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Technical Paper

Adhesive Bonding Performance of GA Coated 590 MPa Tensile Strength Steels

2011-04-12
2011-01-1052
Advanced high strength steels (AHSS) are becoming major enablers for vehicle light weighting in the automotive industry. Crash resistant and fracture-toughened structural adhesives have shown potential to improve vehicle stiffness, noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH), and crashworthiness. They provide weight reduction opportunity while maintaining crash performance or weight increase avoidance while meeting the increasing crash requirement. Unfortunately, the adhesive bonding of galvanneal (GA)-coated steels has generally yielded adhesive failures with the GA coating peeling from the steel substrate resulting in poor bond strength. A limited study conducted by ArcelorMittal and Dow Automotive in 2008 showed that GA-coated AHSS exhibited cohesive failure, and good bond strength and crash performance. In order to confirm the reliable performance, a project focusing on the consistency of the adhesive bond performance of GA-coated steels of 590 MPa strength level was initiated.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Edge Fracture in Various Types of Advanced High Strength Steel

2011-04-12
2011-01-1058
In vehicle crash events there is the potential for fracture to occur at the processed edges of structural components. The ability to avoid these types of fractures is desired in order to minimize intrusion and optimize energy absorption. However, the prediction of edge cracking is complicated by the fact that conventional tensile testing can provide insufficient data in regards to the local fracture behavior of advanced high strength steels. Fracture prediction is also made difficult because there can be inadequate data on how the cutting processes used for hole piercing and blanking affect the edge condition. In order to address these challenges, research was undertaken to analyze edge fracture in simple test pieces configured with side notches and center holes. Test specimens were made from a number of advanced high strength steels including 590R (C-Mn), 780T (TRIP), 980Y (dual phase) and hot stamp 1500 (martensitic).
Technical Paper

Bonding Studies between Fracture Toughened Adhesives and Galvannealed Steels with Zinc Coating

2010-04-12
2010-01-0434
Adhesive bonding technology is rapidly gaining acceptance as an alternative to spot welding. This technology is helping automobile manufacturers reduce vehicle weight by letting them use lighter but stronger advanced high strength steels (AHSS's). This can make cars safer and more fuel efficient at the same time. The other benefits of this technology include its flexibility, ability to join dissimilar materials, distribute stress uniformly, provide sealing characteristics and sound dampening, and provide a moisture barrier, thus minimizing the chance for corrosion. The lap shear work reported in the late 1980s and early 1990s has led to the prevalent perception that the galvannealed (GA) coating can delaminate from the steels, resulting in poor joint performance. However, the above work was carried out on steels used primarily in automobile outer body panels.
Journal Article

Experiences with Experimental Determination of the Yield Locus and its Evolution for Advanced High Strength Steels

2010-04-12
2010-01-0976
Accurate description of the plastic yield locus is important for accurate prediction of sheet metal formability and springback using FEM. This paper presents experimental results obtained for the initial plastic yield locus and its evolution for some selected Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS). A review of available experimental methods was conducted to select appropriate techniques for testing. For loading in tension-shear, the Arcan test was selected, however because of lack of uniformity of the stress distribution, the test was not included in the final series of tests. Shear testing, uniaxial tensile testing, plane strain testing and stacked compression testing were used to determine the yield locus. From the test results and analysis for the selected AHSS, it seems that the onset of initial yielding and its isotropic evolution to 4% plastic strain is best described by the von Mises yield function.
Journal Article

Advanced Material Characterizations and Constitutive Modeling for AHSS Springback Predictions

2010-04-12
2010-01-0980
Springback prediction is one of the roadblocks for using advanced high strength steel in the automotive industry. Accurate characterization and modeling of the mechanical behavior of AHSS is recognized as one of the critical factors for successful prediction of springback. Conventional tensile test based material characterization and constitutive modeling may lead to poor springback simulation accuracy. Aiming to accurately predict springback, a series of advanced material characterizations including bi-axial material testing, large-strain loading path reversal testing, unloading tests at large strain, stress-strain behavior beyond uniform elongation, were performed for selected AHSS and associated constitutive models were developed to incorporate these characterizations. Validations through lab samples and industrial parts show that the AHSS springback prediction accuracy is significantly improved with these improved material models.
Technical Paper

