latest prototype testing and research. Endurance racing provides the harshest and most illuminating stage for system design validation of any motorsport competition. While advancements throughout the 20th Century brought about dramatic increases in engine power output, the latest developments from endurance racing may be more impactful for fuel efficiency improvements. Hybrid powertrains are a critical area of research for automakers and are being tested on the toughest of scales. Prototype Powertrain in Motorsport Endurance Racing brings together ten vital SAE technical papers and SAE Automotive Engineering magazine articles surrounding the advancements of hybrid powertrains in motorsports.
Journal Article

Finite Element Analysis of Composite Over-wrapped Pressure Vessels for Hydrogen Storage

2013-09-24
2013-01-2477
This paper presents 3D finite element analysis performed for a composite cylindrical tank made of 6061-aluminum liner overwrapped with carbon fibers subjected to a burst internal pressure of 1610 bars. As the service pressure expected in these tanks is 700 bars, a factor of safety of 2.3 is kept the same for all designs. The optimal design configuration of such high pressure storage tanks includes an inner liner used as a gas permeation barrier, geometrically optimized domes, inlet/outlet valves with minimum stress concentrations, and directionally tailored exterior reinforcement for high strength and stiffness. Filament winding of pressure vessels made of fiber composite materials is the most efficient manufacturing method for such high pressure hydrogen storage tanks. The complexity of the filament winding process in the dome region is characterized by continually changing the fiber orientation angle and the local thickness of the wall.
Technical Paper

Greenhouse Gas Emissions of MY 2010 Advanced Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Measured Over a Cross-Continental Trip of USA

2013-09-08
2013-24-0170
The study was aimed at assessing in-use emissions of a USEPA 2010 emissions-compliant heavy-duty diesel vehicle powered by a model year (MY) 2011 engine using West Virginia University's Transportable Emissions Measurement System (TEMS). The TEMS houses full-scale CVS dilution tunnel and laboratory-grade emissions measurement systems, which are compliant with the Code of Federal Regulation (CFR), Title 40, Part 1065 [1] emissions measurement specifications. One of the specific objectives of the study, and the key topic of this paper, is the quantification of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (CO2, N2O and CH4) along with ammonia (NH3) and regulated emissions during real-world operation of a long-haul heavy-duty vehicle, equipped with a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and urea based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) aftertreatment system for PM and NOx reduction, respectively.
Journal Article

Using IAC Database for Longitudinal Study of Small to Medium Sized Automotive Industry Suppliers' Energy Intensity Changes

2013-04-08
2013-01-0833
Industries related to automotive manufacturing and its supply chain play a key role in leaving a carbon footprint during an automobile's life cycle. Per the report from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in March, 2008 [1], “motor vehicle industry in the U.S. spends about $3.6 billion on energy annually.” The proposed research will focus on energy savings opportunities in automotive manufacturing and its supplier network. The US Department of Energy (DOE) funds 24 Industrial Assessment Centers (IAC) throughout the U.S. that conduct energy assessments at many of these facilities. The results of these assessments are summarized in a database maintained by Rutgers University which acts as the central management body for all the IACs. This research will present key concepts summarized from this database.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Compressed Air and Process Heating Systems - A Case Study from Automotive Parts Manufacturer in Mexico

2012-04-16
2012-01-0323
Automotive industries in the US and around the world have enormous impact on the economy of each country. Not just the major vehicle manufacturer, but all the other companies in the supply chain are equally important. This was evident with the earthquake and Tsunami that happened in March 2011. Because of the massive destruction at suppliers' facilities, the automakers in the US and other countries struggled to get the necessary parts and supplies. This created a ripple effect throughout the world and led to the closure of several automakers' facilities for a long time. Thus, the automotive supply chains are as important as the main automotive manufacturing facilities. Since these suppliers produce a lot of parts and supplies, the corresponding energy usage is also significant. The current research is focused on compressed air and process heating system analysis at one of the automotive parts manufacturer in Mexico.
Journal Article

Investigation of Relationship between System Efficiency Curve & Measurement and Verification (M&V) of Energy Savings

