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Technical Paper

Combustion and Emissions of Paired-Nozzle Jets in a Pilot-Ignited Direct-Injection Natural Gas Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0807
This paper examines the combustion and emissions produced using a prototype fuel injector nozzle for pilot-ignited direct-injection natural gas engines. In the new geometry, 7 individual equally-spaced gas injection holes were replaced by 7 pairs of closely-aligned holes (“paired-hole nozzle”). The paired-hole nozzle was intended to reduce particulate formation by increasing air entrainment due to jet interaction. Tests were performed on a single-cylinder research engine at different speeds and loads, and over a range of fuel injection and air handling conditions. Emissions were compared to those resulting from a reference injector with equally spaced holes (“single-hole nozzle”). Contrary to expectations, the CO and PM emissions were 3 to 10 times higher when using the paired-hole nozzles. Despite the large differences in emissions, the relative change in emissions in response to parametric changes was remarkably similar for single-hole and paired-hole nozzles.
Technical Paper

Conditional Source-Term Estimation for the Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Combustion in Homogeneous-Charge SI Engines

2014-10-13
2014-01-2568
Conditional source-term estimation (CSE) is a novel chemical closure method for the simulation of turbulent combustion. It is less restrictive than flamelet-based models since no assumption is made regarding the combustion regime of the flame; moreover, it is computationally cheaper than conventional conditional moment closure (CMC) models. To date, CSE has only been applied for simulating canonical laboratory flames such as steady Bunsen burner flames. Industry-relevant problems pose the challenge of accurately modelling a transient ignition process in addition to involving complex domaingeometries. In this work, CSE is used to model combustion in a homogeneous-charge natural gas fuelled SI engine. The single cylinder Ricardo Hydra research engine studied here has a relatively simple chamber geometry which is represented by an axisymmetric mesh; moving-mesh simulations are conducted using the open-source computational fluid dynamics software, OpenFOAM.
Technical Paper

An Efficient Direct-Injection of Natural Gas Engine for Heavy Duty Vehicles

2014-04-01
2014-01-1332
To maximize payback for operators, it is important that natural gas engines for heavy-duty on-road applications minimize fuel consumption. To directly replace a diesel engine for a given vehicle mass and duty cycle, the natural gas engine also needs to match the diesel's power and torque characteristics. This paper reports the results of a development project to increase the torque and power of Westport's 15L 356 kW pilot-ignited, late cycle direct injection of natural gas engine by 10%, while matching or improving efficiency and maintaining emissions compliance. The strategies evaluated to achieve these objectives were to recover some of the exhaust energy with a power turbine, to increase the injector flow area to avoid excessively long combustion durations and to reduce the compression ratio to keep peak cylinder pressure below its maximum limit.
Journal Article

Optical Investigation of Dual-fuel CNG/Diesel Combustion Strategies to Reduce CO2 Emissions

2014-04-01
2014-01-1313
Dual-fuel combustion strategies combining a premixed charge of natural gas and a pilot injection of diesel fuel offer the potential to reduce CO2 emissions as a result of the high Hydrogen/Carbon (H/C) ratio of methane gas. Moreover, the high octane number of methane means that dual-fuel combustion strategies can be employed on compression ignition engines without the need to vary the engine compression ratio, thereby significantly reducing the cost of engine hardware modifications. The aim of this investigation is to explore the fundamental combustion phenomena occurring when methane is ignited with a pilot injection of diesel fuel. Experiments were performed on a single-cylinder optical research engine which is typical of modern, light-duty diesel engines. A high-speed digital camera recorded time-resolved combustion luminosity and an intensified CCD camera was used for single-cycle OH*chemiluminescence imaging.
Technical Paper

Soot Emission Reduction from Post Injection Strategies in a High Pressure Direct-Injection Natural Gas Engine

2013-09-08
2013-24-0114
Compression ignition engines, including those that use natural gas as the major fuel, produce emissions of NOx and particulate matter (PM). Westport Inc. has developed the pilot-ignited high-pressure direct-injection (HPDI) natural gas engine system. Although HPDI engines produce less soot than comparable conventional diesel engines, further reductions in engine-out soot emissions is desired. In diesel engines, multiple injections can help reduce both NOx and PM. The effect of post injections on HPDI engines was not studied previously. The present research shows that late injection of a second gas pulse can significantly reduce PM and CO from HPDI engines without significantly increasing NOx or fuel consumption. In-cylinder pressure measurements were used to characterize the heat release resulting from the multiple injections. Experiments showed that most close-coupled split injection strategies provided no significant emissions benefit and less stable operation.
Technical Paper

