Refine Your Search

Search Results

Viewing 1 to 16 of 16
Technical Paper

Simulation Based Predesign and Experimental Validation of a Prechamber Ignited HPDI Gas Combustion Concept

2019-04-02
2019-01-0259
Using natural gas in large bore engines reduces carbon dioxide emissions by up to 25% at a lower fuel cost than diesel engines. In demanding applications with highly transient operating profiles, however, premix gas engines have disadvantages compared to diesel engines because of the potential for knocking and misfire to occur. Operating a gas engine using the diesel cycle requires high gas injection pressures. Furthermore, a source of ignition is needed due to the high autoignition temperature of methane. State-of-the-art solutions inject a small quantity of diesel fuel before introducing the natural gas. One monofuel alternative ignites the gas jets with flame torches that originate in a prechamber. This paper presents the simulation based development of a prechamber ignited high pressure direct injection (HPDI) gas combustion concept and subsequent experimental validation.
Technical Paper

Multidimensional Modeling of Injection and Combustion Phenomena in a Diesel Ignited Gas Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0559
Using natural gas as a fuel in internal combustion engines is a promising way to obtain efficient power generation with relatively low environmental impact. Dual fuel operation is especially interesting because it can combine the safety and reliability of the basic diesel concept with fuel flexibility. To deal with the greater number of degrees of freedom caused by the interaction of two fuels and combining different combustion regimes, it is imperative to use simulation methods in the development process to gain a better understanding of the combustion behavior. This paper presents current research into ignition and combustion of a premixed natural gas/air charge with a diesel pilot spray in a large bore diesel ignited gas engine with a focus on 3D-CFD simulation. Special attention was paid to injection and combustion. The highly transient behavior of the diesel injector especially at small injection quantities poses challenges to the numerical simulation of the spray.
Technical Paper

Simulation-Based Control of Transient SCE Operation

2017-03-28
2017-01-0544
It is critical for gas and dual fuel engines to have improved transient characteristics in order that they can successfully compete with diesel engines. Testing of transient behavior as well as of different control strategies for the multi-cylinder engine (MCE) should already be done on the single cylinder engine (SCE) test bed during the development process. This paper presents tools and algorithms that simulate transient MCE behavior on a SCE test bed. A methodology that includes both simulation and measurements is developed for a large two-stage turbocharged gas engine. Simple and fast models and algorithms are created that are able to provide the boundary conditions (e.g., boost pressure and exhaust back pressure) of a multi-cylinder engine in transient operation in real-time for use on the SCE test bed. The main models of the methodology are discussed in detail.
Journal Article

Modular Fault Diagnosis System for Engine Test Bed Measurements

2017-03-28
2017-01-0386
To achieve high power output and good efficiency and to comply with increasingly stricter emission standards, modern combustion engines require a more complex engine design, which results in a higher number of control parameters. As the measurement effort and the number of sensors for engine development at the test bed continue to increase, it is becoming nearly impossible for the test bed engineer to manually check measurement data quality. As a result, automated methods for analysis and plausibility checks of measurement data are necessary in order to find faults as soon as they occur and to obtain test results of the highest possible quality. This paper presents a methodology for automated fault diagnosis on engine test beds. The methodology allows reliable detection of measurement faults as well as the identification of the root cause of faults.
Journal Article

Advanced Knock Detection for Diesel/Natural Gas Engine Operation

2016-04-05
2016-01-0785
As emission limits become increasingly stringent and the price of gaseous fuels decreases, more emphasis is being placed on promoting gas engines. In the field of large engines for power generation, dual fuel combustion concepts that run on diesel/natural gas are particularly attractive. Knock in diesel/natural gas dual fuel engines is a well known yet not fully understood complex phenomenon that requires consideration in any attempt to increase load and efficiency. Thus combustion concept development requires a reliable yet robust methodology for detecting knock in order to ensure knock-free engine operation. Operating parameters such as rail pressure, start of injection and amount of diesel injected are the factors that influence oscillations in the in-cylinder pressure trace after the start of combustion. Oscillations in the pre-mixed combustion phase, or ringing, are caused by the rapid conversion of large parts of the injected diesel.
Technical Paper

Engine Operating Parameter-based Heat Transfer Simulation to Predict Engine Warm-up

