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Advances in Turbocharged Racing Engines

2019-03-07
Racing continues to provide the preeminent directive for advancing powertrain development for automakers worldwide. Formula 1, World Rally, and World Endurance Championship all provide engineering teams the most demanding and rigorous testing opportunities for the latest engine and technology designs. Turbocharging has seen significant growth in the passenger car market after years of development on racing circuits. Advances in Turbocharged Racing Engines combines ten essential SAE technical papers with introductory content from the editor on turbocharged engine use in F1, WRC, and WEC-recognizing how forced induction in racing has impacted production vehicle powertrains.
Journal Article

Progress of Direct Injection and Jet Ignition in Throttle-Controlled Engines

2019-01-09
2019-26-0045
Direct injection and jet ignition is becoming popular in electrically assisted, turbocharged, F1 engines because of the pressure to reduce fuel consumption. Operation from homogeneous stoichiometric up to lean of stoichiometry stratified about λ = 1.5, occurs with fast combustion of reduced cyclic variability thanks to the enhanced ignition by multiple jets of hot, partially reacting products travelling through the combustion chamber. The fuel consumption has thus been drastically reduced in an engine that is, however, still mostly throttle controlled. The aim of the present paper is to show the advantages of direct injection and jet ignition based on model simulations of the operation of a high-performance throttle-controlled engine featuring rotary valves.
Technical Paper

Life Cycle Analysis Comparison of Electric and Internal Combustion Engine Based Mobility

2018-07-09
2018-28-0037
Policy makers, especially in the European Union, are pushing towards an early transition to electric mobility, with the internal combustion engine supposed to be phased out by 2030. With a world population projected to exceed 10 billion peoples by 2050, the electric car mobility still lacks the significant development needed to become a real alternative to the internal combustion engine based mobility. Resources availability, and environmental, energetic and economic downfalls, are currently largely underrated or simply unassessed. It is unclear how many will be able to afford to purchase and recharge an electric vehicle in this new world.
Technical Paper

Super-Turbocharging the Dual Fuel Diesel Injection Ignition Engine

2018-07-09
2018-28-0036
Turbocharging dramatically improves the power density of internal combustion engines both in the compression ignition and the spark ignition cases. However, a standalone turbocharger suffers from transient and steady state downfalls where the energy to turbine is either smaller or larger than what would be needed to optimize the engine operation in a specific steady state or transient point. Hence a concept was proposed of a super-turbocharger where the turbocharger shaft is connected to the crankshaft through a continuously variable transmission and a gear. Energy is drawn from the crankshaft or delivered to the crankshaft to improve the work in every operating point of the steady map. In this paper, the concept of super-turbocharger is applied to a six-cylinder, dual fuel diesel injection ignition engine. The system is modelled using state-of-the-art automotive software and simulations of the steady-state operation are presented.
Technical Paper

Super-Turbocharging the Gasoline Engine

2018-07-09
2018-28-0007
In this paper, the concept of super-turbocharging is applied, in simulation, to a four-cylinder direct injection jet ignition gasoline engine. Turbocharging improves the power density of internal combustion engines, both the compression ignition and the spark ignition. However, a standalone turbocharger suffers from transient and steady state performance and efficiency degradation where the energy to turbine is either smaller or larger than what would be needed to optimize the engine operation in a specific point. Hence a concept is proposed to use a super-turbocharger, where the turbocharger shaft is connected to the crankshaft through a continuously variable transmission (CVT) and a gears pair. Energy is drawn from the crankshaft or delivered to the crankshaft to better work in every operating point. The concept was originally proposed for a diesel engine. Here it is applied to a gasoline engine.
Technical Paper

The Future of the Internal Combustion Engine After “Diesel-Gate”

