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Technical Paper

Feasibility of Multiple Piston Motion Control Approaches in a Free Piston Engine Generator

2019-10-28
2019-01-2599
The design optimization and control of Free Piston Linear Engine (FPLE) has been found to be difficult as each independent variable changes the dynamics with respect to time. These dynamics, in turn, alters the alternator and engine response to other governing variables. As a result, the FPLE system necessitates an energy balance control algorithm with high-speed dynamic response for stable operation and perhaps optimized system efficiency. The main objective of this control algorithm is to match the power generated by the engine to the power demanded by the alternator. This energy balance control is similar to the use of a governor to control the crankshaft rotational speed in a conventional crankshaft driven engine. In addition to that, when stiff springs are added to the FPLE system, the dynamics becomes more sinusoidal and more consistent with increasing spring stiffness.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Combustion Characteristics in a Heavy-Duty Compression-Ignition Engine Retrofitted to Natural-Gas Spark-Ignition Operation

2019-09-09
2019-24-0124
The conversion of existing diesel engines to natural gas operation can reduce U.S. dependence on petroleum imports and curtail engine-out emissions. Diesel compression ignition engines can be modified to NG spark ignition, by replacing the diesel injector with a NG spark plug and by fumigating NG in the intake manifold, to increase utilization of natural gas heavy-duty transportation sector. As the original diesel piston is maintained during conversion to decrease engine modification cost, the major of this study was to investigate the lean-burn characteristic of natural gas burning in this bowl-in-piston combustion chamber, which can accelerate the introduction of heavy-duty natural gas vehicles. Data analysis from engine experiments that changed spark timing indicated a two-stage combustion process in such retrofitted engines, which is different from traditional spark ignition engines.
Technical Paper

Effect of Methane Number in a Diesel Engine Converted to Natural Gas Spark Ignition

2019-09-09
2019-24-0008
Natural gas (NG) is an alternative fuel for spark-ignition engines. In addition to its cleaner combustion, recent breakthroughs in drilling technologies increased its availability and lowered its cost. NG consists of mostly methane, but it also contains heavier hydrocarbons and inert diluents, the levels of which vary substantially with geographical source, time of year, and treatments applied during production or transportation. To investigate the effects of NG composition on engine performance and emissions, a 3D CFD model of a heavy-duty diesel engine retrofitted to spark ignition operations simulated engine operation under lean-combustion, low-speed, and medium load conditions. To eliminate the effect of different gas energy density, three NG blends of similar lower heating value but different H/C ratio have been investigated at fixed spark timing.
Book

Prototype Powertrain in Motorsport Endurance Racing

2018-08-01
Racing continues to be the singular, preeminent source of powertrain development for automakers worldwide. Engineering teams rely on motorsports for the latest prototype testing and research. Endurance racing provides the harshest and most illuminating stage for system design validation of any motorsport competition. While advancements throughout the 20th Century brought about dramatic increases in engine power output, the latest developments from endurance racing may be more impactful for fuel efficiency improvements. Hybrid powertrains are a critical area of research for automakers and are being tested on the toughest of scales. Prototype Powertrain in Motorsport Endurance Racing brings together ten vital SAE technical papers and SAE Automotive Engineering magazine articles surrounding the advancements of hybrid powertrains in motorsports.
Technical Paper

The Future of the Internal Combustion Engine After “Diesel-Gate”

2017-07-10
2017-28-1933
The paper captures the recent events in relation with the Volkswagen (VW) Emissions Scandal and addresses the impact of this event on the future of power train development. The paper analyses the impact on the perspectives of the internal combustion engine, the battery based electric car and the hydrogen based technology. The operation of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), VW and the United States prosecutor, sparked by the action of the International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT) is forcing the Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM) towards everything but rationale immediate transition to the battery based electric mobility. This transition voids the value of any improvement of the internal combustion engine (ICE), especially in the lean burn, compression ignition (CI) technology, and of a better hybridization of powertrains, both options that have much better short term perspectives than the battery based electric car.
Technical Paper