Challenges in Developing Hydrogen Direct Injection Technology for Internal Combustion Engines

2008-10-06
2008-01-2379
Development status and insight on a “research level” piezoelectric direct injection fuel injection system for prototype hydrogen Internal Combustion Engines (ICEs) is described. Practical experience accumulated from specialized material testing, bench testing and engine operation have helped steer research efforts on the fuel injection system. Recent results from a single cylinder engine are also presented, including demonstration of 45% peak brake thermal efficiency. Developing ICEs to utilize hydrogen can result in cost effective power plants that can potentially serve the needs of a long term hydrogen roadmap. Hydrogen direct injection provides many benefits including improved volumetric efficiency, robust combustion (avoidance of pre-ignition and backfire) and significant power density advantages relative to port-injected approaches with hydrogen ICEs.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Reingested Particles on Emissions from a Heavy-Duty Direct Injection of Natural Gas Engine

2006-10-16
2006-01-3411
The use of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) to control NOx emissions from direct-injection engines results in the reintroduction of exhaust particulate matter (PM) into the intake manifold. The influence of this recirculated PM on emissions from a pilot-ignited direct injection of natural gas engine was studied by installing a filter in the EGR system. Comparison tests at fixed engine conditions were conducted to identify differences between filtered and unfiltered EGR. No significant variations in gaseous or PM mass emissions were detected. This indicates that the recirculated PM is not contributing substantially to the increases in PM mass emissions commonly observed with EGR. Reductions in black carbon and ultra-fine particle exhaust concentrations in the exhaust were observed at the highest EGR fractions with the filter installed.
Technical Paper

Direct-Injected Hydrogen-Methane Mixtures in a Heavy-Duty Compression Ignition Engine

2006-04-03
2006-01-0653
A diesel pilot-ignited, high-pressure direct-injection of natural gas heavy-duty single-cylinder engine was fuelled with both natural gas and blends of 10% and 23% by volume hydrogen in methane. A single operating condition (6 bar GIMEP, 0.5 ϕ, 800 RPM, 40%EGR) was selected, and the combustion phasing was varied from advanced (mid-point of combustion at top-dead-center) to late (mid-point of combustion at 15°ATDC). Replacing the natural gas with hydrogen/methane blend fuels was found to have a significant influence on engine emissions and on combustion stability. The use of 10%hydrogen was found to slightly reduce PM, CO, and tHC emissions, while improving combustion stability. 23%hydrogen was found to substantially reduce CO and tHC emissions, while slightly increasing NOx. The greatest reductions in CO and tHC, along with a significant reduction in PM, were observed at the latest combustion timings, where combustion stability was lowest.
Technical Paper

PM and NOx Reduction by Injection Parameter Alterations in a Direct Injected, Pilot Ignited, Heavy Duty Natural Gas Engine With EGR at Various Operating Conditions

2005-04-11
2005-01-1733
The use of pilot-ignited, direct-injected natural gas in a heavy-duty compression-ignition engine has been shown to reduce emissions while maintaining performance and efficiency. Adding recirculated exhaust gas (EGR) has been shown to further reduce emissions of nitric oxides (NOx), albeit at the cost of increased hydrocarbons (tHC), carbon monoxide (CO), and particulate matter (PM) emissions at high EGR fractions. Previous tests have suggested that reducing the delay between the diesel and natural gas injections, increasing the injection pressure, or adjusting the combustion timing have individually achieved substantial emissions benefits. To investigate the effectiveness of combining these techniques, and of using them over a wide range of operating conditions, a series of tests were carried out. The first set of tests investigated the interactions between these effects and the EGR fraction.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Varying EGR Test Conditions on a Direct Injection of Natural Gas Heavy-Duty Engine with High EGR Levels

