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Technical Paper

Spectroscopic Investigation of Initial Combustion Stages in a SI Engine Fuelled with Ethanol and Gasoline

2017-11-05
2017-32-0092
It is well known that ethanol can be used in spark-ignition (SI) engines as a pure fuel or blended with gasoline. High enthalpy of vaporization of alcohols can affect air-fuel mixture formation prior to ignition and may form thicker liquid films around the intake valves, on the cylinder wall and piston crown. These liquid films can result in mixture non-homogeneities inside the combustion chamber and hence strongly influence the cyclic variability of early combustion stages. Starting from these considerations, the paper reports an experimental study of the initial phases of the combustion process in a single cylinder SI engine fueled with commercial gasoline and anhydrous ethanol, as well as their blend (50%vol alcohol). The engine was optically accessible and equipped with the cylinder head of a commercial power unit for two-wheel applications, with the same geometrical specifications (bore, stroke, compression ratio).
Journal Article

Alternative Diesel Fuels Characterization in Non-Evaporating and Evaporating Conditions for Diesel Engines

2010-05-05
2010-01-1516
This paper reports the study of the effects of alternative diesel fuel and the impact for the air-fuel mixture preparation. The injection process characterization has been carried out in a non-evaporative high-density environment in order to measure the fuel injection rate and the spatial and temporal distribution of the fuel. The injection and vaporization processes have been characterized in an optically accessible single cylinder Common Rail diesel engine representing evaporative conditions similar to the real engine. The tests have been performed by means of a Bosch second generation common rail solenoid-driven fuel injection system with a 7-holes nozzle, flow number 440 cc/30s @100bar, 148deg cone opening angle (minisac type). Double injection strategy (pilot+main) has been implemented on the ECUs corresponding to operative running conditions of the commercial EURO 5 diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Optical Characterization of the Combustion Process in a 4- Stroke Engine for 2-Wheel Vehicle.

2009-09-13
2009-24-0055
The match among the increasing performance demands and the stringent requirements of emissions and the fuel consumption reduction needs a strong evolution in the two-wheel vehicle technology. In particular, many steps forward should be taken for the optimization of modern small motorcycles and scooters at low engine speeds and high loads. To this aim, detailed understanding of thermo-fluid dynamic phenomena that occur in the combustion chamber is fundamental. In this work, low-cost solutions are proposed to optimize ported fuel injection spark ignition (PFI SI) engines for two-wheel vehicles. The solutions are based on the change of phasing and on the splitting of the fuel injection in the intake manifold. The experimental activities were carried out in the combustion chamber of a single-cylinder 4-stroke optical engine fuelled with European commercial gasoline. The engine was equipped with a four-valve head of a commercial scooter engine.
Technical Paper

Use of Engine Crankshaft Speed for Determination of Cylinder Pressure Parameters

2009-09-13
2009-24-0108
The present study proposes the use of a MLP neural network to model the relationship between the engine crankshaft speed and parameters derived from the in-cylinder pressure cycle. This allows to have an indirect measure of cylinder pressure permitting a real time evaluation of combustion quality. The structure of the model and the training procedure is outlined in the paper. The application of the model is demonstrated on a single-cylinder engine with data from a wide range of speed and load. Results confirm that a good estimation of combustion pressure parameters can be obtained by means of a suitable processing of crankshaft speed signal.
Technical Paper

Development of an Open Source C++ Toolkit for Full-Scale Diesel Particulate Filter Simulation

2009-09-13
2009-24-0137
Multi-dimensional simulation of hydrodynamics in full-scale wall-flow Diesel Particulate Filters by GpenFQAM®, an open-source C++ object-oriented CFD code, is presented. A new fast and efficient parallel numerical solver has been developed by authors to simulate flows through porous media and it has been tested for the simulation of diesel particulate filters; errors caused by discretization of filter monoliths have been corrected by the formulation of a correction factor, that has been included in the solver. A set of experimental data, available from literature, has been used for code validation.
Technical Paper

Modeling of silencers for internal combustion engines: 1D-3D coupling, network of 1D elements and a generic 3D cell approach

