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Technical Paper

Event Isolation Methodology for Structural Fatigue Damage Analysis of Class 8 Tractors

This paper describes a methodology that has been developed to apply basic concepts of pattern recognition to isolate “events” in any type of time history data. The results obtained from this methodology can be used for a variety of engineering applications. In this study, it has been applied to estimate and compare the cumulative structural fatigue damage from single bump excitations versus resonance in Class 8 tractors based on consumer highway data. Using the basic concepts of pattern recognition, which include statistical methods based on correlation functions, windowing techniques and root mean square values, a similarity search has been performed to extract and classify known consequential time history traces (events) from the set of acquired data. The advantage of this model is seen in extracting events whose exact time traces are not known.
Technical Paper

Development of Refuse Vehicle Driving and Duty Cycles

Research has been conducted to develop a methodology for the generation of driving and duty cycles for refuse vehicles in conjunction with a larger effort in the design of a hybrid-electric refuse vehicle. This methodology includes the definition of real-world data that was collected, as well as a data analysis procedure based on sequencing of the collected data into micro-trips and hydraulic cycles. The methodology then applies multi-variate statistical analysis techniques to the sequences for classification. Finally, driving and duty cycles are generated based on matching the statistical metrics and distributions of the generated cycles to the collected database. Simulated vehicle fuel economy for these cycles is also compared to measured values.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Component Fault Detection and Isolation in the Air-Intake System of an SI Engine Using the Statistical Local Approach

The stochastic Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) algorithm, known as the statistical local approach, is applied in a model-based framework to the diagnosis of component faults in the air-intake system of an automotive engine. The FDI scheme is first presented as a general methodology that permits the detection of faults in complex nonlinear systems without the need for building inverse models or numerous observers. Although sensor and actuator faults can be detected by this FDI methodology, component faults are generally more difficult to diagnose. Hence, this paper focuses on the detection and isolation of component faults for which the local approach is especially suitable. The challenge is to provide robust on-board diagnostics regardless of the inherent nonlinearities in a system and the random noise present.
Technical Paper

A Fuzzy Decision-Making System for Automotive Application

Fault diagnosis for automotive systems is driven by government regulations, vehicle repairability, and customer satisfaction. Several methods have been developed to detect and isolate faults in automotive systems, subsystems and components with special emphasis on those faults that affect the exhaust gas emission levels. Limit checks, model-based, and knowledge-based methods are applied for diagnosing malfunctions in emission control systems. Incipient and partial faults may be hard to detect when using a detection scheme that implements any of the previously mentioned methods individually; the integration of model-based and knowledge-based diagnostic methods may provide a more robust approach. In the present paper, use is made of fuzzy residual evaluation and of a fuzzy expert system to improve the performance of a fault detection method based on a mathematical model of the engine.
Technical Paper

The Application of Fuzzy Logic to the Diagnosis of Automotive Systems

The evolution of the diagnostic equipment for automotive application is the direct effect of the implementation of sophisticated and high technology control systems in the new generation of passenger cars. One of the most challenging issues in automotive diagnostics is the ability to assess, to analyze, and to integrate all the information and data supplied by the vehicle's on-board computer. The data available might be in the form of fault codes or sensors and actuators voltages. Moreover, as environmental regulations get more stringent, knowledge of the concentration of different species emitted from the tailpipe during the inspection and maintenance programs can become of great importance for an integrated powertrain diagnostic system. A knowledge-based diagnostic tool is one of the approaches that can be adopted to carry out the challenging task of detecting and diagnosing faults related to the emissions control system in an automobile.
Technical Paper

Integrated Powertrain Diagnostic System: Linking On- and Off-Board Diagnostic Strategies

A number of automotive diagnostic equipment and procedures have evolved over the last two decades, leading to two generations of on-board diagnostic requirements (OBDI and OBDII), increasing the number of components and systems to be monitored by the diagnostic tools. The goal of On-Board Diagnostic is to alert the driver to the presence of a malfunction of the emission control system, and to identify the location of the problem in order to assist mechanics in properly performing repairs. The aim of this paper is to suggest a methodology for the development of an Integrated Powertrain Diagnostic System (EPDS) that can combine the information supplied by conventional tailpipe inspection programs with onboard diagnostics to provide fast and reliable diagnosis of malfunctions.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Engine Misfire on Exhaust Emission Levels in Spark Ignition Engines

One of the gray areas in the implementation of regulations limiting the generation of pollutants from mobile sources is the actual effectiveness of the exhaust gas emissions control strategy in vehicles that have been in use for some time. While it is possible today to conduct limited diagnostics with the on-board engine computer by performing periodic checks to verify the validity of the signals measured by the on-board sensors, and to measure tailpipe emissions during routine inspection and maintenance, the task of correlating these measurements with each other to provide an on-line, accurate diagnosis of critical malfunctions has thus far proven to be a very challenging task, especially in the case of misfire.
Technical Paper

A Survey of Automotive Diagnostic Equipment and Procedures

The introduction of advanced electronic controls in passenger vehicles over the last decade has made traditional diagnostic methods inadequate to satisfy on- and off-board diagnostic needs. Due to the complexity of today's automotive control systems, it is imperative that appropriate diagnostic tools be developed that are capable of satisfying current and projected service and on-board requirements. The performance of available diagnostic and test equipment is still amenable to further improvement, especially as it pertains to the diagnosis of incipient and intermittent faults. It is our contention that significant improvement is possible in these areas. This paper briefly summarizes the evolution of on- and off-board diagnostic tools documented in the published literature, with the aim of giving the reader an understanding of their capabilities and limitations, and it further proposes alternative solutions that may be adopted as a basis for an advanced diagnostic instrument.