2014-04-01
2014-01-1103
Optimization of engine warm-up behavior has traditionally made use of experimental investigations. However, thermal engine models are a more cost-effective alternative and allow evaluation of the fuel saving potential of thermal management measures in different driving cycles. To simulate the thermal behavior of engines in general and engine warm-up in particular, knowledge of heat distribution throughout all engine components is essential. To this end, gas-side heat transfer inside the combustion chamber and in the exhaust port must be modeled as accurately as possible. Up to now, map-based models have been used to simulate heat transfer and fuel consumption; these two values are calculated as a function of engine speed and load. To extend the scope of these models, it is increasingly desirable to calculate gas-side heat transfer and fuel consumption as a function of engine operating parameters in order to evaluate different ECU databases.
Journal Article

Automated Parameter Determination for IC Engine Simulation Models

2009-04-20
2009-01-0674
When developing and later using simulation models for combustion prediction in internal combustion engines, it is first of all necessary to determine the model constants. This paper describes the development of a method for the automated determination of model parameters which can be applied to any internal combustion simulation model. The work is not aimed at developing a new optimizing algorithm but at adjusting and adapting an existing optimizer to the special needs and convergence problems, which occur when applied to combustion models. Consequently, the paper describes the set-up of the objective function and several methods for improving the convergence. Finally, an outline for a strategy which uses the optimizing tool for model development is presented.
Journal Article

Application of a Flow Field Based Heat Transfer Model to Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engines

2009-04-20
2009-01-1423
A realistic modeling of the wall heat transfer is essential for an accurate analysis and simulation of the working cycle of internal combustion engines. Empirical heat transfer formulations still dominate the application in engine process simulations because of their simplicity. However, experiments have shown that existing correlations do not provide satisfactory results for all the possible operation modes of hydrogen internal combustion engines. This paper describes the application of a flow field-based heat transfer model according to Schubert et al. [1]. The models strength is a more realistic description of the required characteristic velocity; considering the influence of the injection on the global turbulence and on the in-cylinder flow field results in a better prediction of the wall heat transfer during the compression stroke and for operations with multiple injections. Further an empirical hypothesis on the turbulence generation during combustion is presented.
Technical Paper

Application and Validation of the 3D CFD Method for a Hydrogen Fueled IC Engine with Internal Mixture Formation

2006-04-03
2006-01-0448
Hydrogen is seen as a promising energy carrier for a future mobility scenario. Applied as fuel in IC engines with internal mixture formation, hydrogen opens up new vistas for the layout of the combustion system. The 3D CFD simulation of internal mixture formation as well as combustion helps to understand the complex in-cylinder processes and provides a powerful tool to optimize the engine's working cycle. The performance of standard simulation models for mixture formation as well as the performance of a user-defined combustion model applied in a commercial CFD-code is discussed within this article. The 3D CFD simulations are validated with measurements obtained from a thermodynamic and from an optical research engine respectively.
Technical Paper

ROHR Simulation for DI Diesel Engines Based on Sequential Combustion Mechanisms

2006-04-03
2006-01-0654
In this paper a zero-dimensional simulation methodology for efficient pre-optimization of the combustion process in DI diesel engines is presented. A new model for the calculation of the rate of heat release is unveiled. It is based on the separate description of both the primary processes closely related to the fuel jet as well as the following combustion of the fuel mass remaining after the end of injection. The modeling of fuel mass distribution between premixed and diffusion combustion as well as a model for the fuel preparation time are explained. Furthermore, models for the calculation of ignition delay and premixed combustion based on an extended Arrhenius formulation are discussed, as well as turbulent combustion on the basis of a Magnussen model. The new features of the heat release model prove to be necessary to describe the effects of modern high-pressure fuel injection systems on the combustion process regarding the strong influence of the injection rate on the burn rate.
Technical Paper

H2-Direct Injection – A Highly Promising Combustion Concept

2005-04-11
2005-01-0108
Hydrogen is frequently cited as a future energy carrier. Hydrogen allows a further optimization of internal combustion engines, especially with direct injection. In order to assess various concepts, detailed thermodynamic analyses were carried out. Effects, which can be neglected with conventional fuels (e.g. losses due to injection during compression stroke) are considered. These basics as well as several results from test bed investigations are described within this article. Wall heat losses were found to have a major influence on overall efficiency and are thus investigated in detail, based on local surface temperature measurement. Finally, concepts that allow an increase in engine efficiency and lowest NOx emissions are demonstrated.
Technical Paper