2009-09-13
2009-24-0133
Increasing demands on the capabilities of engine simulation and the ability to accurately predict both performance and acoustics has lead to the development of multiple approaches, ranging from fully 3D to simplified 1D models. In this work it will be described the development and application of hybrid 1D-3D approaches and an innovative one based on the 3D cell element. This is designed to model the acoustics of intake and exhaust system components used in internal combustion engines. Models of components are built using a network or grid of 3D cells based primarily on the geometry of the system. This means that these models can be built without fundamental knowledge of acoustically equivalent systems making their range of application larger as well as making them simpler to construct. Due to the 3D nature of these models it is also possible to predict higher order modes and improve the accuracy of models at high frequencies compared to conventional plane wave approaches.
Technical Paper

Development of a Multi-Dimensional Parallel Solver for Full-Scale DPF Modeling in OpenFOAM®

2009-06-15
2009-01-1965
A new fast and efficient parallel numerical solver for reacting and compressible flows through porous media has been developed in the OpenFOAM® (Open Field Operation and Manipulation) CFD Toolbox. With respect to the macroscopic model for porous media originally available in OpenFOAM®, a different mathematical approach has been followed: the new implemented solver makes use of the physical normal components resulting from the velocity expansion in the unit orthogonal vector basis to compute the Darcy pressure drop across the porous medium. Also, an additional sink term to account for the increased flow friction over the porous wall has been included into the momentum equation. In the new solver, the pressure correction equation is still able to achieve a faster convergency at very low permeability of the medium, also when it is associated with grid non-orthogonality.
Journal Article

Spectroscopic Investigations and High Resolution Visualization of the Combustion Phenomena in a Boosted PFI SI Engine

2009-06-15
2009-01-1814
High spatial and temporal resolution optical techniques were applied in a spark ignition (SI) engine in order to investigate the thermal and fluid dynamic phenomena occurring during the combustion process. The experiments were realized in the combustion chamber of an optically accessible single-cylinder port-fuel injection (PFI) SI engine. The engine was equipped with a four-valve head and with an external boost device. Two fuel injection strategies at closed-valve and open-valve occurring at wide open throttle were tested. Cycle-resolved digital imaging was used to follow the flame kernel growth and flame front propagation. Moreover, the effects of an abnormal combustion due to the firing of fuel deposition near the intake valves and on the piston surface were investigated. Natural emission spectroscopy in a wide wavelength range from ultraviolet to infrared was applied to detect the radical species that marked the combustion phenomena in the selected operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Impact of Diesel Fuel/Biodiesel Blends on a Modern Diesel Combustion System Performance by Means of Injection Test Rig, Optical and Real SC Engine Experiments

2009-04-20
2009-01-0484
An experimental evaluation of the impact of the diesel/biodiesel blends is presented in terms of engine performances and pollutant emission analysis. In-cylinder combustion evolution and injection law characterization were carried out on a single cylinder engine, on an optical single cylinder engine and on an injection test rig. Different diesel/biodiesel blends were tested at three operating points, representative of the NEDC cycle. Increasing the biodiesel percentage a reduction mainly in terms of smoke emission was observed. The engine performance as well as the other pollutant emissions were not substantially changed. Therefore this study confirms the benefits of the biodiesel use also on the current automotive engines, reducing simultaneously their environmental impact in terms of GHG and smoke emissions.
Journal Article

Use of Accelerometers for Spark Advance Control of SI Engines

2009-04-20
2009-01-1019
Electronic engine controls based on non-intrusive diagnostics can significantly help in complying with the stricter and stricter regulations on pollutants emissions and fuel consumption. The aim of this paper is the use of a low-cost linear capacitive accelerometer placed on the engine block for non-intrusive diagnosis of combustion process in spark ignition engines. In particular, good correspondences between the engine block vibrations and the combustion pressure signal were obtained. The angular position of pressure peak evaluated by accelerometer data can be used in a closed-loop control system for real time control of spark advance.
Journal Article

1D Thermo-Fluid Dynamic Modeling of Reacting Flows inside Three-Way Catalytic Converters