A Novel Approach for Generating a Full-Range Tensile Stress-Strain Curve

2009-04-20
2009-01-0470
A new method has been developed to measure full stress-strain curves using Digital Image Correlation (DIC) for Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS). With the post-necking strain measured by the built in-house DIC system during tensile tests, stress-strain data for AHSS beyond uniform elongation up to fracture can be determined. In this paper, the technique to generate full stress-strain curves by DIC is introduced. The measured stress-strain curves are compared with those obtained by extrapolation methods. The measured stress-strain data generated by the new method is validated by finite element analysis (FEA).
Journal Article

Measurement of Fracture Strains for Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) Using Digital Image Correlation

2009-04-20
2009-01-1174
Predicting fracture behavior of Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) on both manufacturing and crash simulations is becoming more and more important with the wide use of AHSS in automotive industry. The accurate measurement of fracture strains is a critical input for predicting failure in FEA simulations. It is well known that fracture is a highly localized behavior and fracture strain is gauge or size dependent. In this paper, a full field measurement technique, Digital Image Correlation (DIC), is employed to measure gauge-dependent fracture strains for several Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) under tensile test conditions and Limit Dome Height (LDH) tests. Applications of the fracture strains for FEA simulation are discussed.
Technical Paper

Fatigue of Advanced High Strength Steel Spot-Welds

2006-04-03
2006-01-0978
Because of increasing fuel costs and environmental concerns, the automotive industry is under enormous pressure to reduce vehicle weight. One strategy, downgaging, substitutes a reduced gage (thickness) steel in place of a thicker one, and is usually accompanied by a material grade change to a higher strength steel. Thus, Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) are increasingly used for lightweight automotive body structures. The critical durability concern with steels is the spot welds used to join them, since fatigue cracks in body structures preferentially initiate at spot welds. Hence, the Auto/Steel Partnership (A/SP) Sheet Steel Fatigue Taskforce undertook an investigation both to study the fatigue performance of AHSS spot welds, and to generate data for OEM durability analysis. The study included seven AHSS grades and, for comparison, mild steels and a conventional High Strength Low Alloy grade, HSLA340.
Technical Paper

Performance Evaluation of GMAW Welds for Four Advanced High Strength Steels

2005-04-11
2005-01-0904
This paper investigates the characteristics of GMAW of various sheet steels grades ranging from HSLA, dual phase, to martensitic. From the arc welding point of view, the dual phase and martensitic steels behave similarly to conventional high strength steels. Regarding the properties of GMAW joints, the static and dynamic mechanical testing were conducted and compared along with the weld metal microhardness and microstructure. Results show that while the strength of the sheet steel weld, in general increases with the base material strength, Joint Efficiency, defined as the ratio of the strength of joint to the strength of the base metal, decreases with the increase of martensite fraction in the sheet steel. Martensitic steels, especially, exhibits reduced weld strength due to softening of the HAZ. However, fatigue strength of these steels is not adversely affected by the softened HAZ, and is insensitive to the strength of the steel.
Technical Paper

Effect of Forming Strain on Fatigue Performance of a Mild Automotive Steel

2001-03-05
2001-01-0083
The effect of forming strains on the fatigue behavior of an automotive mild steel, interstitial free steel, was studied after being prestrained by balanced biaxial stretch and plane strain. In the long life region, higher than 5×105 reversals, prestrain improves fatigue resistance. In the short life region, prestrain reduces fatigue resistance. At even shorter fatigue lives, the detrimental effect of prestrain diminishes. For plane strains, the fatigue behavior is anisotropic. In the direction perpendicular to the major strain, the steel exhibits much better fatigue resistance than in the direction parallel to the major strain.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Behavior of a Microalloyed Steel Under Uniaxial Loading

1993-03-01
930967
Fatigue data for a new microalloyed steel have been generated and compared with SAE 9259. The steel is designed to be used for suspension coil springs at high strength levels (~2100 MPa) in order to reduce weight. Both stress-controlled and strain-controlled tension-compression fatigue tests were conducted. The high strength microalloyed steel showed a 17 to 25% increase in endurance limit over SAE 9259 for polished specimens. Strain-controlled fatigue tests showed comparable strain resistance for these two steels. However, the microalloyed steel has higher stress carrying capability and less cyclic softening than SAE 9259 in the constant strain condition. Shot-peening is proved to improve its fatigue resistance under uniaxial tension-compression loading in stress amplitudes above 724 MPa (105 ksi).
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