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Technical Paper

In Situ Injection Rate Measurement to Study Single and Split Injections in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2019-09-09
2019-24-0136
The split injection strategy holds a potential for high pressure combustion engines. One advantage of such strategy is the capability to control the heat release rate, which also implies the use of multiple split-injections with relatively short dwell intervals. Most injection rate measurement techniques require installment of the injector on a dedicated test rig. However, these techniques fail to accurately reproduce real-engine operating conditions. Using the spray impingement method, this paper investigates the injection rate of a high flow-rate solenoid injector while being operated on the engine. The aim is to have an experimental configuration as similar as possible to the real engine in terms of the acoustics and the fuel temperature within the injection system. The assumption of spray force proportional to the spray momentum is used here to measure the injection rate.
Technical Paper

Thermal Efficiency Comparison of Different Injector Constellations in a CI Engine

2019-09-09
2019-24-0172
More stringent emission regulations call for high-efficiency engines in the heavy-duty vehicle sector. Towards this goal, reduced heat losses, as well as increased work output, are needed. In this study, a multiple injector concept to control the combustion as well as reduce the hot boundary zones is proposed. Earlier studies have proven that multiple injectors experience lower heat losses and higher efficiency. However, a comprehensive investigation of the causes for experimental heat loss was not performed in depth. Experiments in a heavy-duty CI engine equipped with three injectors were thus performed. Engine configurations of single, dual and triple injectors were compared for a single-injection case as well as a multi-injection (Sabathe-cycle) case. Heat losses, efficiency and the emission levels were quantified and investigated. Optical experiments were performed to investigate the temperature field as well as flame behavior.
Technical Paper

Study of Fuel Octane Sensitivity Effects on Gasoline Partially Premixed Combustion Using Optical Diagnostics

2019-09-09
2019-24-0025
Partially premixed combustion (PPC) is a low-temperature combustion concept that could deliver higher engine efficiency, as well as lower emissions. Gasoline-like fuel compression ignition (GCI) is beneficial for air/fuel mixing process under PPC mode because of the superior auto-ignition resistance to prolong ignition delay time. In current experiments, three surrogate fuels with same research octane number (RON77) but different octane sensitivities (OS), PRF77 (S = 0), TPRF77-a (S = 3) and TPRF77-b (S = 5), are tested in a full-transparent single cylinder AVL optical compression ignition (CI) engine at low load conditions. Aiming at investigating the fuel octane sensitivity effect on engine combustion behavior as well as emissions under GCI-PPC mode, engine parameters, and emission data during combustion are compared for the test fuels with a change of injection timing.
Technical Paper

Oxy-Fuel HCCI Combustion in a CFR Engine with Carbon Dioxide as a Thermal Buffer

2019-09-09
2019-24-0119
Global warming and the increasingly stringent emission regulations call for alternative combustion techniques to reduce CO2 emissions. Oxy-fuel combustion is one of those techniques since the combustion products are easily separated by condensing the water and storing CO2. A problem associated with the burning of fuel using pure oxygen as an oxidant is that it results in high adiabatic flame temperature. This high flame temperature is decreased by introducing a thermal buffer to the system. A thermal buffer in this context is any gas that does not participate in combustion but at the same time absorbs some of the released heat and thus decreases the temperature of the medium. Many experiments have been conducted to study oxy-fuel combustion in ICE using noble gases as thermal buffers. However, those experiments focused on using hydrogen as a fuel to avoid any build-up of CO2 in the system.
Technical Paper

A Study of Lean Burn Pre-Chamber Concept in a Heavy Duty Engine

2019-09-09
2019-24-0107
Due to stringent emission standards, the demand for higher efficiency engines has been unprecedentedly high in recent years. Among several existing combustion modes, pre-chamber spark ignition (PCSI) emerges to be a potential candidate for high-efficiency engines. Research on the pre-chamber concept exhibit higher indicated efficiency through lean limit extension while maintaining the combustion stability. In this study, a unique pre-chamber geometry was tested in a single-cylinder heavy-duty engine at low load lean conditions. The geometry features a narrow throat, which was designed to be packaged inside a commercial diesel injector pocket. The pre-chamber was fueled with methane while the main chamber was supplied with an ethanol/air mixture.
Technical Paper

