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Technical Paper

Multitarget Evaluation of Hybrid Electric Vehicle Powertrain Architectures Considering Fuel Economy and Battery Lifetime

2020-06-30
2020-37-0015
Hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) powertrains are characterized by a complex design environment as a result of both the large number of possible layouts and the need for dedicated energy management strategies. When selecting the most suitable hybrid powertrain architecture at an early design stage of HEVs, engineers usually focus solely on fuel economy (directly linked to tailpipe emissions) and vehicle drivability performance. However, high voltage batteries are a crucial component of HEVs as well in terms of performance and cost. This paper introduces a multitarget assessment framework for HEV powertrain architectures which considers both fuel economy and battery lifetime. A multi-objective formulation of dynamic programming is initially presented as an off-line optimal HEV energy management strategy capable of predicting both fuel economy performance and battery lifetime of HEV powertrain layout options.
Technical Paper

A Dynamic Programming Algorithm for HEV Powertrains Using Battery Power as State Variable

2020-04-14
2020-01-0271
One of the first steps in powertrain design is to assess its best performance and consumption in a virtual phase. Regarding hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), it is important to define the best mode profile through a cycle in order to maximize fuel economy. To assist in that task, several off-line optimization algorithms were developed, with Dynamic Programming (DP) being the most common one. The DP algorithm generates the control actions that will result in the most optimal fuel economy of the powertrain for a known driving cycle. Although this method results in the global optimum behavior, the DP tool comes with a high computational cost. The charge-sustaining requirement and the necessity of capturing extremely small variations in the battery state of charge (SOC) makes this state vector an enormous variable. As things move fast in the industry, a rapid tool with the same performance is required.
Technical Paper

Robust xEV Battery State-of-Charge Estimator Design Using a Feedforward Deep Neural Network

2020-04-14
2020-01-1181
Battery state-of-charge (SOC) is critical information for the vehicle energy management system and must be accurately estimated to ensure reliable and affordable electrified vehicles (xEV). However, due to the nonlinear temperature, health, and SOC dependent behaviour of Li-ion batteries, SOC estimation is still a significant automotive engineering challenge. Traditional approaches to this problem, such as electrochemical models, usually require precise parameters and knowledge from the battery composition as well as its physical response. In contrast, neural networks are a data-driven approach that requires minimal knowledge of the battery or its nonlinear behaviour. The objective of this work is to present the design process of an SOC estimator using a deep feedforward neural network (FNN) approach. The method includes a description of data acquisition, data preparation, development of an FNN, FNN tuning, and robust validation of the FNN to sensor noise.
Technical Paper

Battery Entropic Heating Coefficient Testing and Use in Cell-Level Loss Modeling for Extreme Fast Charging

2020-04-14
2020-01-0862
To achieve an accurate estimate of losses in a battery it is necessary to consider the reversible entropic losses, which may constitute over 20% of the peak total loss. In this work, a procedure for experimentally determining the entropic heating coefficient of a lithium-ion battery cell is developed. The entropic heating coefficient is the rate of change of the cell’s open-circuit voltage (OCV) with respect to temperature; it is a function of state-of-charge (SOC) and temperature and is often expressed in mV/K. The reversible losses inside the cell are a function of the current, the temperature, and the entropic heating coefficient, which itself is dependent on the cell chemistry. The total cell losses are the sum of the reversible and irreversible losses, where the irreversible losses consist of ohmic losses in the electrodes, ion transport losses, and other irreversible chemical reactions.
Technical Paper

Constant Power Load Characteristics in Multi-Converter Automotive Power Electronic Intensive Systems

2005-09-07
2005-01-3451
Intensifying demands for higher fuel economy from one hand and environmental concerns from the other are driving advanced automotive power systems to be more electric. As a result, automotive electrical systems with higher capacity and more complexity are needed to cope with this expanding electrification trend. As different electrical applications and loads are being introduced in automobiles, multi-converter intensive power electronic systems are emerging as the next generation of the advanced automotive electrical systems. In fact, power electronic converters and electric motor drives are inevitable parts of more electric automotive power systems. When power electronic converters and electric motor drives are tightly regulated to improve system performance and efficiency, they present negative impedance characteristics of constant power loads to the entire automotive electrical system. This destabilizing effect may cause system instability.
Technical Paper

Effects of an Ultra-Capacitor and Battery Energy Storage System in a Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2005-09-07
2005-01-3452
This paper focuses on the effects of ultra-capacitors as a component of energy storage in hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). The main energy source in a hybrid vehicle is the battery. HEVs with battery sources are presently fairly effective; however, major drawbacks include the cost and size of such batteries. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that the addition of ultra-capacitors as a component of the energy storage system can reduce these drawbacks significantly by reducing the size of batteries required to drive the vehicle. To integrate ultra-capacitors into hybrid vehicles, the ADvanced VehIcle SimulatOR (ADVISOR) was used. The vehicle used to conduct this study was the 2004 Jeep Liberty sport utility vehicle (SUV). To simplify the analysis process, the conventional Jeep Liberty was modeled in ADVISOR to resemble the actual performance specifications of the SUV currently in the market.
Technical Paper

Automotive Interprofessional Projects (IPRO®) Program at Illinois Institute of Technology

2005-09-07
2005-01-3465
The Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) Interprofessional Projects (IPRO®) Program engages multidisciplinary teams of students in semester-long projects, with a total of thirty to thirty-five different projects offered every semester. This program greatly contributes to IIT's signature undergraduate education experience, with each interprofessional course delivering a team-oriented, project-based requirement within the undergraduate curriculum. Among its many benefits, each interprofessional course offers students the opportunity to integrate the education and research environment of the university to tackle real-world problems. In the process, students get the chance to develop and emerge from the experience with maturity, confidence, and valuable professional skills that are highly sought after in the workplace, simultaneously preparing them for the realities of today's global, highly-competitive environment [1].
Technical Paper

Design and Implementation of a Mobile Single-Phase AC Power Supply for Land Vehicles with 28V/200V Dual Voltage Alternators

2003-06-23
2003-01-2297
In land vehicles with high-power electrical loads, other than the low-voltage DC bus (14V, 28V, or 42V) for the low-power conventional loads, a high-voltage bus, e.g., 200V DC, is required for high-power loads such as hotel loads and electrically-assisted propulsion systems. In addition, some advanced electrical loads including luxury loads and AC power point require 120V, 60Hz AC voltage. These land vehicles include heavy duty, fire fighting, and military vehicles. There are two traditional approaches in obtaining a dual DC voltage bus system. The first one is to obtain the low-voltage DC from the alternator and boost it to the high-voltage DC. The second method is to obtain the high-voltage DC directly from the alternator and reduce it to the low-voltage. Both approaches require additional step-up or step-down power conversion stages, which inherently result in a reduced efficiency. In this paper, a new approach with a 28V/200V dual voltage alternator is considered.
Technical Paper

Electrical System Architectures for Future Aircraft

1999-08-02
1999-01-2645
This paper addresses the fundamental issues faced in the aircraft electrical system architectures. Furthermore, a brief description of the conventional and advanced aircraft power system architectures, their disadvantages, opportunities for improvement, future electric loads, role of power electronics, and present trends in aircraft power system research will be given. Finally, this paper concludes with a brief outline of the projected advancements in the future.
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