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Thermodynamics of Incompressible and Compressible Fluid Flow

2019-04-11
CURRENT
AIR1168/1A
The fluid flow treated in this section is isothermal, subsonic, and incompressible. The effects of heat addition, work on the fluid, variation in sonic velocity, and changes in elevation are neglected. An incompressible fluid is one in which a change in pressure causes no resulting change in fluid density. The assumption that liquids are incompressible introduces no appreciable error in calculations, but the assumption that a gas is incompressible introduces an error of a magnitude that is dependent on the fluid velocity and on the loss coefficient of the particular duct section or piece of equipment. Fig. 1A-1 shows the error in pressure drop resulting from assuming that air is incompressible. With reasonably small loss coefficients and the accuracy that is usually required in most calculations, compressible fluids may be treated as incompressible for velocities less than Mach 0.2.
Standard

Air Quality for Commercial Aircraft Cabin Particulate Contaminants

2018-10-17
WIP
AIR4766/1A
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) covers airbone particulate contaminants that may be present in commercial aircraft cabin air during operation. Discussions cover sources of contaminants, methods of control and design recommendations. Air quality, ventilation requirements and standards are also discussed.
Standard

Aircraft Compartment Automatic Temperature Control Systems

2018-09-24
WIP
ARP89E
The recommendations of this SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) for aircraft compartment automatic temperature control systems are primarily intended to be applicable to occupied or unoccupied compartments of civil and military aircraft.
Standard

Environmental Control Systems Life Cycle Cost

2017-02-07
CURRENT
AIR1812B
This report contains background information on life cycle cost elements and key ECS cost factors. Elements of life cycle costs are defined from initial design phases through operational use. Information on how ECS designs affect overall aircraft cost and information on primary factors affecting ECS costs are discussed. Key steps or efforts for comparing ECS designs on the basis of LCC are outlined. Brief descriptions of two computer programs for estimating LCC of total aircraft programs and their use to estimate ECS LCC, are included.
Standard

Aircraft Electrical Heating Systems

2011-10-17
CURRENT
AIR860B
It is intended that the scope of this information report be limited to electrical heating of passenger, crew, and cargo compartments only. No attempt has been made to develop the complete electrical circuitry associated with the electrical heating components; however, the electrical circuitry required for heating component operation, safety, and monitoring will be included as available. Specific design information is given for various modern aircraft utilizing electrical heating. Each aircraft discussed will be identified by alphabetical letter designation and included in the appropriate appendix.
Standard

Aerospace Vehicle Cryogenic Duct Systems

2011-08-10
CURRENT
ARP735A
This Aerospace Recommended Practice outlines the design, installation, testing and field maintenance criteria for aerospace vehicle cryogenic duct systems. These recommendations are considered currently applicable guides and are subject to revision due to the continuing development within industry.
Standard

Environmental Control for Civil Supersonic Transport

2011-08-10
CURRENT
AIR746C
This document supplements ARP85, to extend its use in the design of ECS for supersonic transports. The ECS provides an environment controlled within specified operational limits of comfort and safety, for humans, animals, and equipment. These limits include pressure, temperature, humidity, conditioned air velocity, ventilation rate, thermal radiation, wall temperature, audible noise, vibration, and composition (ozone, contaminants, etc.) of the environment. The ECS is comprised of equipment, controls, and indicators that supply and distribute conditioned air to the occupied compartments. This system is defined within the ATA 100 specification, Chapter 21. It interfaces with the pneumatic system (Chapter 36 of ATA 100), at the inlet of the air conditioning system shutoff valves.
Standard

Aerothermodynamic Test Instrumentation and Measurement

2011-07-25
CURRENT
AIR1168/5A
Like the technologies to which it contributes, the science of instrumentation seems to be expanding to unlimited proportions. In considering instrumentation techniques, primary emphasis was given in this section to the fundamentals of pressure, temperature, and flow measurement. Accent was placed on common measurement methods, such as manometers, thermocouples, and head meters, rather than on difficult and specialized techniques. Icing, humidity, velocity, and other special measurements were touched on briefly. Many of the references cited were survey articles or texts containing excellent bibliographies to assist a more detailed study where required.
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Aircraft Fuel Weight Penalty Due to Air Conditioning