The Physical and Chemical Effects of Fuel on Gasoline Compression Ignition

2019-04-02
2019-01-1150
In the engine community, gasoline compression ignition (GCI) engines are at the forefront of research and efforts are being taken to commercialize an optimized GCI engine in the near future. GCI engines are operated typically at Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) mode as it offers better control of combustion with improved combustion stability. While the transition in combustion homogeneity from convectional Compression Ignition (CI) to Homogenized Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion via PPC has been comprehensively investigated, the physical and chemical effects of fuel on GCI are rarely reported at different combustion modes. Therefore, in this study, the effect of physical and chemical properties of fuels on GCI is investigated. In-order to investigate the reported problem, low octane gasoline fuels with same RON = 70 but different physical properties and sensitivity (S) are chosen.
Technical Paper

Should We Walk or Take a Car for Minimum Greenhouse Gas Emissions?

2019-04-02
2019-01-0996
This paper compares the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions attributed to driving a popular production vehicle powered by an internal combustion engine (ICE), as well as a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), with GHG emissions associated with walking, running and bicycling. The purpose of this study is to offer a different perspective on the problem of global warming due to anthropogenic causes, specifically on transportation and eating patterns. In order to accurately estimate emissions, a full life cycle of food has been considered coupled with energy expenditures of the aforementioned activities obtained from several different sources and averaged for more reliable results. The GHG emissions were calculated for Sweden, the UK, and the US. Depending on the availability of certain data, the methodology for different countries was altered slightly. The question whether walking, running or taking a bicycle is better for the environment than driving a car cannot be answered uniquely.
Technical Paper

Isobaric Combustion: A Potential Path to High Efficiency, in Combination with the Double Compression Expansion Engine (DCEE) Concept

2019-01-15
2019-01-0085
The efficiency of an internal combustion engine is highly dependent on the peak pressure at which the engine operates. A new compound engine concept, the double compression expansion engine (DCEE), utilizes a two-stage compression and expansion cycle to reach ultrahigh efficiencies. This engine takes advantage of its high-integrity structure, which is adapted to high pressures, and the peak motored pressure reaches up to 300 bar. However, this makes the use of conventional combustion cycles, such as the Seiliger-Sabathe (mixed) or Otto (isochoric) cycles, not feasible as they involve a further pressure rise due to combustion. This study investigates the concept of isobaric combustion at relatively high peak pressures and compares this concept with traditional diesel combustion cycles in terms of efficiency and emissions. Multiple consecutive injections through a single injector are used for controlling the heat release rate profile to achieve isobaric heat addition.
Technical Paper

Combustion Behavior of n-Heptane, Isooctane, Toluene and Blends under HCCI Conditions in the Pressure-Temperature Diagram

2018-09-10
2018-01-1684
Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) experiments were run with the aid of a Cooperative fuel research (CFR) engine, operating at 600 rpm and under very lean conditions (ϕ = 0.3). This study seeks to examine the combustion behavior of different fuels by finding the pressure-temperature (p-t) conditions that instigate the start of combustion, and the transition from low temperature combustion to principal combustion. The pressure-temperature diagram emphasizes p-t conditions according to their traces through the compression stroke. In each fuel tested, p-t traces were examined by a sweep of the intake temperature; and for each experimental point, combustion phasing was maintained at top dead center by adjusting the compression ratio of the engine. In addition to the p-t diagram, results were analyzed using a compression ratio-intake temperature diagram, which showed the compression ratio required with respect to intake temperature.
Technical Paper

Low Load Limit Extension for Gasoline Compression Ignition Using Negative Valve Overlap Strategy

2018-04-03
2018-01-0896
Gasoline compression ignition (GCI) is widely studied for the benefits of simultaneous reduction in nitrogen oxide (NOX) and soot emissions without compromising the engine efficiency. Despite this advantage, the operational range for GCI is not widely expanded, as the auto-ignition of fuel at low load condition is difficult. The present study aims to extend the low load operational limit for GCI using negative valve overlap (NVO) strategy. The engine used for the current experimentation is a single cylinder diesel engine that runs at an idle speed of 800 rpm with a compression ratio of 17.3. The engine is operated at homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and partially premixed combustion (PPC) combustion modes with the corresponding start of injection (SOI) at −180 CAD (aTDC) and −30 CAD (aTDC), respectively.
Journal Article

