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Heater and Accessories, Aircraft Internal Combustion Heat Exchanger Type

This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) covers combustion heaters and accessories used in, but not limited to, the following applications: a Cabin heating (all occupied regions and windshield heating) b Wing and empennage anti-icing c Engine and accessory heating (when heater is installed as part of the aircraft) d Aircraft deicing

Air Conditioning Systems for Subsonic Airplanes

This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) contains guidelines and recommendations for subsonic airplane air conditioning systems and components, including requirements, design philosophy, testing, and ambient conditions. The airplane air conditioning system comprises that arrangement of equipment, controls, and indicators that supply and distribute air to the occupied compartments for ventilation, pressurization, and temperature and moisture control. The principal features of the system are: a A supply of outside air with independent control valve(s). b A means for heating. c A means for cooling (air or vapor cycle units and heat exchangers). d A means for removing excess moisture from the air supply. e A ventilation subsystem. f A temperature control subsystem. g A pressure control subsystem. Other system components for treating cabin air, such as filtration and humidification, are included, as are the ancillary functions of equipment cooling and cargo compartment conditioning.

Animal Environment in Cargo Compartments

The environmental factors of prime importance in the transport of animals in aircraft are air temperature, humidity and carbon dioxide concentration, and of course space (or volume) limitations. Secondary factors are air velocity, noise, lighting, etc. Pressure isnot addressed herein as pressure levels and rates of change are totally dictated by human occupancy requirements. Some basic governmental documents, such as References 1, 2 and 3, define overall requirements for animal transportation, but with very limited data on environmental requirements. Reference 4 gives some airplane characteristics measured during animal transportation from the USA to foreign destinations. Temperature and humidity profiles are indicative of airplane characteristics. This report presents information on the temperature, humidity, ventilation, and carbon dioxide limitations and the metabolic heat release rates for animals which will allow the determination of the environment required by th animals.

Thermodynamics of Incompressible and Compressible Fluid Flow

The fluid flow treated in this section is isothermal, subsonic, and incompressible. The effects of heat addition, work on the fluid, variation in sonic velocity, and changes in elevation are neglected. An incompressible fluid is one in which a change in pressure causes no resulting change in fluid density. The assumption that liquids are incompressible introduces no appreciable error in calculations, but the assumption that a gas is incompressible introduces an error of a magnitude that is dependent on the fluid velocity and on the loss coefficient of the particular duct section or piece of equipment. Fig. 1A-1 shows the error in pressure drop resulting from assuming that air is incompressible. With reasonably small loss coefficients and the accuracy that is usually required in most calculations, compressible fluids may be treated as incompressible for velocities less than Mach 0.2.

Air Quality for Commercial Aircraft Cabin Particulate Contaminants

This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) covers airbone particulate contaminants that may be present in commercial aircraft cabin air during operation. Discussions cover sources of contaminants, methods of control and design recommendations. Air quality, ventilation requirements and standards are also discussed.

Aircraft Compartment Automatic Temperature Control Systems

The recommendations of this SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) for aircraft compartment automatic temperature control systems are primarily intended to be applicable to occupied or unoccupied compartments of civil and military aircraft.

Environmental Control System Contamination

This publication will be limited to a discussion of liquid and particulate contaminants which enter the aircraft through the environmental control system (ECS). Gaseous contaminants such as ozone, fuel vapors, sulphates, etc., are not covered in this AIR. It will cover all contamination sources which interface with ECS, and the effects of this contamination on equipment. Methods of control will be limited to the equipment and interfacing ducting which normally falls within the responsibility of the ECS designer.

Aircraft Turbine Engine Pneumatic Component Contaminated Air Endurance Test

This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) describes a method of conducting an endurance test using contaminated air when the applicable specification requires non-recirculation of the contaminants. The objective of the test is to determine the resistance of the engine mounted components to wear or damage caused by the contaminated air. The method described herein calls for non-recirculation of the contaminants and is intended to provide a uniform distribution of the contaminant at the inlet to the Unit Under Test (UUT). The UUT may require the use of a hydraulic fluid for actuation of components within the test unit. Contamination of the test hydraulic fluid is not part of this recommended practice. If contaminated hydraulic fluid is required by the applicable test specification, refer to MAP749.