2011-04-12
2011-01-0324
This research attempts to investigate the effect of change in system curve on the energy intensity method of measurement and verification of energy savings. With recent push from US government on energy efficiency through EPACT 2007 and upturn in performance contracted energy efficiency project implementations the effective and accurate evaluation of energy savings as compared to the baseline is of paramount importance. The authors have studied different methods of Measurement and Verification (M&V) of energy savings from literature to compare and contrast and clearly bring out merits and de-merits of each. Finally, the role of production level variable plays in establishing the baseline energy usage is discussed. Though modern models proposed in the literature of determining baseline energy usage consider production level, this variable is compounded from two variables viz., time of usage of a system and fraction of total capacity usage.
Technical Paper

Performance Evaluation of Metal Matrix Composites Bolted Joints

2010-10-05
2010-01-2036
Recent advances in Metal Matrix Composites have made them ready for transition to large-volume production and commercialization. Such new materials seem to allow the fabrication of higher quality parts at less than 50 percent of the weight as compared to steel. The increasing requirements of weight savings and extended durability motivated the potential application of MMC technology into the heavy vehicle market. However, significant technical barriers such as joining are likely to hinder the broad applications of MMC materials in heavy vehicles. The focus of this paper is to examine the feasibility of manufacturing and the behavior of bolted joint connections made from aluminum matrix reinforced with Silicon Carbide (SiC) particles. Two reinforcement ratios: 20% and 45% were considered in this study. The first part of the paper concentrates on experimental evaluation of bolted MMC joints.
Technical Paper

Innovative Design Concepts for Lightweight Floors in Heavy Trailers

2010-10-05
2010-01-2033
Currently, the chassis assembly contributes about 73 percent of the overall weight of a 14.63 m long haul trailer. This paper presents alternative design concepts for the structural floor of a van trailer utilizing sandwich panels with various material and geometric characteristics of the core layer in order to reduce its weight significantly below that of the current design configuration. The main objective of the new designs is to achieve optimal tradeoffs between the overall structural weight and the flexural stiffness of the floor. Various preliminary design concepts of the core designs were compared on the basis of a single section of the core structure. Six different designs were analyzed by weight, maximum displacement and maximum stress under bending and torsion loads. Each concept was kept uniform by length, thickness, loading and boundary conditions. Each design concept was examined through testing of scaled model for floor assemblies.
Technical Paper

Methods to Assess Jolting and Jarring Events: A Surface Mining Case Study to Evaluate the Jolt-Duration Method

2009-10-06
2009-01-2830
When operating a piece of heavy equipment, the equipment operator is exposed to Whole Body Vibration (WBV), with peaks in the acceleration called jolting and jarring. Various published consensus standards exist to analyze overall WBV, but a consensus standard does not exist for describing, detecting, and categorizing the jolting and jarring peaks. During previous research into methods of measuring jolting and jarring, a Root Mean Square (RMS) method was implemented and deployed in jolting and jarring event meters called Shox Boxes (invented by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, NIOSH). The RMS assessment was difficult for end users of the Shox Boxes to utilize for describing and categorizing the peaks. This paper offers a hypothetical standard, the Jolt-Duration (JD) method, based on the simple amplitude and duration of the peaks, as well as the time between peaks.
Technical Paper

Development and Testing of a Tag-based Backup Warning System for Construction Equipment

2007-10-30
2007-01-4233
Incidents in which a piece of construction equipment backed into a worker resulted in an average of 17 deaths per year at road construction sites and 15 deaths per year at building construction sites from 1997 through 2001. This trend continues and researchers at the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health are evaluating methods to decrease these incidents. A new technology based on the detection of electronic identification tags worn by workers has been developed and evaluated at a road construction site. The tag-based proximity warning system consists of a magnetic field generator and communications system that mounts on the back of a piece of construction equipment such as a dump truck, road grader, or loader. Workers at a construction site wear a small tag that detects the magnetic marker field.
Technical Paper

Mutagenic Potential of Particulate Matter from Diesel Engine Operation on Fischer-Tropsch Fuel as a Function of Engine Operating Conditions and Particle Size