Guidance and Range Extension Control System for a Hybrid Projectile

2014-09-16
2014-01-2175
A Hybrid Projectile (HP) is a ballistically launched round that transforms into an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) at a designated point during flight. Aerodynamic control surfaces and associated control laws were sought that would extend the projectile's range using body lift and include guidance for a selected point of impact. Several challenges were encountered during the modification of an existing projectile, in this case a 40mm round, to achieve range extension and controllability. The control surfaces must be designed to allow for de-spin, controllability, and natural static stability. Also, a control system with laws and guidance relationships between heading, pitch or glide rate, and the associated aerodynamic surface movements needed to be developed. The designed aerodynamic surfaces, external ballistics, and control methods developed were modeled in a projectile flight simulator built in MATLAB.
Journal Article

Roll and Pitch Produced During an Uneven Wing Deployment of a Hybrid Projectile

2014-09-16
2014-01-2112
Uneven wing deployment of a Hybrid Projectile (HP), an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) that is ballistically launched and then transforms, was investigated to determine the amount of roll and pitch produced during wing deployment. During testing of an HP prototype, it was noticed that sometimes the projectile began to slightly roll after the wings were deployed shortly after apogee. In this study, an analytical investigation was done to determine how the projectile body dynamics would be affected by the wings being deployed improperly. Improper and uneven wing deployment situations were investigated throughout the course of this study. The first analyzed was a single wing delaying to open. The second was if only one wing was to lock into a positive angle of incidence. The roll characteristics when both wings were deployed but only one was locked into an angle of incidence resulted in a steady state roll rate of 4.5 degrees per second.
Technical Paper

Investigation of On-Road Crosswinds on Interstate Tractor-Trailer Aerodynamic Efficiency

2014-04-01
2014-01-0608
Heavy duty tractor-trailers under freeway operations consume about 65% of the total engine shaft energy to overcome aerodynamic drag force. Vehicles are exposed to on-road crosswinds which cause change in pressure distribution with a relative wind speed and yaw angle. The objective of this study was to analyze the drag losses as a function of on-road wind conditions, on-road vehicle position and trajectory. Using coefficient of drag (CD) data available from a study conducted at NASA Ames, Geographical Information Systems model, time-varying weather data and road data, a generic model was built to identify the yaw angles and the relative magnitude of wind speed on a given route over a given time period. A region-based analysis was conducted for a study on interstate trucking operation by employing I-79 running through West Virginia as a case study by initiating a run starting at 12am, 03/03/2012 out to 12am, 03/05/2012.
Journal Article

Finite Element Analysis of Composite Over-wrapped Pressure Vessels for Hydrogen Storage

2013-09-24
2013-01-2477
This paper presents 3D finite element analysis performed for a composite cylindrical tank made of 6061-aluminum liner overwrapped with carbon fibers subjected to a burst internal pressure of 1610 bars. As the service pressure expected in these tanks is 700 bars, a factor of safety of 2.3 is kept the same for all designs. The optimal design configuration of such high pressure storage tanks includes an inner liner used as a gas permeation barrier, geometrically optimized domes, inlet/outlet valves with minimum stress concentrations, and directionally tailored exterior reinforcement for high strength and stiffness. Filament winding of pressure vessels made of fiber composite materials is the most efficient manufacturing method for such high pressure hydrogen storage tanks. The complexity of the filament winding process in the dome region is characterized by continually changing the fiber orientation angle and the local thickness of the wall.
Technical Paper

Greenhouse Gas Emissions of MY 2010 Advanced Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Measured Over a Cross-Continental Trip of USA

2013-09-08
2013-24-0170
The study was aimed at assessing in-use emissions of a USEPA 2010 emissions-compliant heavy-duty diesel vehicle powered by a model year (MY) 2011 engine using West Virginia University's Transportable Emissions Measurement System (TEMS). The TEMS houses full-scale CVS dilution tunnel and laboratory-grade emissions measurement systems, which are compliant with the Code of Federal Regulation (CFR), Title 40, Part 1065 [1] emissions measurement specifications. One of the specific objectives of the study, and the key topic of this paper, is the quantification of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (CO2, N2O and CH4) along with ammonia (NH3) and regulated emissions during real-world operation of a long-haul heavy-duty vehicle, equipped with a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and urea based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) aftertreatment system for PM and NOx reduction, respectively.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Particulate Matter Emissions from Different Aftertreatment Technologies in a Wind Tunnel

