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Technical Paper

Knock Onset Detection Methods Evaluation by In-Cylinder Direct Observation

2019-10-07
2019-24-0233
Improvement of performance and emission of future internal combustion engine for passenger cars is mandatory during the transition period toward their substitution with electric propulsion systems. In middle time, direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engines could offer a good compromise between fuel economy and exhaust emissions. However, abnormal combustion and particularly knock and super-knock are some of the most important obstacles to the improvement of SI engines efficiency. Although knock has been studied for many years and its basic characteristics are clear, phenomena involved in its occurrence are very complex and are still worth of investigation. In particular, the definition of an absolute knock intensity and the precise determination of the knock onset are arduous and many indexes and methodologies has been proposed. In this work, most used methods for knock onset detection from in- cylinder pressure signal have been considered.
Technical Paper

Effects of Prechamber on Efficiency Improvement and Emissions Reduction of a SI Engine Fuelled with Gasoline

2019-10-07
2019-24-0236
The permanent aim of the automotive industry is the further improvement of the engine efficiency and the simultaneous pollutant emissions reduction. The aim of the study was the optimization of the gasoline combustion by means of a passive prechamber. This analysis allowed the improvement of the engine efficiency in lean-burn operation condition too. The investigation was carried out in a commercial small Spark Ignition (SI) engine fueled with gasoline and equipped with a proper designed passive prechamber. It was analyzed the effects of the prechamber on engine performance, Indicated Mean Effective Pressure, Heat Release Rate and Fuel Consumption were used. Gaseous emissions were measured as well. Particulate Mass, Number and Size Distributions were analyzed. Emissions samples were taken from the exhaust flow, just downstream of the valves. Four different engine speeds were investigated, namely 2000, 3000, 4000 and 5000 rpm.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of a Fueled Prechamber Combustion in an Optical Small Displacement SI Methane Engine

2019-09-09
2019-24-0170
The constant aim of the automotive industry is the further improvement of engine efficiency and the simultaneous reduction of the exhaust emissions. In order to optimize the internal combustion engines it is necessary to further improve the basic knowledge of the thermo-fluid dynamic phenomena occurring during the combustion process. In this context, the application of optical diagnostic techniques permits a deep insight into the fundamental processes such as flow development, fuel injection, and combustion process. In this paper the analysis of the combustion process of gaseous fuel ignited by the plasma jets coming from a prechamber was performed. The investigation was carried out in an optically accessible small Direct Injection Spark-Ignition (DI SI) engine fueled with Methane. The ignition was obtained with a properly designed fueled prechamber prototype.
Technical Paper

Temperature Measurements of the Piston Optical Window in a Research Compression Ignition Engine to Set-Up a 1d Model of Heat Transfer in Transient Conditions

2019-09-09
2019-24-0182
The analysis of heat losses in internal combustion engines (ICEs) is fundamental to evaluate and to improve engine efficiency. Detailed and reliable heat transfer models are required for more complex 1d-3d combustion models. At the same time, the thermal status of engine components, like pistons, is needed for an efficient design. Measurements of piston temperature during ICEs operation represent an important and challenging result to get for the aforementioned purposes. In the present work, temperature measurements collected at different engine speeds and loads, both in motored and fired modes, have been performed and used to set-up a theoretical correlation and 1d model of heat transfer through the optical window of the piston. The in-cylinder gas and external ambient temperature, together with the thermodynamic and material properties are given. The model has been first calibrated in some selected operating conditions and then validated in the remaining.
Technical Paper

A Mixing Timescale Model for PDF Simulations of LTC Combustion Process in Internal Combustion Engines

2019-09-09
2019-24-0113
Transported probability density function (PDF) methods are currently being pursued as a viable approach to model the effects of turbulent mixing and mixture stratification, especially for new alternative combustion modes as for example Homogeneous Charge Compression ignition (HCCI) which is one of the advanced low temperature combustion (LTC) concepts. Recently, they have been applied to simple engine configurations to demonstrate the importance of accurate accounting for turbulence/chemistry interactions. PDF methods can explicitly account for the turbulent fluctuations in species composition and temperature relative to mean value. The choice of the mixing model is an important aspect of PDF approach. Different mixing models can be found in the literature, the most popular is the IEM model (Interaction by Exchange with the Mean). This model is very similar to the LMSE model (Linear Mean Square Estimation).
Technical Paper

Analysis of Dual Fuel Combustion in Single Cylinder Research Engine Fueled with Methane and Diesel by IR Diagnostics

2019-04-02
2019-01-1165
In the present study, dual fuel mode is investigated in a single cylinder optical compression ignition (CI) research engine. Methane is injected in the intake manifold while the diesel is delivered via the standard injector directly into the engine. The aim is to study by non-intrusive diagnostics the effect of increasing methane concentration at constant injected diesel amount during the combustion evolution from start of combustion. IR imaging is applied in cycle resolved mode. Three filters are adopted to detect from injection to combustion phase with high spatial and temporal resolution: OD1.45 (3-5.5 μm), band pass 3.3 μm (hydrocarbons) and band pass 4.2 μm (CO2). Using the band pass IR imaging qualitative information about fuel-vapor distribution and ignition locations during low and high temperature combustion have been provided.
Technical Paper

