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Journal Article

Progress of Direct Injection and Jet Ignition in Throttle-Controlled Engines

2019-01-09
2019-26-0045
Direct injection and jet ignition is becoming popular in electrically assisted, turbocharged, F1 engines because of the pressure to reduce fuel consumption. Operation from homogeneous stoichiometric up to lean of stoichiometry stratified about λ = 1.5, occurs with fast combustion of reduced cyclic variability thanks to the enhanced ignition by multiple jets of hot, partially reacting products travelling through the combustion chamber. The fuel consumption has thus been drastically reduced in an engine that is, however, still mostly throttle controlled. The aim of the present paper is to show the advantages of direct injection and jet ignition based on model simulations of the operation of a high-performance throttle-controlled engine featuring rotary valves.
Technical Paper

The Future of the Internal Combustion Engine After “Diesel-Gate”

2017-07-10
2017-28-1933
The paper captures the recent events in relation with the Volkswagen (VW) Emissions Scandal and addresses the impact of this event on the future of power train development. The paper analyses the impact on the perspectives of the internal combustion engine, the battery based electric car and the hydrogen based technology. The operation of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), VW and the United States prosecutor, sparked by the action of the International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT) is forcing the Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM) towards everything but rationale immediate transition to the battery based electric mobility. This transition voids the value of any improvement of the internal combustion engine (ICE), especially in the lean burn, compression ignition (CI) technology, and of a better hybridization of powertrains, both options that have much better short term perspectives than the battery based electric car.
Technical Paper

CAD/CFD/CAE Modelling of Wankel Engines for UAV

2015-09-15
2015-01-2466
The Wankel engine for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) applications delivers advantages vs. piston engines of simplicity, smoothness, compactness and high power-to-weight ratio. The use of computational fluid dynamic (CFD) and computer aided engineering (CAE) tools may permit to address the major downfalls of these engines, namely the slow and incomplete combustion due to the low temperatures and the rotating combustion chambers. The paper proposes the results of CAD/CFD/CAE modelling of a Wankel engine featuring tangential jet ignition to produce faster and more complete combustion.
Technical Paper

Compressed Natural Gas and Hydrogen Fuelling of a Naturally Aspirated Four Stroke Engine with One Intake and One Exhaust Horizontal Rotary Valve per Cylinder and Central Direct Injection and Spark or Jet Ignition

2015-04-14
2015-01-0325
The paper discusses the benefits of a four stroke engine having one intake and one exhaust rotary valve. The rotary valve has a speed of rotation half the crankshaft and defines an open passage that may permit up to extremely sharp opening or closing and very large gas exchange areas. This design also permits central direct injection and ignition by spark or jets. The dual rotary valve design is applied to a naturally aspirated V-four engine of 1000cc displacement, gasoline, methane or hydrogen fuelled with central direct injection and spark ignition. The engine is modeled by using a 1D engine & gas dynamics simulation software package to assess the potentials of the solution. The novelty in the proposed dual rotary valve system is the combustion chamber of good shape and high compression ratio with central direct injector and spark plug or jet ignition, coupled to the large gas exchange areas of the rotary system.
Technical Paper

A Naturally Aspirated Four Stroke Racing Engine with One Intake and One Exhaust Horizontal Rotary Valve per Cylinder and Central Direct Injection and Ignition by Spark or Jet

2015-03-10
2015-01-0006
The paper discusses the benefits of a four stroke engine having one intake and one exhaust rotary valve. The rotary valve has a speed of rotation half the crankshaft and defines an open passage that may permit up to extremely sharp opening or closing and very large gas exchange areas. The dual rotary valve design is applied to a racing engine naturally aspirated V-four engine of 1000cc displacement, gasoline fuelled with central direct injection and spark ignition. The engine is then modeled by using a 1D engine & gas dynamics simulation software package to assess the potentials of the solution. The improved design produces much larger power densities than the version of the engines with traditional poppet valves revving at higher speeds, with reduced frictional losses, and with larger gas exchange areas while also improving the fuel conversion efficiency thanks to the sharpness of opening or closing events.
Technical Paper

