Refine Your Search

Search Results

Viewing 1 to 17 of 17
Technical Paper

Data Analysis, Modeling, and Predictability of Automotive Events

2018-04-03
2018-01-0094
It is important to quantitatively characterize the automotive events in order to not only accurately interpret their past but also to reliably predict and forecast their short-term, medium-term, and even long-term future. In this paper, several automotive industry related events, i.e. vehicle safety, vehicle weight/HP ratio, the emissions of CO2, HC, CO, and NOx, are analyzed to find their general trends. Exponential and power law functions are used to empirically fit and quantitatively characterize these data with an emphasis on the two functions’ effectiveness in predictability. Finally, three empirical emission laws based on the historical HC, CO, and NOx data are proposed and the impact of these laws on emission control is discussed.
Technical Paper

Water Recovery from Gasoline Engine Exhaust for Water Injection

2018-04-03
2018-01-0369
Water injection (WI) can improve gasoline engine performance and efficiency, and on-board water recovery technology could eliminate the need for customers to refill an on-board water reservoir. In this regard, the technical feasibility of exhaust water recovery (EWR) is described in this paper. Water injection testing was conducted at a full load condition (5000 rpm/18.1 bar BMEP) and a high load condition (3000 rpm/14.0 bar BMEP) on a turbocharged gasoline direction injection (GTDI) engine. Water recovery testing was conducted both after the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) cooler and after the charge air cooler (CAC) at a high load (3000 rpm/14.0 bar BMEP), as well as a part load (2080 rpm/6.8 bar BMEP) condition, at temperatures ca. 10-15 °C below the dew point of the flow stream. Three types of water separation designs were tested: a passive cyclone separator (CS), a passive membrane separator (MEM), and an active separator (AS).
Technical Paper

Clean EGR for Gasoline Engines – Innovative Approach to Efficiency Improvement and Emissions Reduction Simultaneously

2017-03-28
2017-01-0683
External Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) has been used on diesel engines for decades and has also been used on gasoline engines in the past. It is recently reintroduced on gasoline engines to improve fuel economy at mid and high engine load conditions, where EGR can reduce throttling losses and fuel enrichment. Fuel enrichment causes fuel penalty and high soot particulates, as well as hydrocarbon (HC) emissions, all of which are limited by emissions regulations. Under stoichiometric conditions, gasoline engines can be operated at high EGR rates (> 20%), but more than diesel engines, its intake gas including external EGR needs extreme cooling (down to ~50°C) to gain the maximum fuel economy improvement. However, external EGR and its problems at low temperatures (fouling, corrosion & condensation) are well known.
Journal Article

Investigation of SCR Catalysts for Marine Diesel Applications

2017-03-28
2017-01-0947
Evolving marine diesel emission regulations drive significant reductions of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. There is, therefore, considerable interest to develop and validate Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) converters for marine diesel NOx emission control. Substrates in marine applications need to be robust to survive the high sulfur content of marine fuels and must offer cost and pressure drop benefits. In principle, extruded honeycomb substrates of higher cell density offer benefits on system volume and provide increased catalyst area (in direct trade-off with increased pressure drop). However higher cell densities may become more easily plugged by deposition of soot and/or sulfate particulates, on the inlet face of the monolithic converter, as well as on the channel walls and catalyst coating, eventually leading to unacceptable flow restriction or suppression of catalytic function.
Technical Paper

Low Temperature SCR Catalysts Optimized for Cold-Start and Low-Load Engine Exhaust Conditions

2015-04-14
2015-01-1026
The main objective of this work is to develop a low-temperature SCR catalyst for the reduction of nitrogen oxides at cold start, low-idle and low-load conditions. A series of metal oxide- incorporated beta zeolite catalysts were prepared by adopting incipient wetness technique, cation-exchange, deposition-precipitation and other synthesis techniques. The resulting catalysts were characterized and tested for reduction of NOx in a fixed bed continuous flow quartz micro-reactor using ammonia as the reductant gas. Initial catalyst formulations have been exhibited good NOx reduction activity at low-temperatures. These catalyst formulations showed a maximum NOx conversion in the temperature range of 100 - 350°C. Besides, more experiments were performed with the aim of optimizing these formulations with respect to the metal atomic ratio, preparation method, active components and supported metal type.
Technical Paper

Development of Low Temperature Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) Catalysts for Future Emissions Regulations

2014-04-01
2014-01-1520
A series of novel metal-oxide (TiO2, TiO2-SiO2)-supported Mn, Fe, Co, V, Cu and Ce catalysts were prepared by incipient wetness technique and investigated for the low-temperature selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx with ammonia at industrial relevantly conditions. Among all the prepared catalysts, Cu/TiO2 showed superior de-NOx performance in the temperature range of 150-200 °C followed by Mn/TiO2 in the temperature range of 200-250 °C. The Ce/TiO2 catalyst exhibited a broad temperature window with notable de-NOx performance in the temperature regime of 250-350 °C. The phyico-chemical characterization results revealed that the activity enhancement was correlated with the properties of the support material. All the anatasetitania-supported catalysts (M/TiO2 (Hombikat)) demonstrated significantly high de-NOx performance above 150 °C.
Journal Article