2009-04-20
2009-01-1510
In this work a detailed model to simulate the transient behavior of catalytic converters is presented. The model is able to predict the unsteady and reacting flows in the exhaust ducts, by solving the system of conservation equations of mass, momentum, energy and transport of reacting chemical species. The en-gine and the intake system have not been included in the simulation, imposing the measured values of mass flow, gas temperature and chemical composition as a boundary condition at the inlet of the exhaust system. A detailed analysis of the diffusion stage triggering is proposed along with simplifications of the physics, finalized to the reduction of the calculation time. Submodels for water condensation and its following evaporation on the monolith surface have been taken into account as well as oxygen storage promoted by ceria oxides.
Journal Article

Optical Investigations of the Abnormal Combustion in a Boosted Spark-ignition PFI Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-0697
The flame front propagation in normal and abnormal combustion was investigated. Cycle-resolved flame emission imaging was applied in the combustion chamber of a port fuel injection boosted spark ignition engine. The engine was fuelled with a mixture of 90% iso-octane and 10% n-heptane by volume (PRF90). The effect of fuel injection phasing was studied. The combustion process was followed from the flame kernel formation until the opening of the exhaust valves. Different phenomena correlated to the abnormal combustion were analysed. Detailed information on ignition surfaces, end-gas auto-ignitions and knock were obtained. The appearance of autoignition centres in the end gas was evaluated in terms of timing, location and frequency of occurrence.
Journal Article

Effect of the Engine Head Geometry on the Combustion Process in a PFI Boosted Spark-ignition Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-0504
In this work, a boosted single-cylinder spark ignition port-fuel injection optical engine was used for the experimental activity. Firstly, it was equipped with a four-valve head of a commercial turbocharged multi-cylinder engine. Then a prototype engine head with flush installed intake valves was tested. The effect of the different head geometry was evaluated in closed intake valves fuel injection condition. High spatial resolution cycle-resolved digital imaging was used to characterise the flame propagation. Moreover, the presence of diffusion-controlled flames near the valves and on the cylinder walls was investigated. These flames induced the formation of unburned hydrocarbons and soot particles. The spatial distribution and temporal evolution of soot were evaluated by the two colour pyrometry. The prototype configuration showed higher combustion process efficiency than the standard one inducing a little increase in performance and a slight reduction in carbon oxides emissions.
Journal Article

A Coupled 1D-multiD Nonlinear Simulation of I.C. Engine Silencers with Perforates and Sound-Absorbing Material

2009-04-20
2009-01-0305
Nowadays a great attention is paid to the level and quality of noise radiated from the tailpipe end of intake and exhaust systems, to control the gas dynamic noise emitted by the engine as well as the characteristics of the cabin interior sound. The muffler geometry can be optimized consequently, to attenuate or remark certain spectral components of the engine noise, according to the result expected. Evidently the design of complex silencing systems is a time-consuming operation, which must be carried out by means of concurrent experimental measurements and numerical simulations. In particular, 1D and multiD linear/non-linear simulation codes can be applied to predict the silencer behavior in the time and frequency domain. This paper describes the development of a 1D-multiD integrated approach for the simulation of complex muffler configurations such as reverse chambers with inlet and outlet pipe extensions and perforated silencers with the addition of sound absorbing material.
Journal Article

Multi-Dimensional Modeling of the Soot Deposition Mechanism in Diesel Particulate Filters

2008-04-14
2008-01-0444
A computational, three-dimensional approach to investigate the behavior of diesel soot particles in the micro-channels of wall-flow Diesel Particulate Filters is presented. The KIVA3V CFD code, already extended to solve the 2D conservation equations for porous media materials [1], has been enhanced to solve in 2-D and 3-D the governing equations for reacting and compressible flows through porous media in non axes-symmetric geometries. With respect to previous work [1], a different mathematical approach has been followed in the implementation of the numerical solver for porous media, in order to achieve a faster convergency as source terms were added to the governing equations. The Darcy pressure drop has been included in the Navier-Stokes equations and the energy equation has been extended to account for the thermal exchange between the gas flow and the porous wall.
Journal Article

Modeling of Silencers for I.C. Engine Intake and Exhaust Systems by Means of an Integrated 1D-multiD Approach