2004-10-25
2004-01-2955
Determining what exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) control parameters have the largest impact on engine performance and emissions is of critical importance when developing an EGR-equipped engine. These tests studied the effects of varying the net charge mass, the fresh air charge mass, the indicated power, and the oxygen equivalence ratio at various EGR fractions. The research was carried out on a direct-injection, natural gas fuelled, pilot-ignited four-stroke heavy-duty engine using Westport Innovations Inc.'s pilot-ignited, direct injection of natural gas technology. The testing was carried out using a prototype injector and the standard diesel-fuelled engine's combustion chamber. The results indicate that fuel efficiency, as well as emissions of Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) and Carbon Monoxide (CO) depend primarily on the EGR level, and not on the values of the EGR control parameters.
Technical Paper

Development of a Compression Ignition Heavy Duty Pilot-Ignited Natural Gas Fuelled Engine for Low NOx Emissions

2004-10-25
2004-01-2954
A heavy-duty compression ignition engine using EGR and pilot-ignited directly injected natural gas fueling was calibrated for low NOx emissions. A Cummins ISX engine using cooled EGR was fitted with a Westport HPDI™ fuel system and an oxidation catalyst. The base engine hardware was modified to increase EGR rates (up to 40%). The engine, rated at 336 kW (450 hp) and 2236Nm (1650 ft-lbs), was calibrated and tested over steady state and transient test cycles. Steady state testing over the ESC 13-mode test cycle resulted in weighted composite NOx emissions of 0.36 g/bhp-hr and particulate matter emissions of 0.04 g/bhp-hr. Transient testing over the US EPA specified FTP cycle resulted in average NOx emissions of 0.6 g/bhp-hr and PM emissions of 0.03 g/bhp-hr.
Technical Paper

Hydrogen Blended Natural Gas Operation of a Heavy Duty Turbocharged Lean Burn Spark Ignition Engine

2004-10-25
2004-01-2956
A turbocharged lean burn natural gas engine was upgraded to operate on a blend of hydrogen and natural gas (HCNG). Tests were carried out to determine the most suitable H2/NG blend for H2 fractions between 20 and 32 vol%. A 20 vol% H2 content was found to provide the desired benefits when taking into consideration the engine and vehicle performance attributes. A full engine map was developed for the chosen mixture, and was verified over the steady-state AVL8 cycle. In general, the HCNG calibration included operation at higher air-fuel ratios and retarded spark timings. The results indicated that the NOx and NMHC emissions were reduced by 50% and 58% respectively, while the CO and CH4 emissions were slightly reduced. The HCNG engine torque, power and fuel consumption were maintained the same as for the natural gas fuel. The chassis dynamometer transient testing confirmed large NOx reduction of about 56% for HCNG operation.
Technical Paper

Injection Parameter Effects on a Direct Injected, Pilot Ignited, Heavy Duty Natural Gas Engine with EGR

2003-10-27
2003-01-3089
Pilot-ignited direct injection of natural gas fuelling of a heavy-duty compression ignition engine while using recirculated exhaust gas (EGR) has been shown to significantly reduce NOx emissions. To further investigate emissions reductions, the combustion timing, injection pressure, and relative delay between the pilot and main fuel injections were varied over a range of EGR fractions while engine speed, net charge mass, and oxygen equivalence ratio were held constant. PM emissions were reduced by higher injection pressures without significantly affecting NOx at all EGR conditions. By delaying the combustion, NOx was reduced at the expense of increased PM for a given EGR fraction. By reducing the delay between the pilot and main fuel injections at high EGR, PM emissions were substantially reduced at the expense of increased total hydrocarbon (tHC) emissions. In this research, no attempt was made to optimize the injector or combustion chamber for natural gas fuelling with EGR.
Technical Paper

Direct Injection of Natural Gas in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2002-05-06
2002-01-1630
The high-pressure direct injection (HPDI) of natural gas permits diesel engines to retain their performance and high fuel economy while reducing regulated emissions. In the work presented in this paper, a pilot diesel fuel ignites directly injected natural gas, and both fuels are injected through a single injector. Recently the HPDI engine achieved a combined NOx+nmHC emissions of 2.38 g/bhp-hr during official certification tests performed under the US EPA specified FTP cycle for heavy-duty diesel engines. NOx, nmHC and PM emissions were reduced by 45%, 85% and 71%, respectively, compared to the 1998 EPA emissions requirement. These results are consistent with previously reported results on a two-stroke engine. The present study clearly demonstrates that a combination of gas injection timing and pressure can significantly reduce NOx emissions while retaining the overall thermal efficiency.
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