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Advances in Turbocharged Racing Engines

2019-03-07
Racing continues to provide the preeminent directive for advancing powertrain development for automakers worldwide. Formula 1, World Rally, and World Endurance Championship all provide engineering teams the most demanding and rigorous testing opportunities for the latest engine and technology designs. Turbocharging has seen significant growth in the passenger car market after years of development on racing circuits. Advances in Turbocharged Racing Engines combines ten essential SAE technical papers with introductory content from the editor on turbocharged engine use in F1, WRC, and WEC-recognizing how forced induction in racing has impacted production vehicle powertrains.
Journal Article

Progress of Direct Injection and Jet Ignition in Throttle-Controlled Engines

2019-01-09
2019-26-0045
Direct injection and jet ignition is becoming popular in electrically assisted, turbocharged, F1 engines because of the pressure to reduce fuel consumption. Operation from homogeneous stoichiometric up to lean of stoichiometry stratified about λ = 1.5, occurs with fast combustion of reduced cyclic variability thanks to the enhanced ignition by multiple jets of hot, partially reacting products travelling through the combustion chamber. The fuel consumption has thus been drastically reduced in an engine that is, however, still mostly throttle controlled. The aim of the present paper is to show the advantages of direct injection and jet ignition based on model simulations of the operation of a high-performance throttle-controlled engine featuring rotary valves.
Book

Prototype Powertrain in Motorsport Endurance Racing

2018-08-01
Racing continues to be the singular, preeminent source of powertrain development for automakers worldwide. Engineering teams rely on motorsports for the latest prototype testing and research. Endurance racing provides the harshest and most illuminating stage for system design validation of any motorsport competition. While advancements throughout the 20th Century brought about dramatic increases in engine power output, the latest developments from endurance racing may be more impactful for fuel efficiency improvements. Hybrid powertrains are a critical area of research for automakers and are being tested on the toughest of scales. Prototype Powertrain in Motorsport Endurance Racing brings together ten vital SAE technical papers and SAE Automotive Engineering magazine articles surrounding the advancements of hybrid powertrains in motorsports.
Technical Paper

Life Cycle Analysis Comparison of Electric and Internal Combustion Engine Based Mobility

2018-07-09
2018-28-0037
Policy makers, especially in the European Union, are pushing towards an early transition to electric mobility, with the internal combustion engine supposed to be phased out by 2030. With a world population projected to exceed 10 billion peoples by 2050, the electric car mobility still lacks the significant development needed to become a real alternative to the internal combustion engine based mobility. Resources availability, and environmental, energetic and economic downfalls, are currently largely underrated or simply unassessed. It is unclear how many will be able to afford to purchase and recharge an electric vehicle in this new world.
Technical Paper

Super-Turbocharging the Dual Fuel Diesel Injection Ignition Engine

2018-07-09
2018-28-0036
Turbocharging dramatically improves the power density of internal combustion engines both in the compression ignition and the spark ignition cases. However, a standalone turbocharger suffers from transient and steady state downfalls where the energy to turbine is either smaller or larger than what would be needed to optimize the engine operation in a specific steady state or transient point. Hence a concept was proposed of a super-turbocharger where the turbocharger shaft is connected to the crankshaft through a continuously variable transmission and a gear. Energy is drawn from the crankshaft or delivered to the crankshaft to improve the work in every operating point of the steady map. In this paper, the concept of super-turbocharger is applied to a six-cylinder, dual fuel diesel injection ignition engine. The system is modelled using state-of-the-art automotive software and simulations of the steady-state operation are presented.
Technical Paper