Secondary Fuel Injection Characterization of a Diesel Vaporizer for Active DPF Regeneration

2014-04-01
2014-01-1494
Secondary fuel injection is applied to facilitate active soot management of the particulate filter within diesel aftertreatment systems, avoiding concerns with fuel delivery via in-cylinder post-injection. System performance is dependent on the thermo-fluid interactions of the injected fuel with the exhaust stream, with the intent of having more fully vaporized fuel and a well-mixed air-fuel mixture at the inlet of the oxidation catalyst for uniform thermal distribution as it exothermically reacts. Pre-heating the fuel with a diesel vaporizer prior to its delivery into the exhaust enables improved system performance, reducing droplet sizes and mixing demands. A diesel vaporizer is applied within the exhaust of a medium duty truck application, and the response of the catalyst is characterized across a variety of conditions.
Journal Article

Secondary Fuel Injection Layout Influences on DOC-DPF Active Regeneration Performance

2013-09-24
2013-01-2465
Catalysts and filters continue to be applied widely to meet particulate matter regulations across new and retrofit diesel engines. Soot management of the filter continues to be enhanced, including regeneration methodologies. Concerns regarding in-cylinder post-injection of fuel for active regeneration increases interests in directly injecting this fuel into the exhaust. Performance of secondary fuel injection layouts is discussed, and sensitivities on thermal uniformity are measured and analyzed, providing insight to packaging challenges and methods to characterize and improve application designs. Influences of end cone geometries, mixers, and injector mounting positions are quantified via thermal distribution at each substrate's outlet. A flow laboratory is applied for steady state characterization, repeated on an engine dynamometer, which also provides transient results across the NRTC.
Technical Paper

Transient Performance of an HC LNC Aftertreatment System Applying Ethanol as the Reductant

2012-09-24
2012-01-1957
As emissions regulations around the world become more stringent, emerging markets are seeking alternative strategies that align with local infrastructures and conditions. A Lean NOx Catalyst (LNC) is developed that achieves up to 60% NOx reduction with ULSD as its reductant and ≻95% with ethanol-based fuel reductants. Opportunities exist in countries that already have an ethanol-based fuel infrastructure, such as Brazil, improving emissions reduction penetration rates without costs and complexities of establishing urea infrastructures. The LNC performance competes with urea SCR NOx reduction, catalyst volume, reductant consumption, and cost, plus it is proven to be durable, passing stationary test cycles and adequately recovering from sulfur poisoning. Controls are developed and applied on a 7.2L engine, an inline 6-cylinder non-EGR turbo diesel.
Technical Paper

A Dual - Reductant HC LNC Approach to Commercial Vehicle Tier 4 Final Solutions

2011-09-13
2011-01-2203
Stringent global emissions legislations demand effective NOx reduction strategies for both the engine as well as the aftertreatment. Diesel applications have previously applied Lean NOx Catalysts (LNCs) [1, 2], but their reduction efficiency and longevity have been far less than that of the competing ammonia-based SCR systems, such as urea [3]. A catalyst has been developed to significantly reduce NOx emissions, approaching 60% with ULSD and exceeding 95% with E85. Both thermal and sulfur aging are applied, as well as on-engine aging, illustrating resilient performance to accommodate necessary life requirements. A robust system is developed to introduce both ULSD from the vehicle's tank as well as E85 (up to 85% ethanol with the balance being gasoline) from a moderately sized supplemental tank, enabling extended mileage service intervals to replenish the reductant, as compared with urea, particularly when coupled with an engine-out based NOx reduction technology, such as EGR.
Technical Paper

SOLID SCR®: Demonstrating an Improved Approach to NOx Reduction via a Solid Reductant

2011-09-13
2011-01-2207
Stringent global emissions legislation demands effective NOx reduction strategies, particularly for the aftertreatment, and current typical liquid urea SCR systems achieve efficiencies greater than 90% [1]. However, with such high-performing systems comes the trade-off of requiring a tank of reductant (urea water solution) to be filled regularly, usually as soon as the fuel fillings or as far as oil changes. Advantages of solid reductants, particularly ammonium carbamate, include greater ammonia densities, enabling the reductant refill interval to be extended several multiples versus a given reductant volume of urea, or diesel exhaust fluid (DEF) [2]. An additional advantage is direct gaseous ammonia dosing, enabling reductant injection at lower exhaust temperatures to widen its operational coverage achieving greater emissions reduction potential [3], as well as eliminating deposits, reducing mixing lengths, and avoiding freeze/thaw risks and investments.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Mixer Designs for Large Diesel Exhaust Aftertreatment Systems