2013-09-08
2013-24-0175
Stringent emission regulations have forced drastic technological improvements in diesel after treatment systems, particularly in reducing Particulate Matter (PM) emissions. Those improvements generally regard the use of Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) and lately also the use of Selective Catalyst Reduction (SCR) systems along with improved engine control strategies for reduction of NOx emissions from these engines. Studies that have led to these technological advancements were made in controlled laboratory environment and are not representative of real world emissions from these engines or vehicles. In addition, formation and evolution of PM from these engines are extremely sensitive to overall changes in the dilution process.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Exhaust Emissions from a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Retrofitted to Operate in Methane/Diesel Dual-Fuel Mode

2013-09-08
2013-24-0181
The need for a cleaner and less expensive alternative energy source to conventional petroleum fuels for powering the transportation sector has gained increasing attention during the past decade. Special attention has been directed towards natural gas (NG) which has proven to be a viable option due to its clean-burning properties, reduced cost and abundant availability, and therefore, lead to a steady increase in the worldwide vehicle population operated with NG. The heavy-duty vehicle sector has seen the introduction of natural gas first in larger, locally operated fleets, such as transit buses or refuse-haulers. However, with increasing expansion of the NG distribution network more drayage and long-haul fleets are beginning to adopt natural gas as a fuel.
Journal Article

Using IAC Database for Longitudinal Study of Small to Medium Sized Automotive Industry Suppliers' Energy Intensity Changes

2013-04-08
2013-01-0833
Industries related to automotive manufacturing and its supply chain play a key role in leaving a carbon footprint during an automobile's life cycle. Per the report from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in March, 2008 [1], “motor vehicle industry in the U.S. spends about $3.6 billion on energy annually.” The proposed research will focus on energy savings opportunities in automotive manufacturing and its supplier network. The US Department of Energy (DOE) funds 24 Industrial Assessment Centers (IAC) throughout the U.S. that conduct energy assessments at many of these facilities. The results of these assessments are summarized in a database maintained by Rutgers University which acts as the central management body for all the IACs. This research will present key concepts summarized from this database.
Technical Paper

Innovative Dense Lightweight Design for On-Board Hydrogen Storage Tank

2012-09-24
2012-01-2061
The hydrogen economy envisioned in the future requires safe and efficient means of storing hydrogen fuel for either use on-board vehicles, delivery on mobile transportation systems or high-volume storage in stationary systems. The main emphasis of this work is placed on the high -pressure storing of gaseous hydrogen on-board vehicles. As a result of its very low density, hydrogen gas has to be stored under very high pressure, ranging from 350 to 700 bars for current systems, in order to achieve practical levels of energy density in terms of the amount of energy that can be stored in a tank of a given volume. This paper presents 3D finite element analysis performed for a composite cylindrical tank made of 6061-aluminum liner overwrapped with carbon fibers subjected to a burst internal pressure of 1610 bars. As the service pressure expected in these tanks is 700 bars, a factor of safety of 2.3 is kept the same for all designs.
Technical Paper

Chassis Dynamometer Emissions Characterization of a Urea-SCR Transit Bus

2012-06-01
2011-01-2469
West Virginia University characterized the emissions and fuel economy performance of a 30-foot 2010 transit bus equipped with urea selective catalytic reduction (u-SCR) exhaust aftertreatment. The bus was exercised over speed-time driving schedules representative of both urban and on-highway activity using a chassis dynamometer while the exhaust was routed to a full-scale dilution tunnel with research grade emissions analyzers. The Paris speed-time driving schedule was used to represent slow urban transit bus activity while the Cruise driving schedule was used to represent on-highway activity. Vehicle weights representative of both one-half and empty passenger loading were evaluated. Fuel economy observed during testing with the urban driving schedule was significantly lower (55%) than testing performed with the on-highway driving schedule.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Compressed Air and Process Heating Systems - A Case Study from Automotive Parts Manufacturer in Mexico

