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Technical Paper

Diesel Emissions Improvement by RME in a High Boost and EGR Single Cylinder Engine

The biomass fuel is expected to solve the global warming due to a carbon neutral. A rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME) as biomass fuel was selected, and also a low sulfur diesel fuel is tested as reference fuel in this study. The experiments were carried out to improve diesel emissions and engine performance using high boost and high rate EGR system and a common rail injection system in a single cylinder engine. The diesel emissions and engine performance have been measured under the experimental conditions such as charging boost pressure from atmospheric pressure to 401.3kPa maximum and changing EGR rate from 0% to 40% maximum. RME contain about 10 mass % oxygen in the fuel molecule. Furthermore, RME does not contain aromatic hydrocarbons in the fuel. Due to these chemical properties, RME can be used at 40% high EGR condition.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Engine System for Application of Biodiesel Fuel

Application of biodiesel fuel (BDF) to diesel engine is very effective to reduce CO2 emission, because biodiesel is carbon neutral in principle. However, biodiesels yield an increase in NOx emission from conventional diesel engine, compared with diesel fuel case. Therefore, some strategies are needed for meeting the future emission regulations when using biodiesel. In this study, rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME) was applied to diesel engine equipped with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system and NOx storage reduction (NSR) catalyst. NOx reduction rate of NSR catalyst was drastically decreased by using RME, even if injection quantity of RME for rich spike was enhanced. However, an increase in EGR rate could reduce NOx emission without the deterioration in smoke and PM emissions.
Technical Paper

The Cold Flow Performance and the Combustion Characteristics with Ethanol Blended Biodiesel Fuel

The purpose of this study is to improve low-temperature flow-properties of biodiesel fuels (BDF) by blending with ethanol and to analyze the combustion characteristics in a diesel engine fueled with BDF/ethanol blended fuel. Because ethanol has a lower solidifying temperature, higher oxygen content, lower cetane number, and higher volatility than BDF, ethanol blending would have a large effect on cold flow performance, mixture formation, ignition, combustion, and exhaust emissions. The engine experiments in the study were performed with a diesel engine and blends of BDF and ethanol at different blending ratios. The cold flow performance of the blended fuels was evaluated by determining the fuel cloud point. The experimental results show that the ethanol blending lowers the cloud point of the blended fuel and significantly reduces smoke emissions from the engine without deteriorating other emissions or thermal efficiency.
Technical Paper

Development of NOx Storage Reduction System for a Dimethyl Ether Engine

In recent years, the dimethyl ether (DME) fuel has been attracting attention as an alternative engine in terms of diesel utilization. This is (a) because its cetane number is close to that of diesel fuel, (b) an innovative chemical process has been developed to produce DME efficiently from natural gas and coal, and (c) DME as a fuel has fewer environment-polluting characteristics than diesel fuel. Inasmuch as DME fuel have lower molecular weights, a molecular C-O bond, and are much more volatile or evaporative than diesel fuel, it is possible to control particulate matters much more easily when DME is used instead of diesel fuel. As for NOx, however, even when using DME, there still remain problems under stringent exhaust gas regulations. Developed and optimized accordingly has been the NOx storage-reduction (NSR) system, using the DME engine with a common-rail injection system. The NSR system is coated with an NOx storage catalyst principally comprised of Pt and Rh.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Injection Characteristics on Heat Release and Emissions in a DI Diesel Engine Operated on DME

In this study, an experimental investigation was conducted using a direct injection single-cylinder diesel engine equipped with a test common rail fuel injection system to clarify how dimethyl ether (DME) injection characteristics affect the heat release and exhaust emissions. For that purpose the common rail fuel injection system (injection pressure: 15 MPa) and injection nozzle (0.55 × 5-holes, 0.70 × 3-holes, same total holes area) have been used for the test. First, to characterize the effect of DME physical properties on the macroscopic spray behavior: injection quantity, injection rate, penetration, cone angle, volume were measured using high-pressure injection chamber (pressure: 4MPa). In order to clarify effects of the injection process on HC, CO, and NOx emissions, as well as the rate of heat release were investigated by single-cylinder engine test. The effects of the injection rate and swirl ratio on exhaust emissions and heat release were also investigated.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study on DME Spray Characteristics and Evaporation Processes in a High Pressure Chamber

In this study, the spray characteristics and evaporating processes of DME fuel were investigated using the SCHLIEREN optical system and single-hole injectors in a constant volume chamber at room temperature. The photographs taken at different chamber pressures, injection pressures, orifice diameters and injection quantities were compared and analyzed. The results show that DME spray has a slower penetrating speed, wider spray angle, and much quicker evaporating processes than the diesel spray.
Technical Paper

Performance and Emission Characteristics of a DI Diesel Engine Operated on Dimethyl Ether Applying EGR with Supercharging

This research investigates engine performance and the possibility of reducing exhaust emissions by using Dimethyl Ether (DME). There are high expectations for DME as a new alternative fuel for diesel engines for heavy-duty vehicles. In this experiment, a single cylinder direct-injection diesel engine with displacement of 1.05 liter and a compression ratio of 18:1 was used as a base engine. Common rail type DME fuel injection equipment for the single cylinder engine experiment was installed, and direct injection in the cylinder of DME was tried. Results indicated that high injection pressure, high swirl ratio, and supercharging using multi-hole injectors are effective for combustion promotion in the DME fueled diesel engine (DME engine). The output of the DME engine using supercharging with an intercooler and EGR was higher than that of a diesel engine. By increasing the EGR rate Nox emission was reduced to about 1/3 that of the diesel engine. Smoke was not completely emitted.
Technical Paper