Autoignition of Isooctane beyond RON and MON Conditions

2018-04-03
2018-01-1254
The present study experimentally examines the low-temperature autoignition area of isooctane within the in-cylinder pressure-in-cylinder temperature map. Experiments were run with the help of a Cooperative Fuel Research (CFR) engine. The boundaries of this engine were extended so that experiments could be performed outside the domain delimited by research octane number (RON) and motor octane number (MON) traces. Since homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion is governed by kinetics, the rotation speed for all the experiments was set at 600 rpm to allow time for low-temperature heat release (LTHR). All the other parameters (intake pressure, intake temperature, compression ratio, and equivalence ratio) were scanned, such as the occurrence of isooctane combustion. The principal results showed that LTHR for isooctane occurs effortlessly under high intake pressure (1.3 bar) and low intake temperature (25 °C).
Technical Paper

Analysis of Transition from HCCI to CI via PPC with Low Octane Gasoline Fuels Using Optical Diagnostics and Soot Particle Analysis

2017-10-08
2017-01-2403
In-cylinder visualization, combustion stratification, and engine-out particulate matter (PM) emissions were investigated in an optical engine fueled with Haltermann straight-run naphtha fuel and corresponding surrogate fuel. The combustion mode was transited from homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) to conventional compression ignition (CI) via partially premixed combustion (PPC). Single injection strategy with the change of start of injection (SOI) from early to late injections was employed. The high-speed color camera was used to capture the in-cylinder combustion images. The combustion stratification was analyzed based on the natural luminosity of the combustion images. The regulated emission of unburned hydrocarbon (UHC), carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) were measured to evaluate the combustion efficiency together with the in-cylinder rate of heat release.
Technical Paper

Blending Octane Number of Ethanol on a Volume and Molar Basis in SI and HCCI Combustion Modes

2017-10-08
2017-01-2256
The blending behavior of ethanol in five different hydrocarbon base fuels with octane numbers of approximately 70 and 84 was examined under Spark-Ignited (SI) and Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignited (HCCI) operating conditions. The Blending octane number (BON) was used to characterize the blending behavior on both a volume and molar basis. Previous studies have shown that the blending behavior of ethanol generally follows several well-established rules. In particular, non-linear blending effects are generally observed on a volume basis (i.e. BON > RON or MON of pure ethanol; 108 and 89, respectively), while linear blending effects are generally observed on a molar basis (i.e. BON = RON or MON of pure ethanol). This work firstly demonstrates that the non-linear volumetric blending effects traditionally observed under SI operating conditions are also observed under HCCI operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Combustion Homogeneity and Emission Analysis during the Transition from CI to HCCI for FACE I Gasoline

2017-10-08
2017-01-2263
Low temperature combustion concepts are studied recently to simultaneously reduce NOX and soot emissions. Optical studies are performed to study gasoline PPC in CI engines to investigate in-cylinder combustion and stratification. It is imperative to perform emission measurements and interpret the results with combustion images. In this work, we attempt to investigate this during the transition from CI to HCCI mode for FACE I gasoline (RON = 70) and its surrogate, PRF70. The experiments are performed in a single cylinder optical engine that runs at a speed of 1200 rpm. Considering the safety of engine, testing was done at lower IMEP (3 bar) and combustion is visualized using a high-speed camera through a window in the bottom of the bowl. From the engine experiments, it is clear that intake air temperature requirement is different at various combustion modes to maintain the same combustion phasing.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Gasoline and Primary Reference Fuel in the Transition from HCCI to PPC

2017-10-08
2017-01-2262
Our previous research investigated the sensitivity of combustion phasing to intake temperature and injection timing during the transition from homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) to partially premixed combustion (PPC) fuelled with generic gasoline. The results directed particular attention to the relationship between intake temperature and combustion phasing which reflected the changing of stratification level with the injection timing. To confirm its applicability with the use of different fuels, and to investigate the effect of fuel properties on stratification formation, primary reference fuels (PRF) were tested using the same method: a start of injection sweep from -180° to -20° after top dead center with constant combustion phasing by tuning the intake temperature. The present results are further developed compared with those of our previous work, which were based on generic gasoline.
Technical Paper

Effect of Aromatics on Combustion Stratification and Particulate Emissions from Low Octane Gasoline Fuels in PPC and HCCI Mode