2008-04-14
2008-01-0677
This paper describes the development of a fully 1D and of a 1D-multiD integrated approach for the simulation of complex muffler configurations. The fully 1D approach aims to model the muffler recurring to an equivalent net of 1D pipes. An expansion chamber with offset inlet and outlet pipes was modeled with this preocedure and the resuts compared to CFD simulations, pointing out some critical aspects in the TL prediction. The HLLC Riemann solver and its extension to the second order were implemented both in the 1D and multiD models and exploited to handle the interface between the calculation domains. The integrated 1D-multiD approach was used afterwards to predict the transmission loss of more complex geometries such as series chambers with extended inlet and outlet pipes and with flow reversals. A new procedure has been adopted to calculate the transmission loss, imposing a pressure impulse at the inlet and evaluating the response of the muffler.
Journal Article

Effect of Injection Phasing on Valves and Chamber Fuel Deposition Burning in a PFI Boosted Spark-Ignition Engine

2008-04-14
2008-01-0428
A satisfactory answer to the future severe normative on emissions and to the market request for spark ignition engines seems to be the use of downsized engines for passenger cars. Downsizing permits the increase in engines power and torque without the increase in cylinder capacity. The downsizing benefits are evident at part loads; on the other hand, more work should be done to optimize boosted engines at higher and full load. To this goal, a detailed knowledge of the thermo-fluid dynamic processes that occur in the combustion chamber is fundamental. The aim of this paper is the experimental investigation of the effect of the fuel injection in the intake manifold on the combustion process and pollutant formation in a boosted spark ignition (SI) engine. The experiments were performed on a partially transparent single-cylinder port fuel injection (PFI) SI engine, equipped with a four-valve head and boost device.
Technical Paper

Unsteady Behavior in Turbocharger Turbines: Experimental Analysis and Numerical Simulation

2007-09-16
2007-24-0081
The flow in engine turbocharger compressors and turbines is highly unsteady in nature, as it responds to the intake and exhaust manifolds of the internal combustion engine. The optimization of the turbocharger system is therefore a very difficult task, since the devices operate at off-design conditions for most of the engine cycle. Experimental studies allow for improving the understanding on the behavior of the engine components, in particular when tests are performed under real engine operating conditions; however, the experimental tests can be more efficient if they are combined with theoretical simulation tools, which help to select significant engine operating conditions. In this paper, experimental investigations were performed on a flexible component test rig (expressly suited to perform tests on automotive turbochargers) at ICE Laboratory of the University of Genoa (ICEG-DIMSET).
Technical Paper

A Multizone approach to the detailed kinetic modeling of HCCI combustion

2007-09-16
2007-24-0086
A 1-D thermo-fluid dynamic simulation code, including a quasi-D combustion model coupled with a detailed kinetic scheme, is used to analyze the combustion process in HCCI engines. The chemical mechanism has previously been validated in comparison with experimental data over a wide range of operating conditions. To explore the impact on model predictions, the cylinder was divided into multiple zones to characterize the conditions of the in-cylinder charge. Particular attention is devoted to the numerical algorithm in order to ensure the robustness and efficiency of the large system solution. This numerical model allows study of the autoignition of the air fuel mixture and determines the chemical evolution of the system. The proposed model was compared with in-cylinder temperature and chemical species profiles. The experimental activity was carried out in the combustion chamber of a single cylinder air cooled engine operating in HCCI mode.
Technical Paper

Flame Diagnostics in the Combustion Chamber of Boosted PFI SI Engine

2007-09-16
2007-24-0003
The growing demands on fuel economy and always stricter limitations on pollutant emissions has increased the interest in the ignition phenomena to guarantee successful flame development for all the spark ignition (SI) engine operating conditions. The initial size and the growth of the flame have a strong influence on the further development of the combustion process. In particular, for the new FIAT generation of turbocharged SI engines, the first times of spark ignition combustion are not yet fully understood. This is mainly due to the missing knowledge concerning the detailed physical and chemical processes taking place during the all set of the flame propagation. These processes often occur simultaneously, making difficult the interpretation of measurements. In the present paper, flame dynamic was followed by UV-visible emission imaging in an optical SI engine.
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