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Technical Paper

Feasibility of Multiple Piston Motion Control Approaches in a Free Piston Engine Generator

2019-10-28
2019-01-2599
The design optimization and control of Free Piston Linear Engine (FPLE) has been found to be difficult as each independent variable changes the dynamics with respect to time. These dynamics, in turn, alters the alternator and engine response to other governing variables. As a result, the FPLE system necessitates an energy balance control algorithm with high-speed dynamic response for stable operation and perhaps optimized system efficiency. The main objective of this control algorithm is to match the power generated by the engine to the power demanded by the alternator. This energy balance control is similar to the use of a governor to control the crankshaft rotational speed in a conventional crankshaft driven engine. In addition to that, when stiff springs are added to the FPLE system, the dynamics becomes more sinusoidal and more consistent with increasing spring stiffness.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Combustion Characteristics in a Heavy-Duty Compression-Ignition Engine Retrofitted to Natural-Gas Spark-Ignition Operation

2019-09-09
2019-24-0124
The conversion of existing diesel engines to natural gas operation can reduce U.S. dependence on petroleum imports and curtail engine-out emissions. Diesel compression ignition engines can be modified to NG spark ignition, by replacing the diesel injector with a NG spark plug and by fumigating NG in the intake manifold, to increase utilization of natural gas heavy-duty transportation sector. As the original diesel piston is maintained during conversion to decrease engine modification cost, the major of this study was to investigate the lean-burn characteristic of natural gas burning in this bowl-in-piston combustion chamber, which can accelerate the introduction of heavy-duty natural gas vehicles. Data analysis from engine experiments that changed spark timing indicated a two-stage combustion process in such retrofitted engines, which is different from traditional spark ignition engines.
Technical Paper

Development of a CFD Solver For Primary Diesel Jet Atomization in FOAM-Extend

2019-09-09
2019-24-0128
High fidelity CFD framework for the simulation of primary atomization of a high pressure diesel jet is presented in this work. The numerical model is based on a second order accurate, polyhedral Finite Volume method implemented in foam-extend, a community driven fork of the OpenFOAM software. A geometric VOF method isoAdvector is used for accurate interface advection, while the Ghost Fluid Method (GFM) is used to handle the discontinuity of the pressure and the pressure gradient at the interface between the two phases: n-dodecane and air in the combustion chamber. The discontinuities are a direct consequence of different densities and viscosities, and surface tension effects between the phases. In order to obtain highly resolved interface while minimizing computational time, an Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) strategy for arbitrary polyhedral cells is employed in order to refine the parts of the mesh near the interface and within the nozzle.
Technical Paper

Effect of Methane Number in a Diesel Engine Converted to Natural Gas Spark Ignition

2019-09-09
2019-24-0008
Natural gas (NG) is an alternative fuel for spark-ignition engines. In addition to its cleaner combustion, recent breakthroughs in drilling technologies increased its availability and lowered its cost. NG consists of mostly methane, but it also contains heavier hydrocarbons and inert diluents, the levels of which vary substantially with geographical source, time of year, and treatments applied during production or transportation. To investigate the effects of NG composition on engine performance and emissions, a 3D CFD model of a heavy-duty diesel engine retrofitted to spark ignition operations simulated engine operation under lean-combustion, low-speed, and medium load conditions. To eliminate the effect of different gas energy density, three NG blends of similar lower heating value but different H/C ratio have been investigated at fixed spark timing.
Technical Paper

Heavy-Duty Compression-Ignition Engines Retrofitted to Spark-Ignition Operation Fueled with Natural Gas

2019-09-09
2019-24-0030
Natural gas is a promising alternative gaseous fuel due to its availability, economic, and environmental benefits. A solution to increase its use in the heavy-duty transportation sector is to convert existing heavy-duty compression ignition engines to spark-ignition operation by replacing the fuel injector with a spark plug and injecting the natural gas inside the intake manifold. The use of numerical simulations to design and optimize the natural gas combustion in such retrofitted engines can benefit both engine efficiency and emission. However, experimental data of natural gas combustion inside a bowl-in-piston chamber is limited. Consequently, the goal of this study was to provide high-quality experimental data from such a converted engine fueled with methane and operated at steady-state conditions, exploring variations in spark timing, engine speed and equivalence ratio.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Latest Generation Diesel Aftertreatment Systems