2017-09-04
2017-24-0086
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of aromatic on combustion stratification and particulate emissions for PRF60. Experiments were performed in an optical CI engine at a speed of 1200 rpm for TPRF0 (100% v/v PRF60), TPRF20 (20% v/v toluene + 80% PRF60) and TPRF40 (40% v/v toluene + 60% PRF60). TPRF mixtures were prepared in such a way that the RON of all test blends was same (RON = 60). Single injection strategy with a fuel injection pressure of 800 bar was adopted for all test fuels. Start of injection (SOI) was changed from early to late fuel injection timings, representing various modes of combustion viz HCCI, PPC and CDC. High-speed video of the in-cylinder combustion process was captured and one-dimensional stratification analysis was performed from the intensity of images. Particle size, distribution and concentration were measured and linked with the in-cylinder combustion images.
Technical Paper

Compression Ignition of Light Naphtha and Its Multicomponent Surrogate under Partially Premixed Conditions

2017-09-04
2017-24-0078
Light naphtha is the light distillate from crude oil and can be used in compression ignition (CI) engines; its low boiling point and octane rating (RON = 64.5) enable adequate premixing. This study investigates the combustion characteristics of light naphtha (LN) and its multicomponent surrogate under various start of injection (SOI) conditions. LN and a five-component surrogate for LN, comprised of 43% n-pentane, 12% n-heptane, 10% 2-methylhexane, 25% iso-pentane and 10% cyclo-pentane, has been tested in a single cylinder optical diesel engine. The transition in combustion homogeneity from CI combustion to homogenized charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion was then compared between LN and its surrogate. The engine experimental results showed good agreement in combustion phasing, ignition delay, start of combustion, in-cylinder pressure and rate of heat release between LN and its surrogate.
Technical Paper

Fuel Effect on Combustion Stratification in Partially Premixed Combustion

2017-09-04
2017-24-0089
The literature study on PPC in optical engine reveals investigations on OH chemiluminescence and combustion stratification. So far, mostly PRF fuel is studied and it is worthwhile to examine the effect of fuel properties on PPC. Therefore, in this work, fuel having different octane rating and physical properties are selected and PPC is studied in an optical engine. The fuels considered in this study are diesel, heavy naphtha, light naphtha and their corresponding surrogates such as heptane, PRF50 and PRF65 respectively. Without EGR (Intake O2 = 21%), these fuels are tested at an engine speed of 1200 rpm, fuel injection pressure of 800 bar and pressure at TDC = 35 bar. SOI is changed from late to early fuel injection timings to study PPC and the shift in combustion regime from CI to PPC is explored for all fuels. An increased understanding on the effect of fuel octane number, physical properties and chemical composition on combustion and emission formation is obtained.
Technical Paper

Combustion Stratification for Naphtha from CI Combustion to PPC

2017-03-28
2017-01-0745
This study demonstrates the combustion stratification from conventional compression ignition (CI) combustion to partially premixed combustion (PPC). Experiments are performed in an optical CI engine at a speed of 1200 rpm for diesel and naphtha (RON = 46). The motored pressure at TDC is maintained at 35 bar and fuelMEP is kept constant at 5.1 bar to account for the difference in fuel properties between naphtha and diesel. Single injection strategy is employed and the fuel is injected at a pressure of 800 bar. Photron FASTCAM SA4 that captures in-cylinder combustion at the rate of 10000 frames per second is employed. The captured high speed video is processed to study the combustion homogeneity based on an algorithm reported in previous studies. Starting from late fuel injection timings, combustion stratification is investigated by advancing the fuel injection timings. For late start of injection (SOI), a direct link between SOI and combustion phasing is noticed.
Technical Paper

Optimum Heat Release Rates for a Double Compression Expansion (DCEE) Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0636
The concept of double compression, and double expansion engine (DCEE) for improving the efficiency of piston reciprocating engines was introduced in SAE Paper 2015-01-1260. This engine configuration has separate high, and low pressure units thereby effectively reducing friction losses for high effective compression ratios. The presence of an additional expander stage also theoretically allows an extra degree of freedom to manipulate the combustion heat release rate so as to achieve better optimum between heat transfer, and friction losses. This paper presents a 1-D modeling study of the engine concept in GT-Power for assessing the sensitivity of engine losses to heat release rate. The simulations were constrained by limiting the maximum pressure to 300 bar.
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