2002-05-06
2002-01-1699
Further growth of diesel engines in the light-duty and heavy-duty vehicular market is closely linked to the potential health risks of diesel exhaust. The California Air Resources Board and the Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment have identified diesel exhaust as a toxic air contaminant. The International Agency for Research on Cancer concluded that diesel particulate is a probable human carcinogen [1]. Cleaner burning liquid fuels, such as those derived from natural gas via the Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process, offer a potentially economically viable alternative to standard diesel fuel while providing reduced particulate emissions. Further understanding of FT operation may be realized by investigating the differences in toxicity and potential health effects between particulate matter(PM) derived from FT fuel and that derived from standard Federal diesel No. 2 (DF).
Technical Paper

Relationships Between Instantaneous and Measured Emissions in Heavy Duty Applications

2001-09-24
2001-01-3536
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR), using urea injection, is being examined as a method for substantial reduction of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) for diesel engines, but the urea injection rates must be controlled to match the NOx production which may need to be predicted during open loop control. Unfortunately NOx is usually measured in the laboratory using a full-scale dilution tunnel and chemiluminescent analyzer, which cause delay and diffusion (in time) of the true manifold NOx concentration. Similarly, delay and diffusion of measurements of all emissions cause the task of creating instantaneous emissions models for vehicle simulations more difficult. Data were obtained to relate injections of carbon dioxide (CO2) into a tunnel with analyzer measurements. The analyzer response was found to match a gamma distribution of the input pulse, so that the analyzer output could be modeled from the tunnel CO2 input.
Technical Paper

Development of A Microwave Assisted Regeneration System for A Ceramic Diesel Particulate System

1999-10-25
1999-01-3565
Specific aspects of a study aimed at developing a microwave assisted regeneration system for diesel particulate traps are discussed. Results from thermal and microwave characteristic studies carried out in the initial phase of the study are reported. The critical parameters that need to be optimized, for achieving controlled regeneration, are microwave preheating time period, regenerative air supply, regenerative air temperature, and soot deposition. Using a 1000 W magnetron, power measurements were made to select the best waveguide configuration for optimized transmission. A six cylinder naturally aspirated, indirect injection diesel engine was retrofitted with a customized exhaust system that included a Corning EX80 (5.66″ × 6.00″) type ceramic particulate trap. An automated exhaust bypass system enabled trap loading and subsequent regeneration with a customized microwave regeneration system. The paper discusses the salient details of both on-line and off-line regeneration setups.
Technical Paper

Emissions from Buses with DDC 6V92 Engines Using Synthetic Diesel Fuel

1999-05-03
1999-01-1512
Synthetic diesel fuel can be made from a variety of feedstocks, including coal, natural gas and biomass. Synthetic diesel fuels can have very low sulfur and aromatic content, and excellent autoignition characteristics. Moreover, synthetic diesel fuels may also be economically competitive with California diesel fuel if produced in large volumes. Previous engine laboratory and field tests using a heavy-duty chassis dynamometer indicate that synthetic diesel fuel made using the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) catalytic conversion process is a promising alternative fuel because it can be used in unmodified diesel engines, and can reduce exhaust emissions substantially. The objective of this study was a preliminary assessment of the emissions from older model transit operated on Mossgas synthetic diesel fuel. The study compared emissions from transit buses operating on Federal no. 2 Diesel fuel, Mossgas synthetic diesel (MGSD), and a 50/50 blend of the two fuels.
Technical Paper

Contribution of Soot Contaminated Oils to Wear-Part II

1999-05-03
1999-01-1519
Diesel soot interacts with the engine oil and leads to wear of engine parts. Engine oil additives play a crucial role in preventing wear by forming the anti-wear film between the wearing surfaces. The current study was aimed at investigating the interactions between engine soot and oil properties in order to develop high performance oils for diesel engines equipped with exhaust gas re-circulation (EGR). The effect of soot contaminated oil on wear of engine components was examined using a statistically designed experiment. To quantitatively analyze and simulate the extent of wear a three-body wear machine was designed and developed. The qualitative wear analysis was performed by examining the wear scars on an AISI 52100 stainless steel ball worn in the presence of oil test samples on a ball-on-flat disc setup. The three oil properties studied were base stock, dispersant level and zinc dithiophosphate level.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Combustion Pressure Characteristics of Fischer-Tropsch and Conventional Diesel Fuels in a Heavy Duty CI Engine