Advanced Heat Transfer Model for CI Engines

2005-04-11
2005-01-0695
A realistic simulation of the wall heat transfer is an imperative condition for the accurate analysis and simulation of the working process of IC engines. Due to its simplicity in application, zero-dimensional wall heat transfer models dominate engine cycle simulation in practice. However, experience shows that existing zero-dimensional models for wall heat transfer do not yield satisfactory results in certain applications. This is mainly due to a lack of consideration of the actual flow field in the cylinder. In this paper a quasi-dimensional heat transfer model, which is based on a detailed description of the turbulent flow field in the combustion chamber, is described. The model presents a consistent approach for the high pressure as well as the low pressure part of the cycle. The results of the heat transfer model are compared with results from the correlation by Woschni/Huber and with experimental results from various DI Diesel engines.
Technical Paper

Investigations on Combustion and Heat Transfer in a Large Gaseous Fuelled Engine

2003-03-03
2003-01-0562
The 3D CFD method has become an essential and reliable tool for the development of modern large gaseous-fuelled engines. This holds especially true for the optimization of mixture formation and charge motion in prechamber engines to ensure suitable conditions near the spark plug at ignition time. In order to initialize a quick combustion process, an ignitable mixture with high turbulence but moderate velocity must prevail round the spark plug. However, suitable models for combustion and heat transfer are inevitable for a realistic simulation of the whole engine cycle. Within 3D CFD codes the combustion process is usually calculated using the PDF (probability density function) - model; heat transfer is modeled based on the logarithmic wall function. Experimental investigations were carried out on a single cylinder research engine in order to validate the combustion model used and different heat transfer models.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Engine Warm-Up with Integration of Vehicle and Engine Cycle Simulation

2001-05-14
2001-01-1697
The incorporation of a detailed engine process calculation that takes into account thermal behavior of the engine and exhaust system is essential for a realistic simulation of transient vehicle operation. This is the only possible way to have a precise preliminary calculation of fuel consumption and emissions. Therefore, a comprehensive thermal network of the engine based on the lumped capacity method has been developed. The model allows the computation of component temperatures in steady state operation as well as in transient engine studies, e.g. investigations of engine warm-up. The model is integrated in a co-simulation environment consisting of a detailed vehicle and engine cycle simulation code. The paper describes the procedure of the co-simulation and presents several examples of warm-up simulations.
Technical Paper

Application of 3D-CFD Methods to Optimize a Gaseous Fuelled Engine with Respect to Charge Motion, Combustion and Knocking

2000-03-06
2000-01-0277
This paper shows extracts from the development process of a lean-burn gaseous fuelled engine for combined heat and power generation. The aim was to optimize the mixture formation, the charge motion and the combustion of an existing multi-cylinder engine. Therefore, experimental investigations on a single cylinder research engine and numerical simulations based on 3-dimensional CFD methods were carried out. The use of CFD methods for the optimization of the engine required intensive development efforts in the field of combustion simulation. In particular, the combustion model developed by Magnussen and Hjertager [1] was modified. Through comparison with the PDF model and results of the engine process calculation, the suitability of this modified combustion model was shown. In addition, a knock model was also developed and implemented in the CFD code in order to determine the knock tendency of different engine concepts.
Technical Paper

Heat Transfer to the Combustion Chamber and Port Walls of IC Engines - Measurement and Prediction

2000-03-06
2000-01-0568
This paper summarizes the results of several investigations on in-cylinder heat transfer during high-pressure and gas exchange phases as well as heat transfer in the inlet and outlet ports for a number of different engine types (DI Diesel, SI and gaseous fueled engine). The paper contains a comparision of simulation results and experimental data derived from heat flux measurements. Numerical results were obtained from zero-, one- and three-dimensional simulation methods. Time and spatially resolved heat fluxes were measured applying the surface temperature method and special heat flux sensors. The paper also includes an assessment of different sensor types with respect to accuracy and applicability.
X