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Journal Article

Design of a Flywheel Based Energy Storage and Distribution System for Rural Villages in China

There are 30 million people in remote, rural communities in China without access to electricity. The government of China has initiated an ongoing effort to provide constant, reliable power to these citizens. Renewable energy is being utilized to solve this problem, which necessitates the use of a storage medium for energy, because renewable energies (i.e. wind and/or solar power) are inherently intermittent, variable, and largely unpredictable. By storing excess energy when it is plentiful (for a maximum feasible time of two days) and distributing it to the community in times of scarcity, the intermittent power is effectively leveled and auxiliary power is provided. A high-inertia flywheel was designed for this application because of its simplicity, ease of maintenance, low cost, and reliability. This design addresses many problems including bearing losses, aerodynamic losses, and distribution losses. The proposed design consists of a six spoke layout with a large outer ring.
Technical Paper

High-Level Modeling of an RF Pulsed Quarter Wave Coaxial Resonator with Potential use as an SI Engine Ignition Source

Significant environmental and economic benefit could be obtained if spark ignited (SI) engines could be made more efficient. Engine operation using leaner fuel air mixtures at higher power densities and pressures promise higher thermal efficiencies. Mixtures required for such operation are often difficult to ignite with traditional spark plugs. In pursuit of better ignition sources, this paper presents a high-level model of an alternative microwave plasma ignition source under development. In this publication, atmospheric measurements of a pulsed microwave ignitor are used to derive an empirical model that will allow for control and increased energy delivery to the device. The model accounts for a simplistic plasma formation delay, a drop in resonance frequency as a result of plasma formation, and a subsequent change in associated microwave reflection coefficient.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Dielectrics for Use in Quarter Wave Coaxial Resonators

Current research has involved manipulating the ignition inside of the combustion chamber. It has been demonstrated that an RF plasma flame can be generated from microwaves in a Quarter Wave Coaxial Cavity Resonator (QWCCR). By using this method, it may become possible for researchers to improve combustion and ignition characteristics of a modern internal combustion engine. Filling a plasma cavity with an appropriate dielectric medium can both alter electromagnetic properties and provide a suitable protective barrier to the harsh condition inside of a combustion cylinder. It is the purpose of this paper is to investigate both the operating frequency and quality factor of dielectric-filled cavities, as well as to suggest dielectrics that would be suitable for such an application.
Technical Paper

Continued Computational Investigation into Circulation Control for the V-22 Osprey Download Reduction; Blowing Slot Optimization

Previous studies have shown that using blowing slots can reduce the effects of the rotor downwash on the main wing of a tilt-rotor aircraft, particularly the V-22 Osprey. The current study investigates the placement and air velocity of the leading edge blowing slot for optimization of the download reduction. The realizable turbulent kinetic energy - rate of dissipation (rke) numerical model available in Fluent 6.2.12 was used to model the flow involved under the rotors and the subsequent downwash around the main wing. It was found that the leading edge blowing slot is most beneficial when it is placed just upwind of the separation point without blowing slots. In the current investigation the optimal configuration is found between 0 percent and 1 percent of the chord length.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of a Portable Micro-Dilution Tunnel Particulate Measurement System

The Federal Test Procedure (FTP) for heavy-duty engines requires the use of a full-flow tunnel based constant volume sampler (CVS) which is costly to build and maintain, and requires a large workspace. A portable micro-dilution system that could be used for measuring on-board, in use emissions from heavy duty vehicles would be an inexpensive alternative compared to a full-flow CVS tunnel, as well as requiring significantly less workspace. This paper evaluates such a portable particulate matter measuring system. This micro-dilution tunnel operates on the same principle as a full-flow tunnel, however dilution ratios can be more easily controlled with the micro dilution system. The dilution ratios for the micro-dilution system were maintained at least four to one, as per ISO 8178 requirements, by measuring the mass flow rates of the dilution air and dilute exhaust.
Technical Paper

Experimental Stress/Strain Analysis of a Standardized Sensor Platform for a C-130 Aircraft

Project Oculus is an in-flight deployable mechanical arm/pod system that will accommodate 500 pounds of sensor payload, developed for a C-130 military aircraft. The system is designed for use in counter narco-terrorism and surveillance applications by the Department of Defense and the National Guard [1]. A prototype of the system has been built and is in the testing/analysis phase. The purpose of this study was to analyze the actual stresses and strains in the critical areas found using previous Finite Element (FE) simulations and to ensure that acceptable safety requirements have been met. The system components tested will be redesigned, tested, and reconstructed in the case of unacceptable safety factors or if more reliable methods can be implemented. The system was built to be deployed and retracted in flight, to avoid causing any problems in take off and landing.
Technical Paper

Continued Computational Investigation into Circulation Control for the V-22 Osprey Download Reduction

The commercially available RNG k-e turbulence model with enhanced wall treatment found in Fluent 6.1 was used to solve the flow over a V-22 Osprey wing equipped with blowing slots. The solutions were then compared to experimental data. Good correlation between the computational and experimental data was found. Download on the wing from the rotors while the aircraft is operating in vertical take-off and landing mode was found to be reduced by the blowing slots.
Technical Paper