2010-10-05
2010-01-1943
The presented work evaluates several mixer designs being considered for use in large Diesel exhaust aftertreatment systems. The mixers are placed upstream of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) in the exhaust system, where a liquid hydrocarbon fuel is injected. DOC exothermic behaviour resulting from each mixer at different operating conditions is evaluated. A gas flow bench equipped with a XY-Table measurement system is used to determine gas velocity, temperature, and hydrocarbon species uniformity, as well as, pressure drop. Experimental mixer data obtained from a flow bench and an engine dynamometer are compared and discussed. The experimental methodology used in this study can be used to evaluate mixers via comprehensive testing.
Journal Article

Real Time Implementation of DOC-DPF Models on a Production-Intent ECU for Controls and Diagnostics of a PM Emission Control System

2009-10-06
2009-01-2904
This paper describes the joint development by Tenneco and Pi Shurlok of a complete diesel engine aftertreatment system for controlling particulate matter emissions. The system consists of a DOC, DPF, sensors, controller and an exhaust fuel injection system to allow active DPF regeneration. The mechanical components were designed for flow uniformity, low backpressure and component durability. The overall package is intended as a complete PM control system solution for OEMs, which does not require any significant additions to the OEM's engine control strategies and minimizes integration complexity. Thus, to make it easier to adapt to different engine platforms, ranging from small off-road vehicle engines to large locomotive engines, model-based control algorithms were developed in preference to map-based controls.
Technical Paper

Mixer Development for Urea SCR Applications

2009-10-06
2009-01-2879
2010 and future EPA regulations introduce stringent Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) reduction targets for diesel engines. Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) of NOx by Urea over catalyst has become one of the main solutions to achieve these aggressive reductions. As such, urea solution is injected into the exhaust gas, evaporated and decomposed to ammonia via mixing with the hot exhaust gas before passing through an SCR catalyst. Urea mixers, in this regard, are crucial to ensure successful evaporation and mixing since its liquid state poses significant barriers, especially at low temperature conditions that incur undesired deposits. Intensive efforts have been taken toward developing such urea mixers, and multiple criteria have been derived for them, mainly including NOx reduction efficiency and uniformity. In addition, mixers must also satisfy other requirements such as low pressure drop penalty, mechanical strength, material integrity, low cost, and manufacturability.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of a DPF Regeneration System and DOC Performance Using Secondary Fuel Injection

2009-10-06
2009-01-2884
An active diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration system is evaluated, which applies secondary fuel injection (SFI) directly within the exhaust system upstream of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC). Diesel fuel is oxidized in the presence of a proprietary catalyst system, increasing exhaust gas temperatures in an efficient and controlled manner, even during low engine-out gas temperatures. The exotherms produced by secondary fuel injection (SFI) have been evaluated using two different DOC volumes and platinum catalyst loadings. DOC light-off temperatures were measured using SFI under steady-state conditions on an engine dynamometer. A ΔT method was used for the light-off temperature measurements – i.e., the minimum DOC inlet gas temperature at which the exothermic reaction increases the outlet gas temperature 20°C or greater than the inlet temperature.
Technical Paper

Support Mat Test Equipment Artifact Identification and Elimination

2009-04-20
2009-01-0978
Monolithic emission control devices typically use a support mat material to provide mechanical support, mechanical isolation, and thermal insulation for ceramic monoliths. This material is similar to a felt, but made from ceramic fibers. Non-intumescent support mat materials contain only ceramic fibers and binder compounds, while intumescent support mats also contain vermiculite; a material that expands with the application of heat. The durability of the support mat is critical to the durability of the overall emission control components. In addition to many component validation methods that evaluate the durability of the entire system methods to evaluate the response and predict the durability of the support mat itself help provide important design information. This paper summarizes challenges and artifacts in support mat testing.
Technical Paper

Evaluation Techniques to Assess Exhaust Aftertreatment Support Mat Robustness

2006-10-31
2006-01-3472
In order to scientifically approach the design of mounting systems for substrates in emissions control systems, it is essential to characterize the behavior of the involved materials, particularly the support mat. Manufacturing processes and various in-field conditions impact the long term performance of the support mat, and life-long emissions performance is critically dependent on its ability to retain the substrate throughout the intended life. Therefore, to ensure product robustness, the behavior during operation of all available support mats must be appropriately characterized to determine the technical layout in specific applications. This paper addresses three common characterization tests, developed internally and externally. Additionally, equipment improvements to minimize artifacts in test results as well as the development of a new mat test for manufacturing methods are addressed.
X