2011-07-25
CURRENT
AIR1168/8A
The purpose of this section is to provide methods and a set of convenient working charts to estimate penalty values in terms of take-off fuel weight for any given airplane mission. The curves are for a range of specific fuel consumption (SFC) and lift/drag ratio (L/D) compatible with the jet engines and supersonic aircraft currently being developed. A typical example showing use of the charts for an air conditioning system is given. Evaluation of the penalty imposed on aircraft performance characteristics by the installation of an air conditioning system is important for two reasons: 1 It provides a common denominator for comparing systems in the preliminary design stage, thus aiding in the choice of system to be used. 2 It aids in pinpointing portions of existing systems where design improvements can be most readily achieved.
Standard

Aircraft Fuel Weight Penalty Due to Air Conditioning

2011-07-25
CURRENT
AIR1168/6A
This section relates the engineering fundamentals and thermophysical property material of the previous sections to the airborne equipment for which thermodynamic considerations apply. For each generic classification of equipment, information is presented for the types of equipment included in these categories, and the thermodynamic design considerations with respect to performance, sizing, and selection of this equipment.
Standard

The Control of Excess Humidity in Avionics Cooling

2010-06-17
CURRENT
ARP987B
This Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) outlines the causes and impacts of moisture and/or condensation in avionics equipment and provides recommendations for corrective and preventative action.
Standard

Air Quality for Commercial Aircraft Cabin Particulate Contaminants

2005-02-18
CURRENT
AIR4766/1
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) covers airbone particulate contaminants that may be present in commercial aircraft cabin air during operation. Discussions cover sources of contaminants, methods of control and design recommendations. Air quality, ventilation requirements and standards are also discussed.
Standard

Cooling of Military Avionic Equipment

2005-02-09
CURRENT
AIR1277B
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) contains information on the thermal design requirements of airborne avionic systems used in military airborne applications. Methods are explored which are commonly used to provide thermal control of avionic systems. Both air and liquid cooled systems are discussed.
Standard

Aircraft Electrical Heating Systems

2000-06-01
HISTORICAL
AIR860A
It is intended that the scope of this information report be limited to electrical heating of passenger, crew, and cargo compartments only. No attempt has been made to develop the complete electrical circuitry associated with the electrical heating components; however, the electrical circuitry required for heating component operation, safety, and monitoring will be included as available. Specific design information is given for various modern aircraft utilizing electrical heating. Each aircraft discussed will be identified by alphabetical letter designation and included in the appropriate appendix.
Standard

Aircraft Cabin Pressurization Control Criteria

2000-04-01
HISTORICAL
ARP1270A
These recommendations cover the basic criteria for the design of aircraft cabin pressurization control systems as follows: (1) To ensure aircraft safety. (2) Physiology and limits which govern maximum permissible pressure time relations as related to aircraft passenger comfort. (3) General pressurization control system performance requirements designed to satisfy (2). (4) Technical considerations relevant to satisfying (3).
Standard

Valves, Safety, Cabin Air, General Specification For

1999-11-01
HISTORICAL
AS5379
This specification covers the general requirements for cabin air safety valves for use in pressurized cabins of aircraft to prevent excess positive and negative pressures in the cabin and to provide a means of cabin pressure release in case of emergency.
Standard

The Advanced Environmental Control System (AECS) Computer Program for Steady State Analysis and Preliminary System Sizing

1997-10-01
HISTORICAL
AIR1706B
Many different computer programs have been developed to determine performance capabilities of aircraft environmental control systems, and to calculate size and weight tradeoffs during preliminary design. Many of these computer programs are limited in scope to a particular arrangement of components for a specific application. General techniques, providing flexibility to handle varied types of ECS configurations and different requirements (i.e., during conceptual or preliminary design, development, testing, production, and operation) are designated “company proprietary” and are not available for industry-wide use. This document describes capabilities, limitations, and potentials of a particular computer program which provides a general ECS analysis capability, and is available for use in industry. This program, names AECS1, was developed under the sponsorship of the U.S. Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory (References 1 and 2).
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