Development of a Remote Sensor Deployment System for Expanded C4ISR Use of the C-130 Aircraft

Enhancing the capabilities of established airframes to meet expanded mission requirements is preferential to the design of specialized aircraft. The high cost associated with the research and development of a specialized aircraft platform has shifted the concentration towards the modification of existing aircraft to support multiple C4ISR missions. The recently developed Oculus sensor deployment system is one such example of this trend, providing a fully integrated aerial visual enhancement platform with multi-mission capabilities. This paper provides a short survey of the Oculus sensor pallet system and overviews some of the multiple guidelines used which ensure that various remote sensing technologies may be securely and simultaneously deployed.
Technical Paper

Sensitivity Analysis of the C-130 Sensor Deployment System Arm Using Finite Element Methods

The purpose of this study was to optimize the current design of the roll-on, roll-off sensor deployment system support arm for the C-130 Hercules. The Department of Defense (DOD) and the National Guard (NG) will be using these sensor pallet systems in a variety of command and control configurations for counter narco-terrorism applications along with several other applications. The original design for the sensor deployment arm will be drawn using CAD, and then a Finite Element Analysis will be modeled and analyzed using Pro/ENGINEER and Pro/MECHANICA. This will show the stress concentrations and the areas where weight can be saved. The most concerning variable will be the height of the mechanical arm attachment. By decreasing that height, and shortening the mechanical arm, the moments will decrease, and the required torque will be less.
Technical Paper

Velocity Profile Measurements Under the Ramp of a Lockheed Martin C-130 Aicraft

Predicting the aerodynamic forces in the wake of an object can be difficult using theoretical and computational methods. This is particularly true for airframes that have multiple engines and whose flight envelope involves the use of large control surfaces. One such aircraft is the C-130 which adds the further complication of a rear cargo door and ramp. Modeling the wake near the rear of this aircraft can be difficult and inaccurate unless validated against actual flight data. For this study a simple test apparatus, developed by the authors, was used to measure the velocity profile in the wake area of the rear cargo door of such an aircraft. The test apparatus contained 32 pressure ports, one of these ports was assigned to a static pressure probe. All pressures were referenced to an additional static pressure measured at the edge of the cargo ramp. The remaining, 31 pressure probes were distributed regularly between three vertical rake assemblies.
Technical Paper

Downwash Wake Reduction Investigation for Application on the V-22 “Osprey”

The downwash of the prop-rotor blades of the Bell/Boeing V-22 “Osprey” in hover mode creates an undesirable negative lift on the wing of the aircraft. This downforce can be reduced through a number of methods. Neglecting all other effects, such as power requirements, this research investigated the feasibility of using circulation control, through blowing slots on the leading and trailing edge of the airfoil to reduce the wake profile under the wing. A model was built at West Virginia University (WVU) and tested in a Closed Loop Wind Tunnel. The airfoil was placed normal to the airflow using the tunnel air to simulate the vertical component of the downwash experienced in hover mode. The standard hover mode flap angle of 67 degrees was used throughout the testing covered in this paper. All of these tests were conducted at a free stream velocity of 59 fps, and the baseline downforce on the model was measured to be 5.45 lbs.
Technical Paper

The Coaxial Cavity Resonator as a RF IC Engine Ignition Source

The Quarter Wave Coaxial Cavity Resonator (QWCCR) plasma igniter is designed, from previous theoretical work, as an ignition source for an internal combustion engine. The present research has explored the implementation of the QWCCR into an internal combustion (IC) engine. The QWCCR design parameters of inner conductor length, loop geometry, and loop position were varied for two igniters of differing operating frequency. Variations of the QWCCR radio frequency (RF) parameters, as a function of engine geometry, were studied by placing the igniter in a combustion chamber and manually varying the crank position. Three identical igniters were fitted with dielectric inserts and the parameters were studied before and after ignition was sustained in a twin-cylinder engine. Optimal resonator geometries were determined. Radio frequency parameter invariance was found with respect to crank angle and piston distance. The first successful IC engine ignition using a QWCCR was achieved.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Radio Frequency Coaxial Cavity Plasma Ignitor as an Internal Combustion Engine Ignition System

A quarter-wave radio frequency coaxial cavity plasma ignitor can be used to generate a combustion-initiating energy source in an internal combustion engine. This paper outlines research results on the development of such an ignitor. The system, which operates in the 820 - 900 MHz frequency range, uses a high Q quarter-wave cavity that generates plasma when resonating. Pressure testing has shown that the device can generate plasmas at spark ignition compression pressures. A resonator operating at these frequencies has been attached to a static combustion chamber and modeled numerically in order to determine the operational characteristics of the device in a combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Thermal Modeling of an Axial Vane Rotary Engine