Combustion and NOx Emission Characteristics in a DI Methanol Engine Using Supercharging with EGR

In this study, we investigated the combustion technology for the direct injection (DI) methanol engine for a heavy-duty vehicle that makes use of the fuel characteristics of methanol and achieves smokeless burning with high efficiency and low NOx emissions under the heavy load condition. A 3.3-liter 4-cylinder spark-assisted DI methanol engine was tested to investigate the combustion and NOx emission characteristics under the full load condition with supercharging and/or EGR. We believe that supercharging suppressed the stratified charge combustion, but accelerated the premixed combustion to increase the indicated mean effective pressure. Moreover, supercharging was helpful in carrying out EGR under the full load condition without deteriorating the thermal efficiency. Furthermore, heavy EGR during supercharging reduced the NOx emissions dramatically while maintaining the high thermal efficiency and controlling the unburned hydrocarbons emissions.
Technical Paper

Study on Series Hybrid Electric Commuter-Car Concept

The purpose of this study is to examine a proper power system for a miniature vehicle called as “Commuter-car” that is expected to be used for commutation or shopping in urban areas. Before starting experiments, an investigation of actual commutation driving was made. It was found that the driving distance was generally short and that start-stop frequency was high at commutation driving in urban areas. As a result of this driving investigation, it was educed to introduce an electric motor traction method into commuter-cars. First, a small generator was added to a conventional electric vehicle (EV) to convert it into a series hybrid vehicle. The running range of this vehicle was confirmed experimentally to be extended much more than the base EV in transient driving. Therefore, it was judged that series hybrid system is reasonable to be applied to commuter-cars.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Unburnt Methanol and Formaldehyde Emissions from Methanol Fueled Vehicles-Acceleration of Oxidative Reaction on Catalyst by Pre-Catalyst Installation and Its Heating

It is well known that during engine cold-start, methanol fueled vehicles have a tendency to emit significant amount of unburnt methanol and formaldehyde, which is an oxidant of methanol The emission behavior and reduction methods of these components are studied in this paper The reduction rate of these unburnt components exceeds 99% when the temperature of a catalyst is enough high However during engine cold-start the oxidative reaction can not begin, and it takes several minutes to warm up the catalyst After the temperature of the catalyst reaches to the light-off temperature it rises steeply and high reduction rates of these components are obtained at the same time Therefore, the catalyst temperature must be raised quickly and effectively in order to realize the proper oxidative reduction of unburnt methanol and formaldehyde emissions during engine cold-start Consequently the effectiveness of installing pre-catalysts was examined in this study Some pre-catalysts (200cm3/piece) were placed after the exhaust manifold Results showed that within 10 minutes of initiating the idling experiment after engine cold-start the pre-catalysts were very effective and decreased emissions of the unburnt components by two thirds Moreover pre-catalysts which were electrically pre-heated with an external heater could more drastically decrease the amount of these components under the same experimental conditions However for such electrical heating to be practical it is necessary to reduce the level of heating energy to as low an amount as possible Therefore two power-saving methods were tried One method consisted of installing a glow plug in the upper stream of the pre-catalyst This method was based on an idea that unburnt components coming in contact with the glow plug are activated and easily oxidized and that they then release thermal energy for quick heating The results showed that this method was effective for reduction (more than 40%) of unburnt methanol but was ineffective for reducing formaldehyde since spot heating caused a balancing of formaldehyde formation/decomposition Therefore another method was examined A small-sized electric heated pre-catalyst(50cm3)was installed in order to heat a full section of the exhaust stream of the catalyst The results showed that this method had a great effect in reducing these harmful substances Moreover, it was demonstrated that this method consumes little energy and is more practical as a means of heating
Technical Paper

Alumina Catalysts for Reduction of NOx from Methanol Fueled Diesel Engine

NOx selective reducing catalysts are expected to be used for lean-burn gasoline engines and diesel engines as an effective NOx reduction measure. We are interested in the combination of methanol, as a reducing agent, and alumina catalyst, and have considered the NOx reduction method using effectively much unburned methanol. In this report, in order to investigate the effect of NOx reduction by the alumina catalyst, the experiment was carried out by feeding the actual exhaust gas from the methanol engine into the alumina catalyst. As a result, it was confirmed that, without addition of any other reducing agents into the exhaust gas, the alumina catalyst has activity to reduce NOx.
Technical Paper

Effect of EGR on NOx and Thermal Efficiency Improvement in a D.I. Methanol Engine for Light Duty Vehicles

Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was applied in a spark-assisted, direct-injection (Dl) neat methanol engine for light duty vehicles. An experimental study has been carried out to analyse for major factors of EGR that influence in the reduction of NOx mass emission and improvement in brake thermal efficiency. EGR on the Dl methanol engine alters intake charge, especially increasing the concentrations of H2O and unburned methanol with rising intake charge temperature. The results of qualitative analyses show that this phenomenon suppresses rapid heat generation at the initial combustion stage, therefore lowering the combustion temperature in the cylinders and leading to a reduction in NOx production.