Turbo/Supercharged Two/Four Stroke Engines with One Intake and One Exhaust Horizontal Rotary Valve per Cylinder and Central Direct Injection and Ignition

2015-01-14
2015-26-0031
The present paper is an introduction to a novel rotary valve engine design addressing the major downfalls of past rotary valves applications while permitting the typical advantages of the rotary valves. Advantages of the solution are the nearly optimal gas exchange, mixture formation, ignition and combustion evolution thanks to the large gas exchange areas from the two horizontal valves per engine cylinder, the good shape of the combustion chamber, the opportunity to place a direct fuel injector and a spark or jet ignition device at the centre of the chamber. The novel engine design also permits higher speed of rotation not having reciprocating poppet valves and the reduced friction losses of the rotating only distribution. This translates in better volumetric efficiencies, combustion rates and brake mean effective pressures for improved power density and fuel efficiency. Additional advantages are the reduced weight and the better packaging.
Technical Paper

Hydro-Pneumatic Driveline for Passenger Car Applications

2014-09-28
2014-01-2536
Real driving cycles are characterized by a sequence of accelerations, cruises, decelerations and engine idling. Recovering the braking energy is the most effective way to reduce the propulsive energy supply by the thermal engine. The fuel energy saving may be much larger than the propulsive energy saving because the ICE energy supply may be cut where the engine operates less efficiently and because the ICE can be made smaller. The present paper discusses the state of the art of hydro-pneumatic drivelines now becoming popular also for passenger cars and light duty vehicle applications permitting series and parallel hybrid operation. The papers presents the thermal engine operation when a passenger car fitted with the hydro-pneumatic hybrid driveline covers the hot new European driving cycle. From a reference fuel consumption of 4.71 liters/100 km with a traditional driveline, the fuel consumption reduces to 2.91 liters/100 km.
Technical Paper

100% LPG Long Haul Truck Conversion - Economy and Environmental Benefits

2012-09-24
2012-01-1983
Advanced Vehicle Technologies (AVT), a Ballarat Australia based company, has developed the World's first diesel to 100% LPG conversion for heavy haul trucks. There is no diesel required or utilized on the trucks. The engine is converted with minimal changes into a spark ignition engine with equivalent power and torque of the diesel. The patented technology is now deployed in 2 Mercedes Actros trucks. The power output in engine dynamometer testing exceeds that of the diesel (in excess of 370 kW power and 2700 Nm torque). In on-road application the power curve is matched to the diesel specifications to avoid potential downstream power-train stress. Testing at the Department of Transport Energy & Infrastructure, Regency Park, SA have shown the Euro 3 truck converted to LPG is between Euro 4 and Euro 5 NOx levels, CO2 levels 10% better than diesel on DT80 test and about even with diesel on CUEDC tests.
Technical Paper

Design of Rankine Cycle Systems to Deliver Fuel Economy Benefits over Cold Start Driving Cycles

2012-09-10
2012-01-1713
Prior papers have shown the potentials of gasoline-like internal combustion engines fitted with waste heat recovery systems (WHR) to deliver Diesel-like steady state fuel conversion efficiencies recovering the exhaust and the coolant waste heat with off-the-shelf components. In addition to the pros of the technology significantly increasing steady state efficiencies - up to 5 % in absolute values and much more in relative values - these papers also mentioned the cons of the technology, increased back pressures, increased weight, more complex packaging, more complex control, troublesome transient operation, and finally the cold start issues that prevent the uptake of the technology. This paper further explores the option to use Rankine cycle systems to improve the fuel economy of vehicles under normal driving conditions. A single Rankine cycle system is integrated here with the engine design.
Journal Article

Novel Crankshaft Mechanism and Regenerative Braking System to Improve the Fuel Economy of Light Duty Vehicles and Passenger Cars