2017-07-10
2017-28-1933
The paper captures the recent events in relation with the Volkswagen (VW) Emissions Scandal and addresses the impact of this event on the future of power train development. The paper analyses the impact on the perspectives of the internal combustion engine, the battery based electric car and the hydrogen based technology. The operation of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), VW and the United States prosecutor, sparked by the action of the International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT) is forcing the Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM) towards everything but rationale immediate transition to the battery based electric mobility. This transition voids the value of any improvement of the internal combustion engine (ICE), especially in the lean burn, compression ignition (CI) technology, and of a better hybridization of powertrains, both options that have much better short term perspectives than the battery based electric car.
Technical Paper

Two Stroke Direct Injection Jet Ignition Engines for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

2015-09-15
2015-01-2424
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) require simple and reliable engines of high power to weight ratio. Wankel and two stroke engines offer many advantages over four stroke engines. A two stroke engines featuring crank case scavenging, precise oiling, direct injection and jet ignition is analyzed here by using CAD, CFD and CAE tools. Results of simulations of engine performances are shown in details. The CFD analysis is used to study fuel injection, mixing and combustion. The CAE model then returns the engine performances over the full range of loads and speeds with the combustion parameters given as an input. The use of asymmetric rather than symmetric port timing and supercharging scavenging is finally suggested as the best avenue to further improve power density and fuel conversion efficiency.
Technical Paper

CAD/CFD/CAE Modelling of Wankel Engines for UAV

2015-09-15
2015-01-2466
The Wankel engine for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) applications delivers advantages vs. piston engines of simplicity, smoothness, compactness and high power-to-weight ratio. The use of computational fluid dynamic (CFD) and computer aided engineering (CAE) tools may permit to address the major downfalls of these engines, namely the slow and incomplete combustion due to the low temperatures and the rotating combustion chambers. The paper proposes the results of CAD/CFD/CAE modelling of a Wankel engine featuring tangential jet ignition to produce faster and more complete combustion.
Technical Paper

Compressed Natural Gas and Hydrogen Fuelling of a Naturally Aspirated Four Stroke Engine with One Intake and One Exhaust Horizontal Rotary Valve per Cylinder and Central Direct Injection and Spark or Jet Ignition

2015-04-14
2015-01-0325
The paper discusses the benefits of a four stroke engine having one intake and one exhaust rotary valve. The rotary valve has a speed of rotation half the crankshaft and defines an open passage that may permit up to extremely sharp opening or closing and very large gas exchange areas. This design also permits central direct injection and ignition by spark or jets. The dual rotary valve design is applied to a naturally aspirated V-four engine of 1000cc displacement, gasoline, methane or hydrogen fuelled with central direct injection and spark ignition. The engine is modeled by using a 1D engine & gas dynamics simulation software package to assess the potentials of the solution. The novelty in the proposed dual rotary valve system is the combustion chamber of good shape and high compression ratio with central direct injector and spark plug or jet ignition, coupled to the large gas exchange areas of the rotary system.
Technical Paper

A Naturally Aspirated Four Stroke Racing Engine with One Intake and One Exhaust Horizontal Rotary Valve per Cylinder and Central Direct Injection and Ignition by Spark or Jet

2015-03-10
2015-01-0006
The paper discusses the benefits of a four stroke engine having one intake and one exhaust rotary valve. The rotary valve has a speed of rotation half the crankshaft and defines an open passage that may permit up to extremely sharp opening or closing and very large gas exchange areas. The dual rotary valve design is applied to a racing engine naturally aspirated V-four engine of 1000cc displacement, gasoline fuelled with central direct injection and spark ignition. The engine is then modeled by using a 1D engine & gas dynamics simulation software package to assess the potentials of the solution. The improved design produces much larger power densities than the version of the engines with traditional poppet valves revving at higher speeds, with reduced frictional losses, and with larger gas exchange areas while also improving the fuel conversion efficiency thanks to the sharpness of opening or closing events.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Dual Fuel Diesel-CNG Combustion on Engine Performance and Emission