2012-04-16
2012-01-0323
Automotive industries in the US and around the world have enormous impact on the economy of each country. Not just the major vehicle manufacturer, but all the other companies in the supply chain are equally important. This was evident with the earthquake and Tsunami that happened in March 2011. Because of the massive destruction at suppliers' facilities, the automakers in the US and other countries struggled to get the necessary parts and supplies. This created a ripple effect throughout the world and led to the closure of several automakers' facilities for a long time. Thus, the automotive supply chains are as important as the main automotive manufacturing facilities. Since these suppliers produce a lot of parts and supplies, the corresponding energy usage is also significant. The current research is focused on compressed air and process heating system analysis at one of the automotive parts manufacturer in Mexico.
Technical Paper

Relationship between Carbon Monoxide and Particulate Matter Levels across a Range of Engine Technologies

2012-04-16
2012-01-1346
Relationships between diesel particulate matter (PM) mass and gaseous emissions mass produced by engines have been explored to determine whether any gaseous species may be used as surrogates to infer PM quantitatively. It was recognized that sulfur content of fuel might independently influence PM mass, since PM historically is composed of elemental carbon, organic carbon, sulfuric acid, ash and wear particles. Previous research has suggested that PM may be correlated with carbon monoxide (CO) for an engine that is exercised through a variety of speed and load cycles, but that the correlation does not extend to a group of engines. Large databases from the E-55/59 and Gasoline/Diesel PM Split programs were employed, along with the IBIS bus emissions database and several additional data sets for on- and off-road engines to examine possible relationships.
Journal Article

Control and Testing of a 2-Mode Front-Wheel-Drive Hybrid-Electric Vehicle

2012-04-16
2012-01-1192
The new General Motors 2-mode hybrid transmission for front-wheel-drive vehicles has been incorporated into a 2009 Saturn Vue by the West Virginia University EcoCAR team. The 2-mode hybrid transmission can operate in either one of two electrically variable transmission modes or four fixed gear modes although only the electrically variable modes were explored in this paper. Other major power train components include a GM 1.3L SDE turbo diesel engine fueled with B20 biodiesel and an A123 Systems 12.9 kWh lithium-ion battery system. Two additional vehicle controllers were integrated for tailpipe emission control, CAN message integration, and power train hybridization control. Control laws for producing maximum fuel efficiency were implemented and include such features as engine auto-stop, regenerative braking and optimized engine operation. The engine operating range is confined to a high efficiency area that improves the overall combined engine and electric motor efficiency.
Journal Article

An Experimental Investigation of the Transient Effects Associated with Wing Deployment During Ballistic Flight

2011-10-18
2011-01-2647
Mortar weapons systems have existed for more than five hundred years. Though modern tube-launched rounds are far more advanced than the cannon balls used in the 15th century, the parabolic trajectory and inability to steer the object after launch remains the same. Equipping the shell with extending aerodynamic surfaces transforms the unguided round into a maneuverable munition with increased range [1] and precision [2]. The subject of this work is the experimental analysis of transient aerodynamic behavior of a transforming tube-launched unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) during transition from a ballistic trajectory to winged flight. Data was gathered using a series of wind tunnel experiments to determine the lift, drag, and pitching moment exerted on the prototype in various stages of wing deployment. Flight models of the design were broken down into three configurations: “round”, “transforming”, and “UAV”.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Wing Stowing Designs Focused on Increased Continuous Payload Volume for Projectile Applications

2011-10-18
2011-01-2782
West Virginia University's Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department is studying the benefits of continuous payload volume in transforming projectiles. Continuous payload volume is the single largest vacancy in a vehicle that may be utilized. Currently there is a market for transforming projectiles, which are gun launched (or tube launched) vehicles stowed in an initial configuration; which deploy wings once exiting the launcher to become small unmanned aircraft. WVU's proposed design uses a helical hinge, which allows the wing sections to be externally stowed outside the UAV's fuselage. Additionally, the design positions the vehicles wing sections sub-bore (or smaller than the guns internal diameter), and flush (smooth and planer) to the surface of the fuselage. The typical transforming winged projectile design considered, stores its wing sections along the center axis of the fuselage. This bisects the payload space and limits the continuous payload carrying potential.
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