2012-09-10
2012-01-1755
Improvements of vehicle fuel economy may be achieved by the introduction of advanced internal combustion engines (ICE) improving the fuel conversion efficiency of the engine and of advanced power trains (PWT) reducing the amount of fuel energy needed to power the vehicle. The paper presents a novel design of a variable compression ratio advanced spark ignition engine that also permits an expansion ratio that may differ from the compression ratio hence generating an Atkinson cycle effect. The stroke ratio and the ratio of maximum to minimum in-cylinder volumes may change with load and speed to provide the best fuel conversion efficiency. The variable ratio of maximum to minimum in-cylinder volumes also improves the full load torque output of the engine.
Book

Engine Design Concepts for World Championship Grand Prix Motorcycles

2012-08-06
The World Championship Grand Prix (WCGP) is the premier championship event of motorcycle road racing. The WCGP was established in 1949 by the sport's governing body, the Fédération Internationale de Motocyclisme (FIM), and is the oldest world championship event in the motorsports arena. This book, developed especially for racing enthusiasts by motorsports engineering expert Dr. Alberto Boretti, provides a broad view of WCGP motorcycle racing and vehicles, but is primarily focused on the design of four-stroke engines for the MotoGP class. The book opens with general background on MotoGP governing bodies and a history of the event’s classes since the competition began in 1949. It then presents some of the key engines that have been developed and used for the competition through the years. Technologies that are used in today’s MotoGP engines are discussed.
Technical Paper

Improving the Efficiency of Turbocharged Spark Ignition Engines for Passenger Cars through Waste Heat Recovery

2012-04-16
2012-01-0388
The turbocharged direct injection stoichiometric spark ignition gasoline engine has less than Diesel full load brake engine thermal efficiencies and much larger than Diesel penalties in brake engine thermal efficiencies reducing the load by throttling. This engine has however a much better power density, and therefore may operate at much higher BMEP values over driving cycles reducing the fuel economy penalty of the vehicle. This engine also has the advantage of the very well developed three way catalytic converter after treatment to meet future emission regulations. In these engines the efficiency may be improved recovering the waste heat, but this recovery may have ultimately impacts on both the in cylinder fuel conversion efficiency and the efficiency of the after treatment.
Technical Paper

Novel Engine Concepts for Multi Fuel Military Vehicles

2012-02-29
2012-01-1514
The paper considers different options to design a multi fuel engine retaining the power densities and efficiencies of the latest Diesel heavy duty truck engines while operating with various other fuels. In a first option, an igniting Diesel fuel is coupled to a main fuel that may have any Cetane or octane number in a design where every engine cylinder accommodates a direct Diesel injector, a glow plug and the multi fuel direct injector in a bowl-in-piston combustion chamber configuration. Alternatively, an igniting gasoline fuel replaces the Diesel fuel in a design where every engine cylinder accommodates a gasoline direct injector, the multi fuel direct injector and a jet ignition pre chamber also with a bowl-in-piston combustion chamber configuration. Both these designs permit load control by changing the amount of fuel injected and Diesel-like, gasoline-like and mixed Diesel/gasoline-like modes of operation modulating the amount of the multi fuel that burn premixed or diffusion.
Journal Article

A New Method to Warm Up Lubricating Oil to Improve the Fuel Efficiency During Cold Start

2011-04-12
2011-01-0318
Cold start driving cycles exhibit an increase in friction losses due to the low temperatures of metal and media compared to normal operating engine conditions. These friction losses are responsible for up to 10% penalty in fuel economy over the official drive cycles like the New European Drive Cycle (NEDC), where the temperature of the oil even at the end of the 1180 s of the drive cycle is below the fully warmed up values of between 100°C and 120°C. At engine oil temperatures below 100°C the water from the blowby condensates and dilutes the engine oil in the oil pan which negatively affects engine wear. Therefore engine oil temperatures above 100°C are desirable to minimize engine wear through blowby condensate. The paper presents a new technique to warm up the engine oil that significantly reduces the friction losses and therefore also reduces the fuel economy penalty during a 22°C cold start NEDC.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Engine and Vehicle for a Compact Car with a Flywheel Based Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems and a High Efficiency Small Diesel Engine