2015-03-10
2015-01-0009
With the purpose of reducing emission level while maintaining the high torque character of diesel engine, various solutions have been proposed by researchers over the world. One of the most attractive methods is to use dual fuel technique with premixed gaseous fuel ignited by a relatively small amount of diesel. In this study, Methane (CH4), which is the main component of natural gas, was premixed with intake air and used as the main fuel, and diesel fuel was used as ignition source to initiate the combustion. By varying the proportion of diesel and CH4, the combustion and emissions characteristics of the dual fuel (diesel/CH4) combustion system were investigated. Different cases of CFD studies with various concentration of CH4 were carried out. A validated 3D quarter chamber model of a single cylinder engine (diesel fuel only) generated by using AVL Fire ESE was modified into dual fuel mode in this study.
Technical Paper

A Novel Wankel Engine Featuring Jet Ignition and Port or Direct Injection for Faster and More Complete Combustion Especially Designed for Gaseous Fuels

2015-03-10
2015-01-0007
Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) vehicles using a traditional ICE that has been modified to use hydrogen fuel are an important mid-term technology on the path to the hydrogen economy. Hydrogen-powered ICEs that can run on pure hydrogen or a blend of hydrogen and compressed natural gas (CNG) are a way of addressing the widespread lack of hydrogen fuelling infrastructure in the near term. Hydrogen-powered ICEs have operating advantages as all weather conditions performances, no warm-up, no cold-start issues and being more fuel efficient than conventional spark-ignition engines. The Wankel engine is one of the best ICE to be converted to run hydrogen. The paper presents some details of an initial investigation of the CAD and CAE modeling of a novel design where two jet ignition devices per rotor are replacing the traditional two spark plugs for a faster and more complete combustion.
Technical Paper

Turbo/Supercharged Two/Four Stroke Engines with One Intake and One Exhaust Horizontal Rotary Valve per Cylinder and Central Direct Injection and Ignition

2015-01-14
2015-26-0031
The present paper is an introduction to a novel rotary valve engine design addressing the major downfalls of past rotary valves applications while permitting the typical advantages of the rotary valves. Advantages of the solution are the nearly optimal gas exchange, mixture formation, ignition and combustion evolution thanks to the large gas exchange areas from the two horizontal valves per engine cylinder, the good shape of the combustion chamber, the opportunity to place a direct fuel injector and a spark or jet ignition device at the centre of the chamber. The novel engine design also permits higher speed of rotation not having reciprocating poppet valves and the reduced friction losses of the rotating only distribution. This translates in better volumetric efficiencies, combustion rates and brake mean effective pressures for improved power density and fuel efficiency. Additional advantages are the reduced weight and the better packaging.
Technical Paper

Design of 65 degree V4 Moto GP Engines with Pneumatic Poppet Valves or Rotary Valves

2015-01-14
2015-26-0176
Moto GP engines have since the year 2012 4 cylinders in V or inline layout for a total capacity of up to 1,000cc. With pneumatic valve spring but wet sump, and with the maximum bore limited to 81mm, the maximum speed these engines may have is about 18,000 rpm, with power outputs 250-260 HP. The paper presents the design of a 65 degree V4 Moto GP engine further optimizing the pneumatic poppet valve design, as well as a novel rotary valve design. The rotary valve permits up to extremely sharp opening or closing and very large gas exchange areas. The two engines are then modeled by using a 1D engine & gas dynamics simulation software package to assess the potentials of the solution. The improved design produces much larger power densities than the version of the engines with traditional poppet valves revving at higher speeds.
Technical Paper

Reduced Warm-Up and Recovery of the Exhaust and Coolant Heat with a Single Loop Turbo Steamer Integrated with the Engine Architecture in a Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2013-11-27
2013-01-2827
The paper considers a novel waste heat recovery (WHR) system integrated with the engine architecture in a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) platform. The novel WHR system uses water as the working media and recovers both the internal combustion engine coolant and exhaust energy in a single loop. Results of preliminary simulations show a 6% better fuel economy over the cold start UDDS cycle only considering the better fuel usage with the WHR after the quicker warm-up but neglecting the reduced friction losses for the warmer temperatures over the full cycle.
Technical Paper