Super-Turbocharging the Gasoline Engine

2018-07-09
2018-28-0007
In this paper, the concept of super-turbocharging is applied, in simulation, to a four-cylinder direct injection jet ignition gasoline engine. Turbocharging improves the power density of internal combustion engines, both the compression ignition and the spark ignition. However, a standalone turbocharger suffers from transient and steady state performance and efficiency degradation where the energy to turbine is either smaller or larger than what would be needed to optimize the engine operation in a specific point. Hence a concept is proposed to use a super-turbocharger, where the turbocharger shaft is connected to the crankshaft through a continuously variable transmission (CVT) and a gears pair. Energy is drawn from the crankshaft or delivered to the crankshaft to better work in every operating point. The concept was originally proposed for a diesel engine. Here it is applied to a gasoline engine.
Technical Paper

Two Stroke Direct Injection Jet Ignition Engines for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

2015-09-15
2015-01-2424
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) require simple and reliable engines of high power to weight ratio. Wankel and two stroke engines offer many advantages over four stroke engines. A two stroke engines featuring crank case scavenging, precise oiling, direct injection and jet ignition is analyzed here by using CAD, CFD and CAE tools. Results of simulations of engine performances are shown in details. The CFD analysis is used to study fuel injection, mixing and combustion. The CAE model then returns the engine performances over the full range of loads and speeds with the combustion parameters given as an input. The use of asymmetric rather than symmetric port timing and supercharging scavenging is finally suggested as the best avenue to further improve power density and fuel conversion efficiency.
Technical Paper

CAD/CFD/CAE Modelling of Wankel Engines for UAV

2015-09-15
2015-01-2466
The Wankel engine for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) applications delivers advantages vs. piston engines of simplicity, smoothness, compactness and high power-to-weight ratio. The use of computational fluid dynamic (CFD) and computer aided engineering (CAE) tools may permit to address the major downfalls of these engines, namely the slow and incomplete combustion due to the low temperatures and the rotating combustion chambers. The paper proposes the results of CAD/CFD/CAE modelling of a Wankel engine featuring tangential jet ignition to produce faster and more complete combustion.
Technical Paper

A Naturally Aspirated Four Stroke Racing Engine with One Intake and One Exhaust Horizontal Rotary Valve per Cylinder and Central Direct Injection and Ignition by Spark or Jet

2015-03-10
2015-01-0006
The paper discusses the benefits of a four stroke engine having one intake and one exhaust rotary valve. The rotary valve has a speed of rotation half the crankshaft and defines an open passage that may permit up to extremely sharp opening or closing and very large gas exchange areas. The dual rotary valve design is applied to a racing engine naturally aspirated V-four engine of 1000cc displacement, gasoline fuelled with central direct injection and spark ignition. The engine is then modeled by using a 1D engine & gas dynamics simulation software package to assess the potentials of the solution. The improved design produces much larger power densities than the version of the engines with traditional poppet valves revving at higher speeds, with reduced frictional losses, and with larger gas exchange areas while also improving the fuel conversion efficiency thanks to the sharpness of opening or closing events.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Dual Fuel Diesel-CNG Combustion on Engine Performance and Emission

2015-03-10
2015-01-0009
With the purpose of reducing emission level while maintaining the high torque character of diesel engine, various solutions have been proposed by researchers over the world. One of the most attractive methods is to use dual fuel technique with premixed gaseous fuel ignited by a relatively small amount of diesel. In this study, Methane (CH4), which is the main component of natural gas, was premixed with intake air and used as the main fuel, and diesel fuel was used as ignition source to initiate the combustion. By varying the proportion of diesel and CH4, the combustion and emissions characteristics of the dual fuel (diesel/CH4) combustion system were investigated. Different cases of CFD studies with various concentration of CH4 were carried out. A validated 3D quarter chamber model of a single cylinder engine (diesel fuel only) generated by using AVL Fire ESE was modified into dual fuel mode in this study.
Technical Paper

A Novel Wankel Engine Featuring Jet Ignition and Port or Direct Injection for Faster and More Complete Combustion Especially Designed for Gaseous Fuels