2010-10-25
2010-01-2184
Recovery of kinetic energy during driving cycles is the most effective option to improve fuel economy and reduce green house gas (GHG) emissions. Flywheel kinetic energy recovery systems (KERS) may boost this efficiency up to values of about 70%. An engine and vehicle model is developed to simulate the fuel economy of a compact car equipped with a TDI diesel engine and a KERS. Introduction of KERS reduces the fuel used by the 1.6L TDI engine to 3.16 liters per 100 km, corresponding to 82.4 g of CO₂ per km. Downsizing the engine to 1.2 liters as permitted by the torque assistance by KERS, further reduces the fuel consumption to 3.04 liters per 100 km, corresponding to 79.2 g of CO₂ per km. These CO₂ values are 11% better than those of today's most fuel efficient hybrid electric vehicle.
Technical Paper

Use of Variable Valve Actuation to Control the Load in a Direct Injection, Turbocharged, Spark-Ignition Engine

2010-10-25
2010-01-2225
Downsizing and Turbo Charging (TC) and Direct Injection (DI) may be combined with Variable Valve Actuation (VVA) to better deal with the challenges of fuel economy enhancement. VVA may control the load without throttle; control the valve directly and quickly; optimize combustion, produce large volumetric efficiency. Benefits lower fuel consumption, lower emissions and better performance and fun to drive. The paper presents an engine model of a 1.6 litre TDI VVA engine specifically designed to run pure ethanol, with computed engine maps for brake specific fuel consumption and efficiency. The paper also presents driving cycle results obtained with a vehicle model for a passenger car powered by this engine and a traditional naturally aspirated gasoline engine. Preliminary results of the VVA system coupled with downsizing, turbo charging and Direct Injection permits significant driving cycle fuel economies.
Technical Paper

Coupling of a KERS Power Train and a Downsized 1.2TDI Diesel or a 1.6TDI-JI H2 Engine for Improved Fuel Economies in a Compact Car

2010-10-25
2010-01-2228
Recovery of braking energy during driving cycles is the most effective option to improve fuel economy and reduce green house gas (GHG) emissions. Hybrid electric vehicles suffer the disadvantages of the four efficiency-reducing transformations in each regenerative braking cycle. Flywheel kinetic energy recovery systems (KERS) may boost this efficiency up to almost double values of about 70% avoiding all four of the efficiency-reducing transformations from one form of energy to another and keeping the vehicle's energy in the same form as when the vehicle starts braking when the vehicle is back up to speed. With reference to the baseline configuration with a 1.6 liters engine and no recovery of kinetic energy, introduction of KERS reduces the fuel usage to 3.16 liters per 100 km, corresponding to 82.4 g of CO₂ per km. The 1.6 liters Turbo Direct Injection (TDI) diesel engine without KERS uses 1.37 MJ per km of fuel energy, reducing with KERS to 1.13 MJ per km.
Technical Paper

Direct Injection and Spark Controlled Jet Ignition to Convert A Diesel Truck Engine to LPG

2010-10-05
2010-01-1976
Jet ignition and direct fuel injection are potential enablers of higher efficiency, cleaner Internal Combustion Engines (ICE). Very lean mixtures of gaseous fuels could be burned with pollutants formation below Euro 6 levels (in the ultra-lean mode), efficiencies approaching 50% full load and small efficiency penalties when operating part load. The lean burn Direct Injection Jet Ignition (DI-JI) ICE uses a fuel injection and mixture ignition system comprising one main chamber direct fuel injector and one small-size jet ignition pre-chamber per engine cylinder. The jet ignition pre-chamber is connected to the main chamber through calibrated orifices and accommodates a second direct fuel injector. In the spark plug version, the jet ignition pre-chamber includes a spark plug that ignites the slightly rich pre-chamber mixture that then bulk ignites the ultra lean, stratified main chamber mixture through multiple jets of hot reacting gases entering the in-cylinder.
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