CNG Fueling Strategies for Commercial Vehicles Engines-A Literature Review

2013-11-27
2013-01-2812
The paper presents a survey of the opportunities to convert compression ignition heavy duty truck engines to work on single or dual fuel modes with CNG. In one popular option, the compression ignition engine is converted to spark ignition with throttle load control and port injection of the CNG. In another option of increasing popularity, the LNG is directly injected and ignited by direct injection of pilot Diesel. This latter option with direct injection of natural gas and diesel through separate injectors that are fully independent in their operation is determined to be the most promising, as it is expected to deliver better power density and similar part load fuel economy to Diesel.
Technical Paper

Advances in Combustion Systems for Gas Engines

2013-11-27
2013-01-2751
The paper presents a novel concept of a very efficient transportation engines for operation with CNG, LNG or LPG. The paper considers the options of single fuel design with jet ignition and dual fuel design with Diesel and gas. In the first option gas fuel is injected into the main chamber by a direct injector and ignited by jet ignition. In the second option gas fuel is injected into the main chamber by a direct injector and ignited by the direct injection of a small quantity of Diesel fuel. Injection and ignition may be tuned to control the amount of premixed and diffusion combustion to produce the best fuel conversion efficiency vs. load and speed requirements within the prescribed pressure and temperature constraints.
Technical Paper

A Novel Valve-Less Supercharged Small Two Stroke Engine of Top Brake Efficiency Above 36% and Power Density above 100 KW/Liter

2013-11-27
2013-01-2772
The paper presents a novel design for a two stroke thermal engine that delivers excellent fuel economy and low emissions within the constraints of today's cost, weight and size. The engine features asymmetrical port timing through a novel translating and rotating piston mechanism. The engine is externally scavenged and supercharged, has wet sump and oil pressure lubrication, direct injection, it is lightweight, easy to build, with minimal number of parts, low production cost, ability to be balanced and compact design. The two stroke mechanism produces a linear motion of the pistons as well as an elliptical path on the surface of the cylinder. This allows the piston to sweep as well as travel past the ports. Suitable slots around the raised lip of the piston generate the asymmetry that makes the exhaust port to open first and to close first. The inlet port remains open to complete the cylinder charging and allow supercharging. Direct fuel injection is adopted for best results.
Technical Paper

Advances in Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Gas Engines

2013-09-24
2013-01-2433
The paper presents a novel concept of very efficient transportation engines for operation with CNG, LNG or LPG. The combustion system permits mixed diesel/gasoline-like operation changing the load by quantity of fuel injected and modulating the premixed and diffusion combustion phases for high fuel energy transfer to piston work. A waste heat recovery system (WHRS) is then recovering the intercooler and engine coolant energy plus the exhaust energy. The WHRS uses a power turbine on the exhaust and a steam turbine feed by a single loop turbo-steamer. The WHRS is the enabler of much faster warm up of the engine and further improvements of the top fuel conversion efficiency to above 50% for the specific case with reduced fuel efficiency penalties changing the load or the speed.
Book

Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems for Racing Cars

2013-04-02
A kinetic energy recover system (KERS) captures the kinetic energy that results when brakes are applied to a moving vehicle. The recovered energy can be stored in a flywheel or battery and used later, to help boost acceleration. KERS helps transfer what was formerly wasted energy into useful energy. In 2009, the Federation Internationale de l’Automobile (FIA) began allowing KERS to be used in Formula One (F1) competition. Still considered experimental, this technology is undergoing development in the racing world but has yet to become mainstream for production vehicles. The Introduction of this book details the theory behind the KERS concept. It describes how kinetic energy can be recovered, and the mechanical and electric systems for storing it. Flybrid systems are highlighted since they are the most popular KERS developed thus far. The KERS of two racing vehicles are profiled: the Dyson Lola LMP1 and Audi R18 e-tron Quattro.
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