2019-09-09
2019-24-0142
A comprehensive experimental and numerical analysis of two state-of-the-art diesel AfterTreatment Systems (ATS) for automotive applications is presented in this work. Both systems, designed to fulfill Euro 6 emissions regulations standards, consist of a closed-coupled Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) followed by a Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst coated on a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF), also known as SCR on Filter (SCRoF). While the two systems feature the same Urea Water Solution (UWS) injector, major differences could be observed in the UWS mixing device, which is placed upstream of the SCRoF, whose design represents a crucial challenge due to the severe flow uniformity and compact packaging requirements.
Technical Paper

Experimental High Temperature Analysis of a Low-Pressure Diesel Spray for DPF Regeneration

2019-09-09
2019-24-0035
In the current automotive scenario, particulate filter technology is mandatory in order to attain emission limits in terms of particulate matter for Diesel engines. Despite DPF is often considered a mature technology, significant issues can derive from the use of the engine fuel injectors to introduce in the exhaust pipe the fuel needed to light on the particulate matter in the filter during its regeneration, primarily the lubricant oil dilution with fuel a consequence of significant spray impact on the cylinder liner. As an alternative, the fuel required to start regeneration can be introduced in the exhaust pipe by an auxiliary low pressure injector spraying in the hot exhaust gas stream. In this conditions, the spray evolution and its possible interaction with the surrounding gas stream are relevant in order to better identify the overall layout of the system, so to have the fuel vaporized at the DPF inlet section.
Technical Paper

Influence of Turbulence and Thermophysical Fluid Properties on Cavitation Erosion Predictions in Channel Flow Geometries

2019-04-02
2019-01-0290
Cavitation and cavitation-induced erosion have been observed in fuel injectors in regions of high acceleration and low pressure. Although these phenomena can have a large influence on the performance and lifetime of injector hardware, questions still remain on how these physics should be accurately and efficiently represented within a computational fluid dynamics model. While several studies have focused on the validation of cavitation predictions within canonical and realistic injector geometries, it is not well documented what influence the numerical and physical parameters selected to represent turbulence and phase change will have on the predictions for cavitation erosion propensity and severity. In this work, a range of numerical and physical parameters are evaluated within the mixture modeling approach in CONVERGE to understand their influence on predictions of cavitation, condensation and erosion.
Book

Prototype Powertrain in Motorsport Endurance Racing

2018-08-01
Racing continues to be the singular, preeminent source of powertrain development for automakers worldwide. Engineering teams rely on motorsports for the latest prototype testing and research. Endurance racing provides the harshest and most illuminating stage for system design validation of any motorsport competition. While advancements throughout the 20th Century brought about dramatic increases in engine power output, the latest developments from endurance racing may be more impactful for fuel efficiency improvements. Hybrid powertrains are a critical area of research for automakers and are being tested on the toughest of scales. Prototype Powertrain in Motorsport Endurance Racing brings together ten vital SAE technical papers and SAE Automotive Engineering magazine articles surrounding the advancements of hybrid powertrains in motorsports.
Technical Paper

Combustion Behavior of an RF Corona Ignition System with Different Control Strategies

2018-04-03
2018-01-1132
It has been proved that Radio Frequency Corona, among other innovative ignition systems, is able to stabilize combustion and to extend the engine operating range in lean conditions, with respect to conventional spark igniters. This paper reports on a sensitivity analysis on the combustion behavior for different values of Corona electric control parameters (supply voltage and discharge duration). Combustion analysis has been carried out on a single cylinder PFI gasoline-fueled optical engine, by means of both indicating measurements and imaging. A high-speed camera has been used to record the natural luminosity of premixed flames and the obtained images have been synchronized with corresponding indicating acquisition data. Imaging tools allowed to observe and measure the early flame development, providing information which are not obtainable by a pressure-based indicating system.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Spray Evolution, Hydraulics and Atomization for a 60 MPa Injection Pressure GDI System