2015-03-10
2015-01-0007
Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) vehicles using a traditional ICE that has been modified to use hydrogen fuel are an important mid-term technology on the path to the hydrogen economy. Hydrogen-powered ICEs that can run on pure hydrogen or a blend of hydrogen and compressed natural gas (CNG) are a way of addressing the widespread lack of hydrogen fuelling infrastructure in the near term. Hydrogen-powered ICEs have operating advantages as all weather conditions performances, no warm-up, no cold-start issues and being more fuel efficient than conventional spark-ignition engines. The Wankel engine is one of the best ICE to be converted to run hydrogen. The paper presents some details of an initial investigation of the CAD and CAE modeling of a novel design where two jet ignition devices per rotor are replacing the traditional two spark plugs for a faster and more complete combustion.
Technical Paper

Turbo/Supercharged Two/Four Stroke Engines with One Intake and One Exhaust Horizontal Rotary Valve per Cylinder and Central Direct Injection and Ignition

2015-01-14
2015-26-0031
The present paper is an introduction to a novel rotary valve engine design addressing the major downfalls of past rotary valves applications while permitting the typical advantages of the rotary valves. Advantages of the solution are the nearly optimal gas exchange, mixture formation, ignition and combustion evolution thanks to the large gas exchange areas from the two horizontal valves per engine cylinder, the good shape of the combustion chamber, the opportunity to place a direct fuel injector and a spark or jet ignition device at the centre of the chamber. The novel engine design also permits higher speed of rotation not having reciprocating poppet valves and the reduced friction losses of the rotating only distribution. This translates in better volumetric efficiencies, combustion rates and brake mean effective pressures for improved power density and fuel efficiency. Additional advantages are the reduced weight and the better packaging.
Technical Paper

Reduced Warm-Up and Recovery of the Exhaust and Coolant Heat with a Single Loop Turbo Steamer Integrated with the Engine Architecture in a Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2013-11-27
2013-01-2827
The paper considers a novel waste heat recovery (WHR) system integrated with the engine architecture in a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) platform. The novel WHR system uses water as the working media and recovers both the internal combustion engine coolant and exhaust energy in a single loop. Results of preliminary simulations show a 6% better fuel economy over the cold start UDDS cycle only considering the better fuel usage with the WHR after the quicker warm-up but neglecting the reduced friction losses for the warmer temperatures over the full cycle.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Regenerative Braking Efficiency of a Latest Electric Vehicle

2013-11-27
2013-01-2872
Kinetic energy recovery systems (KERS) placed on one axle coupled to a traditional thermal engine on the other axle is possibly the best solution presently available to dramatically improve the fuel economy while providing better performances within strict budget constraints. Different KERS may be built purely electric, purely mechanic, or hybrid mechanic/electric differing for round trip efficiency, packaging, weights, costs and requirement of further research and development. The paper presents an experimental analysis of the energy flow to and from the battery of a latest Nissan Leaf covering the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS). This analysis provides a state-of-the-art benchmark of the propulsion and regenerative braking efficiencies of electric vehicles with off-the-shelve technologies.
Technical Paper

Advances in Combustion Systems for Gas Engines

2013-11-27
2013-01-2751
The paper presents a novel concept of a very efficient transportation engines for operation with CNG, LNG or LPG. The paper considers the options of single fuel design with jet ignition and dual fuel design with Diesel and gas. In the first option gas fuel is injected into the main chamber by a direct injector and ignited by jet ignition. In the second option gas fuel is injected into the main chamber by a direct injector and ignited by the direct injection of a small quantity of Diesel fuel. Injection and ignition may be tuned to control the amount of premixed and diffusion combustion to produce the best fuel conversion efficiency vs. load and speed requirements within the prescribed pressure and temperature constraints.
Technical Paper

