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Journal Article

Pilot Injection Ignition Properties Under Low-Temperature, Dilute In-Cylinder Conditions

Measurements of ignition behavior, homogeneous reactor simulations employing detailed kinetics, and quantitative in-cylinder imaging of fuel-air distributions are used to delineate the impact of temperature, dilution, pilot injection mass, and injection pressure on the pilot ignition process. For dilute, low-temperature conditions characterized by a lengthy ignition delay, pilot ignition is impeded by the formation of excessively lean mixture. Under these conditions, smaller pilot mass or higher injection pressures further lengthen the pilot ignition delay. Similarly, excessively rich mixtures formed under relatively short ignition delay conditions typical of conventional diesel combustion will also prolong the ignition delay. In this latter case, smaller pilot mass or higher injection pressures will shorten the ignition delay. The minimum charge temperature required to effect a robust pilot ignition event is strongly dependent on charge O2 concentration.
Technical Paper

Visualization of the Qualitative Fuel Distribution and Mixture Formation Inside a Transparent GDI Engine with 2D Mie and LIEF Techniques and Comparison to Quantitative Measurements of the Air/Fuel Ratio with 1D Raman Spectroscopy

Mie-Scattering and laser induced exciplex fluorescence (LIEF) were used to visualize the distribution of liquid fuel and fuel vapor inside an optical accessible one-cylinder research engine with gasoline direct injection (GDI). Using a tracer which was developed especially for the environments of gasoline combustion engines, LIEF enables an extensive separation between liquid and vapor phase and delivers a signal proportional to the equivalence ratio. Simultaneous images of LIEF and Mie scattering proof the high quality of the phase separation using this tracer concept. The mixture formation process will be shown exemplary at one operation point with homogeneous load and another with stratified load. First results of determining the air/fuel ratio by means of linear Raman spectroscopy will be presented and compared with the two-dimensional qualitative distribution of the fuel vapor (LIEF).
Technical Paper

Fuel Distribution and Mixture Formation Inside a Direct Injection SI Engine Investigated by 2D Mie and LIEF Techniques

Two-dimensional Mie and LIEF techniques were applied to investigate the spray propagation, mixture formation and charge distribution at ignition time inside the combustion chamber of a direct injection SI engine. The results obtained provide the propagation of liquid fuel relative to the piston motion and visualize the charge distribution (liquid fuel and fuel vapor) throughout the engine process. Special emphasis was laid on the charge distribution at ignition time for stratified charge operation. By means of a LIEF technique it was possible to measure cyclic fluctuations in the fuel vapor distributions which explain the occurrence of misfiring.
Technical Paper

Spray Formation of High Pressure Swirl Gasoline Injectors Investigated by Two-Dimensional Mie and LIEF Techniques

Two-dimensional Mie and LIEF techniques were applied to investigate the spray formation of a high pressure gasoline swirl injector in a constant volume chamber. The results obtained provide information on the propagation of liquid fuel and fuel vapor for different fuel pressures and ambient conditions. Spray parameters like tip penetration, cone angles and two new defined parameters describing the radial fuel distribution were used to quantify the fuel distributions measured. Simultaneous detection of liquid and vapor fuel was applied to study the influence of ambient temperature, injector temperature and ambient pressure on the evaporating spray.
Technical Paper

Characteristics and Application of Gasoline Injectors to SI Engines by Means of Measured Liquid Fuel Distributions

The spray formation of two different gasoline port fuel injectors has been studied in three stages of the mixture formation process using measured liquid fuel distributions. The injector characteristics were determined in fundamental chamber experiments providing the time dependent spray penetration and the internal structure of the spray in quiescent air by a laser light sheet technique. For the sane injectors the interaction between port flow and spray was investigated inside the port of a production engine. A strong dependence of the fuel distribution inside the port on the engine operation point was found for both injectors. This fuel distribution provides information on wall film generation and the optimum orientation of the injector inside the suction pipe.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Spray Penetration and Fuel Distribution Inside the Piston Bowl of a 1.9 l DI Diesel Engine Using Two-Dimensional Mie Scattering

Using the two-dimensional Mie scattering technique measurements have been performed inside the piston bowl of a four cylinder VOLKSWAGEN 1.9 l DI Diesel engine. The engine was prepared for providing optical access. A new evaluation procedure was developed which allows additional information on the spray penetration in direction of the piston axis. Quantitative results have been obtained on the jet tip penetration and the spray cone angles of the jets. From liquid fuel distributions inside a laser sheet 5 mm below the nozzle an appearence frequency distribution (AFD) has been calculated, which gives a quantitative statistical information on the liquid fuel distribution inside the light sheet plane with high local and temporal resolution. By means of the AFD the jet penetration in direction of the jet axes can be reconstructed in good approximation. The information provided by the AFD is also very suitable for the validation of results obtained by computer codes.