Thermophysical Characteristics of Working Fluids and Heat Transfer Fluids

This AIR is arranged in the following two sections: 2E - Thermodynamic Characteristics of Working Fluids, which contains thermodynamic diagrams for a number of working fluids currently in use and supplied by various industrial firms. 2F - Properties of Heat Transfer Fluids, which contains data, primarily in graphical form, on fluids that are frequently used in fluid heat transfer loops. Other properties of the environment, gases, liquids, and solids, can be found, as follows, in AIR1168/9: 2A-Properties of the Natural Environment 2B-Properties of Gases 2C-Properties of Liquids 2D-Properties of Solids

Compartment Decompression Analysis

This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides data and general analysis methods for calculation of internal and external, pressurized and unpressurized airplane compartment pressures during rapid discharge of cabin pressure. References to the applicable current FAA and EASA rules and advisory material are provided. While rules and interpretations can be expected to evolve, numerous airplanes have been approved under current and past rules that will have a continuing need for analysis of production and field modifications, alterations and repairs. The data and basic principles provided by this report are adaptable to any compartment decompression analysis requirement.

Aircraft Humidification

This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) covers the design parameters for various methods of humidification applicable to aircraft, the physiological aspects of low humidities, the possible benefits of controlling cabin humidity, the penalties associated with humidification, and the problems which must be solved for practical aircraft humidification systems. The design information is applicable to commercial and military aircraft. The physiological aspects cover all aircraft environmental control applications.

Liquid Cooling Systems

The purpose of this Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is to provide guidelines for the selection and design of airborne liquid cooling systems. This publication is applicable to liquid cooling systems of the closed loop type and the expendable coolant type in which the primary function is transporting of heat from its source to a heat sink. Most liquid cooling system applications are oriented toward the cooling of electronics. Liquid cooling techniques, heat sinks, design features, selection of coolants, corrosion control, and servicing requirements for these systems are presented. Information on vapor compression refrigeration systems, which are a type of cooling system, is found in Reference 1.

Acoustical Considerations for Aircraft Environmental Control System Design

This Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is limited in scope to the general consideration of environmental control system noise and its effect on occupant comfort. Additional information on the control of environmental control system noise may be found in 2.3 and in the documents referenced throughout the text. This document does not contain sufficient direction and detail to accomplish effective and complete acoustic designs.

Heat Sinks for Airborne Vehicles

This document summarizes types of heat sinks and considerations in relation to the general requirements of aircraft heat sources, and it provides information to achieve efficient utilization and management of these heat sinks. In this document, a heat sink is defined as a body or substance used for removal of the heat generated by thermodynamic processes. This document provides general data about airborne heat sources, heat sinks, and modes of heat transfer. The document also discusses approaches to control the use of heat sinks and techniques for analysis and verification of heat sink management. The heat sinks are for aircraft operating at subsonic and supersonic speeds.

Engine Bleed Air Systems for Aircraft

This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) discusses design philosophy, system and equipment requirements, installation environment and design considerations for military and commercial aircraft systems within the Air Transport Association (ATA) ATA 100 specification, Chapter 36, Pneumatic. This ATA system/chapter covers equipment used to deliver compressed air from a power source to connecting points for other systems such as air conditioning, pressurization, ice protection, cross-engine starting, air turbine motors, air driven hydraulic pumps, on board oxygen generating systems (OBOGS), on board inert gas generating systems (OBIGGS), and other pneumatic demands. The engine bleed air system includes components for preconditioning the compressed air (temperature, pressure or flow regulation), ducting to distribute high or low pressure air to the using systems, and sensors/instruments to indicate temperature and pressure levels within the system.

Guide for Qualification Testing of Aircraft Air Valves

This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) defines recommended analysis and test procedures for qualification of pneumatically, electrically, manually, and hydraulically actuated air valves. They may be further defined as valves that function in response to externally applied forces or in response to variations in upstream and/or downstream duct air conditions in order to maintain a calibrated duct air condition (e.g., air flow, air pressure, air temperature, air pressure ratio, or air shutoff). Qualification testing performed on the airplane to verify compatibility of the valve function and stability as part of a complete system is outside the scope of this document. Refer to ARP1270 for design and certification requirements for cabin pressurization control system components. As this document is only a guide, it does not supersede or relieve any requirements contained in detailed Customer specifications.

NBC Protection Considerations for ECS Design

This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides Nuclear, Biological and Chemical (NBC) protection considerations for environmental control system (ECS) design. It is intended to familiarize the ECS designer with the subject in order to know what information will be required to do an ECS design where NBC protection is a requirement. This is not intended to be a thorough discussion of NBC protection. Such a document would be large and would be classified. Topics of NBC protection that are more pertinent to the ECS designer are discussed in more detail. Those of peripheral interest, but of which the ECS designer should be aware are briefly discussed. Only radiological aspects of nuclear blast are discussed. The term CBR (Chemical, Biological, and Radiological) has been used to contrast with NBC to indicate that only the radiological aspects of a nuclear blast are being discussed.

Heater, Aircraft Internal Combustion Heat Exchanger Type

This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) covers combustion heaters used in the following applications: a Cabin heating (all occupied regions and windshield heating) b Wing and empennage anti-icing c Engine and accessory heating (when heater is installed as part of the aircraft) d Aircraft de-icing