2018-04-03
2018-01-0271
In recent years, the GDI (Gasoline Direct Injection) technology has significantly spread over the automotive market under the continuous push toward the adoption of combustion systems featuring high thermodynamic conversion efficiency and moderate pollutant emissions. Following this path, the injection pressure level has been progressively increased from the initial 5-15 MPa level nowadays approaching 35 MPa. The main reason behind the progressive injection pressure increase in GDI engines is the improved spray atomization, ensuring a better combustion process control and lower soot emissions. On the other hand, increasing injection pressure implies more power absorbed by the pumping system and hence a penalty in terms of overall efficiency. Therefore, the right trade-off has to be found between soot formation tendency reduction thanks to improved atomization and the energetic cost of a high pressure fuel injection system.
Technical Paper

Experimental Analysis of Fuel and Injector Body Temperature Effect on the Hydraulic Behavior of Latest Generation Common Rail Injection Systems

2018-04-03
2018-01-0282
The present paper describes the effect of thermal conditions on the hydraulic behavior of Diesel common rail injectors, with a particular focus on low temperatures for fuel and injector body. The actual injection system thermal state can significantly influence both the injected quantity and the injection shape, requiring proper amendments to the base engine calibration in order to preserve the combustion efficiency and pollutant emissions levels. In particular, the introduction of the RDE (Real Driving Emission) test cycle widens the effective ambient temperature range for the homologation cycle, this way stressing the importance of the thermal effects analysis. An experimental test bench was developed in order to characterize the injector in an engine-like configuration, i.e. fuel pump, piping, common rail, pressure control system and injectors.
Journal Article

Experimental and Computational Investigation of Subcritical Near-Nozzle Spray Structure and Primary Atomization in the Engine Combustion Network Spray D

2018-04-03
2018-01-0277
In order to improve understanding of the primary atomization process for diesel-like sprays, a collaborative experimental and computational study was focused on the near-nozzle spray structure for the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) Spray D single-hole injector. These results were presented at the 5th Workshop of the ECN in Detroit, Michigan. Application of x-ray diagnostics to the Spray D standard cold condition enabled quantification of distributions of mass, phase interfacial area, and droplet size in the near-nozzle region from 0.1 to 14 mm from the nozzle exit. Using these data, several modeling frameworks, from Lagrangian-Eulerian to Eulerian-Eulerian and from Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) to Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS), were assessed in their ability to capture and explain experimentally observed spray details. Due to its computational efficiency, the Lagrangian-Eulerian approach was able to provide spray predictions across a broad range of conditions.
Technical Paper

Assessment of Port Water Injection Strategies to Control Knock in a GDI Engine through Multi-Cycle CFD Simulations

2017-09-04
2017-24-0034
Water injection in highly boosted gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines has become an attractive area over the last few years as a way of increasing efficiency, enhancing performance and reducing emissions. The technology and its effects are not new, but current gasoline engine trends for passenger vehicles have several motivations for adopting this technology today. Water injection enables higher compression ratios, optimal spark timing and elimination of fuel enrichment at high load, and possibly replacement of EGR. Physically, water reduces charge temperature by evaporation, dilutes combustion, and varies the specific heat ratio of the working fluid, with complex effects. Several of these mutually intertwined aspects are investigated in this paper through computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations, focusing on a turbo-charged GDI engine with port water injection (PWI). Different strategies for water injection timing, pressure and spray targeting are investigated.
Technical Paper

Injection Rate Measurement of GDI Systems Operating against Sub-Atmospheric and Pressurized Downstream Conditions

2017-09-04
2017-24-0110
In order to optimize gasoline direct injection combustion systems, a very accurate control of the fuel flow rate from the injector must be attained, along with appropriate spray characteristics in terms of drop sizing and jets global penetration/diffusion in the combustion chamber. Injection rate measurement is therefore one of the crucial tasks to be accomplished in order both to develop direct injection systems and to properly match them with a given combustion system. Noticeably, the hydraulic characteristics of GDI injectors should be determined according to a non-intrusive measuring approach. Unfortunately, the operation of all conventional injection analyzers requires the injection in a volume filled with liquid and the application of a significant counter-pressure downstream of the injector. This feature prevents any operation with low pressure injection systems such as PFIs.
Journal Article