A complete three-dimensional thermal finite element analysis has been performed for the Beta version of an axial vane rotary engine. This work investigated the effects of the heat flow for two different geometric designs (kinematic inversions): rotor turning with vane turning and cams turning with a non-rotating vane. The output from a modified zero dimensional combustion code was used to establish the thermal boundary conditions in the finite element model. An iterative procedure between the thermal finite element model and the zero dimensional code was used to obtain the component wall temperature profile. Updating the combustion model wall temperature resulted in different thermal characteristics than those from the constant wall temperature solution. The thermal analysis provided a quantitative comparison of the different geometric versions of the engine, showing where improvements must be made.
Technical Paper

Automobile Body Panel Color Measurement Test

It has been proposed that an automated remote color inspection of automobile body panels is possible with a reasonably precise color measurement. This paper outlines a test of a new 3D color measurement technology as applied to this task and presents the results of the first test. A camera is set up several feet away from a car body; a 3D orientation measuring system takes both 3D and color data from the car. The raw data is presented as a set of 3D graphs; the geometry-corrected data is also provided. Statistical analysis is presented to indicate system precision.
Technical Paper

Rotor Shaft Bearing Analysis for Selected Rand Cam™ Engine Configurations

Analysis of two types of bearings has been performed for the rotor shaft of the Rand Cam™ engine. Rolling element bearings and a combination of journal and thrust bearings for selected engine configurations have been considered. The engine configurations consist of four, five, six, seven, and eight vanes. The bearing geometry and orientation was also addressed. This analysis is crucial due to the potentially large axial loading on the bearings and the need for the bearing arrangement to be compact and reliable. An emphasis was placed on the combination of fluctuating axial and radial loads and the resulting effect upon the bearings. Tapered roller bearings were found to be effective. However, a combination of journal and thrust bearings is a more compact bearing arrangement for this application. The eight vane configuration is the most desirable configuration based upon the bearing analysis.
Technical Paper

Hydrodynamic Mobility Analysis of the Vane Lift Mechanism for the Rand Cam™ Engine

In this paper, a new method for the hydro-dynamic analysis of a sliding cylinder in a fully lubricated parallel track is presented. The method is an extension of Booker's “Mobility Method” (developed for cylindrical journal bearings) to the case of sliding cylinders, in which the clearance between the track and the cylinder, the viscosity of the lubricant, the radius and length of the pin, the sliding velocity and the applied transverse load determine the hydrodynamic behavior of the cylinder. In the Rand Cam™ Engine [1]*, the axicycloidal motion of vanes is driven by a rotor and a cylindrical cam, and one of the alternative designs to provide this function is based on a cylindrical pin sliding within a track which follows the profile of the motion of the main cams of the engine. This function is very important for the engine, since it separates the load bearing function from the sealing function left to the apex-like seals.
Technical Paper

The Rand-Cam Engine: A Pistonless Four Stroke Engine

The Rand-Cam engine is a positive displacement machine, operating on a four stroke cycle, which consists of a rotor with multiple axial vanes forming combustion chambers as the rotor and vanes rotate in a cam shaped housing. The cam housing, consisting of two “half-housings” or stators, contains a toroidal trough of varying depth machined into each stator. The two stators are phased so that the shallowest point on one trough corresponds to the deepest on the other. A set of six vanes, able to move axially through machined holes in the rotor, traverses the troughs creating six captured zones per side. These zones vary in volume with rotor rotation. Since each trough has two deep sections and two shallow sections with ramps in between, full four stroke operation is obtained between each pair of vanes in each trough, corresponding to twelve power “strokes” per revolution.
Technical Paper

Basic Design of the Rand Cam Engine

The Rand Cam engine is a novel design which avoids the use of pistons in favor of a cavity of varying size and shape. A set of vanes protrudes from a rotor into a circular trough in a stator. The vanes seal to the walls and base of the trough, which is of varying depth, and progress around the trough with rotation of the rotor. These vanes therefore pass through the rotor and are constrained to move parallel to the rotational axis. Intake and exhaust processes occur through ports in the stator wall which are revealed by the passing vanes. Advantages of the basic design include an absence of valves, reduction in reciprocating masses, presence of an integral flywheel in the rotor and strong fluid movement akin a swirl induced by the relative velocity between the rotor and stator.
Technical Paper

Engineering Modeling and Synthesis of a Rand Cam Engine Through CAD Parametric Techniques

In this paper an approach is presented for the system parameterization and synthesis of a Rand-Cam® Engine configuration based on an axial-cylindrical cam driven mechanism. This engine consists of a stationary axial-cylindrical cam on which axially moving pistons (vanes) sweep around the cam as they are driven by the rotor, providing the volume displacement as the rotor delivers the rotary output torque directly to the shaft. It has been documented that this engine configuration has some unique features that make it particularly suitable for high power to weight ratio applications. The modeling strategy makes use of higher order curve and surface modeling techniques and object modeling approaches based on profile extruding, blending operations and constructive solid geometry. Some of the resulting models are further used for finite element engineering analysis through a programmatic logic built into the parameterized general model.