1999-05-03
1999-01-1472
The emissions reduction benefits of Fischer-Tropsch (FT) diesel fuel have been shown in several recent published studies in both engine testing and in-use vehicle testing. FT diesel fuel shows significant advantages in reducing regulated engine emissions over conventional diesel fuel primarily to: its zero sulfur specification, implying reduced particulate matter (PM) emissions, its relatively lower aromaticity, and its relatively high cetane rating. However, the actual effect of FT diesel formulation on the in-cylinder combustion characteristics of unmodified modern heavy-duty diesel engines is not well documented. As a result, a Navistar T444E (V8, 7.3 liter) engine, instrumented for in-cylinder pressure measurement, was installed on an engine dynamometer and subjected to steady-state emissions measurement using both conventional Federal low sulfur pump diesel and a natural gas-derived FT fuel.
Technical Paper

Speciation of Heavy Duty Diesel Exhaust Emissions under Steady State Operating Conditions

1996-10-01
962159
This paper presents results from a study on speciation of the emission profiles and on the ozone forming potential of heavy-duty diesel exhaust under steady state engine operation. Very limited attempts have been made at determining the ozone forming potential of heavy duty diesel exhaust emissions. In this study a proportional sample of the dilute exhaust was drawn from a CFV-CVS system using a temperature controlled sampling line. The particulate matter was collected on a 70 mm Teflon coated glass fiber filter (TX40HI20WW), the semi-volatiles on XAD-2 copolymer resin and volatiles in Tedlar bags. The samples were analyzed by gas chromatography after conditioning and chemical extractions. The initial phase of the study was directed towards developing techniques and establishing protocols to determine the ozone forming potential of heavy-duty diesel exhaust. A pre-chamber naturally aspirated engine was tested on steady-state modes 1, 3, 5, 7 and 8 of the ISO 8 mode cycle.
Technical Paper

Hydrodynamic Mobility Analysis of the Vane Lift Mechanism for the Rand Cam™ Engine

1995-02-01
950450
In this paper, a new method for the hydro-dynamic analysis of a sliding cylinder in a fully lubricated parallel track is presented. The method is an extension of Booker's “Mobility Method” (developed for cylindrical journal bearings) to the case of sliding cylinders, in which the clearance between the track and the cylinder, the viscosity of the lubricant, the radius and length of the pin, the sliding velocity and the applied transverse load determine the hydrodynamic behavior of the cylinder. In the Rand Cam™ Engine [1]*, the axicycloidal motion of vanes is driven by a rotor and a cylindrical cam, and one of the alternative designs to provide this function is based on a cylindrical pin sliding within a track which follows the profile of the motion of the main cams of the engine. This function is very important for the engine, since it separates the load bearing function from the sealing function left to the apex-like seals.
Technical Paper

A Double Planetary Gear Train-CVT Transmission with Multiple Applications

1995-02-01
950094
A family of transmission systems based on a “Planetary Gear - CVT” mechanism is presented here. The systems considered consist of two compound planetary gear trains connected through a CVT pulley system to provide the power/torque split and recirculation function, without the use of additional clutches and/or chain drives. A two degree of freedom system results in which one of the degrees of freedom is directly related to the CVT ratio. The mechanisms considered here combine the gear reduction function of compound planetary gear trains with the continuously variable trans- used as a circulating power control unit. The kinematics and dynamics of this family of systems is presented with emphasis on the belt forces, torques on the various shafts and the overall input/output velocity ratios through the CVT ratio span. Then a parametric analysis is conducted to characterize the effect of the various functional ratios and parameters of the system in terms of the overall performance.
Technical Paper

Measurement Delays and Modal Analysis for a Heavy Duty Transportable Emissions Testing Laboratory

1995-02-01
950218
Concern over atmospheric pollution has led to the development of testing procedures to evaluate the hydrocarbon, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen emissions from internal combustion engines. In order to perform emissions testing on vehicles, a chassis dynamometer capable of simulating expected driving conditions must be employed. West Virginia University has developed a Heavy Duty Transportable Emissions Testing Laboratory to perform chassis testing on trucks and buses. Emissions from the vehicle are monitored and recorded over the duration of a testing schedule. Usually the vehicle emissions from the whole test are reported as mass of emissions per unit distance driven. However, there is interest in relating the instantaneous emissions to the immediate conditions at specific points in the test, and in determining the emissions for discrete segments of the test (modal analysis).
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