Instantaneous Flow Rate Testing with Simultaneous Spray Visualization of an SCR Urea Injector at Elevated Fluid Temperatures

2017-09-04
2017-24-0109
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) diesel exhaust aftertreatment systems are virtually indispensable to meet NOx emissions limits worldwide. These systems generate the NH3 reductant by injecting aqueous urea solution (AUS-32/AdBlue®/DEF) into the exhaust for the SCR NOx reduction reactions. Understanding the AUS-32 injector spray performance is critical to proper optimization of the SCR system. Specifically, better knowledge is required of urea sprays under operating conditions including those where fluid temperatures exceed the atmospheric fluid boiling point. Results were previously presented from imaging of an AUS-32 injector spray which showed substantial structural differences in the spray between room temperature fluid conditions, and conditions where the fluid temperature approached and exceeded 104° C and “flash boiling” of the fluid was initiated.
Technical Paper

The Future of the Internal Combustion Engine After “Diesel-Gate”

2017-07-10
2017-28-1933
The paper captures the recent events in relation with the Volkswagen (VW) Emissions Scandal and addresses the impact of this event on the future of power train development. The paper analyses the impact on the perspectives of the internal combustion engine, the battery based electric car and the hydrogen based technology. The operation of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), VW and the United States prosecutor, sparked by the action of the International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT) is forcing the Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM) towards everything but rationale immediate transition to the battery based electric mobility. This transition voids the value of any improvement of the internal combustion engine (ICE), especially in the lean burn, compression ignition (CI) technology, and of a better hybridization of powertrains, both options that have much better short term perspectives than the battery based electric car.
Technical Paper

Coupled Eulerian Internal Nozzle Flow and Lagrangian Spray Simulations for GDI Systems

2017-03-28
2017-01-0834
An extensive numerical study of two-phase flow inside the nozzle holes and the issuing jets for a multi-hole direct injection gasoline injector is presented. The injector geometry is representative of the Spray G nozzle, an eight-hole counter-bored injector, from the Engine Combustion Network (ECN). Homogeneous Relaxation Model (HRM) coupled with the mixture multiphase approach in the Eulerian framework has been utilized to capture the phase change phenomena inside the nozzle holes. Our previous studies have demonstrated that this approach is capable of capturing the effect of injection transients and thermodynamic conditions in the combustion chamber, by predicting phenomenon such as flash boiling. However, these simulations were expensive, especially if there is significant interest in predicting the spray behavior as well.
Technical Paper

A Methodology for the Estimation of Hole-to-Hole Injected Mass Based on Spray Momentum Flux Measurement

2017-03-28
2017-01-0823
In the present paper, a new methodology for the estimation of the mass delivered by a single hole of a GDI injector is presented and discussed. The GDI injector used for the activity featured a five-hole nozzle characterized by three holes with the same diameter and two holes with a larger diameter. The different holes size guarantees a significant difference in terms of mass flow. This new methodology is based on global momentum flux measurement of each single plume and on its combination with the global mass measurement made with the gravimetric principle. The momentum flux is measured by means of a dedicated test bench that detects the impact force of the single spray plume at different distances. The sensing device is moved in different positions and, in each point, the force trace averaged over several injection events is acquired. The global mass delivered by the injector is measured by collecting and weighing the fuel flown during a defined number of consecutive injections.
Journal Article

Experimental Assessment of a Novel Instrument for the Injection Rate Measurement of Port Fuel Injectors in Realistic Operating Conditions

2017-03-28
2017-01-0830
In the present paper an innovative approach for the shot-to-shot hydraulic characterization of low pressure injection systems is experimentally assessed. The proposed methodology is an inverse application of the Zeuch’s method, which in this case is applied to a closed volume upstream the injector instead of downstream of it as in conventional injection analyzers. By this approach, the well-known constraint of having a finite volume pressurized with the injected liquid downstream the injector is circumvented. As a consequence, with the proposed instrument low pressure injectors - such as PFI, fed with gasoline or water, SCR injectors - can operate with the prescribed upstream-downstream pressure differential. Further, the injector can spray directly in atmosphere or in any ambient at arbitrary pressure and temperature conditions, allowing the simultaneous application of other diagnostics such as imaging, momentum flux measurement or sizing instruments.
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