Advances in Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Gas Engines

2013-09-24
2013-01-2433
The paper presents a novel concept of very efficient transportation engines for operation with CNG, LNG or LPG. The combustion system permits mixed diesel/gasoline-like operation changing the load by quantity of fuel injected and modulating the premixed and diffusion combustion phases for high fuel energy transfer to piston work. A waste heat recovery system (WHRS) is then recovering the intercooler and engine coolant energy plus the exhaust energy. The WHRS uses a power turbine on the exhaust and a steam turbine feed by a single loop turbo-steamer. The WHRS is the enabler of much faster warm up of the engine and further improvements of the top fuel conversion efficiency to above 50% for the specific case with reduced fuel efficiency penalties changing the load or the speed.
Technical Paper

Hydraulic Hybrid Heavy Duty Vehicles - Challenges and Opportunities

2012-09-24
2012-01-2036
The consumption of fossil fuels is one of the largest problems facing humankind. One of the heaviest users of non-renewable energy sources is the transport industry. Tightening worldwide legislation aims to place restrictions on the transport industry to reduce its use of fossil fuels and reduce the levels of pollution being released to the atmosphere. Although several different alternatives to the vehicles only powered by internal combustion engine (ICEs) have been investigated, none have as yet become equally widespread. Alternative research into development of hybrid vehicles was specifically concerned with electric hybrids especially for passenger vehicles. Currently there is a resurgence of interest in the Hybrid Hydraulic Vehicle (HHV) in application to commercial and to a lesser degree to passenger vehicles. This paper gives an overview of hydraulic hybrid technology.
Technical Paper

Design of Rankine Cycle Systems to Deliver Fuel Economy Benefits over Cold Start Driving Cycles

2012-09-10
2012-01-1713
Prior papers have shown the potentials of gasoline-like internal combustion engines fitted with waste heat recovery systems (WHR) to deliver Diesel-like steady state fuel conversion efficiencies recovering the exhaust and the coolant waste heat with off-the-shelf components. In addition to the pros of the technology significantly increasing steady state efficiencies - up to 5 % in absolute values and much more in relative values - these papers also mentioned the cons of the technology, increased back pressures, increased weight, more complex packaging, more complex control, troublesome transient operation, and finally the cold start issues that prevent the uptake of the technology. This paper further explores the option to use Rankine cycle systems to improve the fuel economy of vehicles under normal driving conditions. A single Rankine cycle system is integrated here with the engine design.
Journal Article

Improving the Efficiency of LPG Compression Ignition Engines for Passenger Cars through Waste Heat Recovery

2011-12-15
2011-01-2411
The turbocharged direct injection lean burn Diesel engine is the most efficient now in production for transport applications with full load brake efficiencies up to 40 to 45% and reduced penalties in brake efficiencies reducing the load by the quantity of fuel injected. The secrets of this engine's performances are the high compression ratio and the lean bulk combustion mostly diffusion controlled in addition to the partial recovery of the exhaust energy to boost the charging efficiency. The major downfalls of this engine are the carbon dioxide emissions and the depletion of fossil fuels using fossil diesel, the energy security issues of using foreign fossil fuels in general, and finally the difficulty to meet future emission standards for soot, smoke, nitrogen oxides, carbon oxide and unburned hydrocarbons for the combustion of the fuel injected in liquid state and the lack of maturity the lean after treatment system.
Technical Paper

Use of Bio-Ethanol and Bio-Diesel The Key Solution for a More Sustainable Road Transport

2011-09-13
2011-01-2227
Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) of alternative transportation fuels clearly shows the advantages of reducing the use of non renewable fossil fuels vs. renewable biologic novel fuels to reduce the emissions of carbon dioxide. Being based on the natural recycle of carbon dioxide through the use of renewable energy sources, use of these renewable fuels do not imply depletion of natural resources and is therefore sustainable in the long term. Renewable fuels and advanced internal combustion engines and powertrains are the technologies that in addition to be the most likely to produce benefits in term of carbon balance and fossil fuel saving, are also those that unequivocally have the smallest ecological footprint considering all the environmental implication of transportation technologies, with all the other more exotic solutions having much higher environmental costs to produce, use and dispose of alternative transportation technologies.
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