Assessment of the New Features of a Prototype High-Pressure “Hollow Cone Spray” Diesel Injector by Means of Engine Performance Characterization and Spray Visualization

2018-09-10
2018-01-1697
The application of more efficient compression ignition combustion concepts requires advancement in terms of fuel injection technologies. The injector nozzle is the most critical component of the whole injection system for its impact on the combustion process. It is characterized by the number of holes, diameter, internal shape, and opening angle. The reduction of the nozzle hole diameter seems the simplest way to promote the atomization process but the number of holes must be increased to keep constant the injected fuel mass. This logic has been applied to the development of a new generation of injectors. First, the tendency to increase the nozzle number and to reduce the diameter has led to the replacement of the nozzle with a circular plate. The vertical movement of the needle generates an annulus area for the fuel delivery on 360 degrees, so controlling the atomization as a function of the vertical plate position.
Technical Paper

Ultra-High Speed Fuel Tracer PLIF Imaging in a Heavy-Duty Optical PPC Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0904
In order to meet the requirements in the stringent emission regulations, more and more research work has been focused on homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and partially premixed combustion (PPC) or partially premixed compression ignition (PCCI) as they have the potential to produce low NOx and soot emissions without adverse effects on engine efficiency. The mixture formation and charge stratification influence the combustion behavior and emissions for PPC/PCCI, significantly. An ultra-high speed burst-mode laser is used to capture the mixture formation process from the start of injection until several CADs after the start of combustion in a single cycle. To the authors’ best knowledge, this is the first time that such a high temporal resolution, i.e. 0.2 CAD, PLIF could be accomplished for imaging of the in-cylinder mixing process. The capability of resolving single cycles allows for the influence of cycle-to-cycle variations to be eliminated.
Technical Paper

Temperature Measurements of the Piston Optical Window in a Research Compression Ignition Engine via Thermography and Templugs

2018-04-03
2018-01-0083
Internal combustion engines are characterized by high pressure and thermal loads on pistons and in cylinders. The heat generated by the combustion process is dissipated by means of water and oil cooling systems. For the best design and optimization of the engine components it is necessary to know the components temperature in order to estimate the thermal flows. The purpose of this work is to measure the piston sapphire window temperature in a research optically accessible engine by combining two different techniques: measurements with templugs and with thermography. The method is very simple and can provide a reliable value of temperature within a small interval. It fits well for applications inside the engine because of its low technical level requirements. It consists of application of temperature sensitive stickers on the target component that makes it a very robust method, not affected by piston movement.
Technical Paper

CFD Analysis of the Combustion Process in Dual-Fuel Diesel Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0257
Dual-fuel technology has the potential to offer significant improvements in the emissions of carbon dioxide from light-duty compression ignition engines. The dual-fuel (diesel/natural gas) concept represents a possible solution to reduce emissions from diesel engines by using natural gas (methane) as an alternative fuel. Methane was injected in the intake manifold while the diesel oil was injected directly into the engine. The present work describes the results of a numerical study on combustion process of a common rail diesel engine supplied with natural gas and diesel oil. In particular, the aim is to study the effect of increasing methane concentration at constant injected diesel amount on both pollutant emissions and combustion evolution. The study of dual-fuel engines that is carried out in this paper aims at the evaluation of the CFD potential, by a 3-dimensional code, to predict the main features of this technology.
Technical Paper

Particle Formation and Emissions in an Optical Small Displacement SI Engine Dual Fueled with CNG DI and Gasoline PFI

2017-09-04
2017-24-0092
Fuel depletion as well as the growing concerns on environmental issues prompt to the use of more eco-friendly fuels. The compressed natural gas (CNG) is considered one of the most promising alternative fuel for engine applications because of the lower emissions. Nevertheless, recent studies highlighted the presence of ultrafine particle emissions at the exhaust of CNG engines. The present study aims to investigate the effect of CNG on particle formation and emissions when it was direct injected and when it was dual fueled with gasoline. In this latter case, the CNG was direct injected and the gasoline port fuel injected. The study was carried out on a transparent single cylinder SI engine in order to investigate the in-cylinder process by real time non-intrusive diagnostics. In-cylinder 2D chemiluminescence measurements from UV to visible were carried out.
Technical Paper

N-Heptane Ignition Delay Time Model for Two Stage Combustion Process

2017-09-04
2017-24-0071
Ignition delay time is key to any hydrocarbon combustion process. In that sense, this parameter has to be known accurately, and especially for internal combustion engine applications. Combustion timing is one of the most important factors influencing overall engine performances like power output, combustion efficiency, emissions, in-cylinder peak pressure, etc. In the case of low temperature combustion (LTC) mode (e.g. HCCI mode), this parameter is controlled by chemical kinetics. In this paper, an ignition delay time model including 7 direct reactions and 13 species coupled with a temperature criterion is described. This mechanism has been obtained from the previous 26-step n-heptane reduced mechanism, focusing on the low temperature region which is the most important phase during the two stage combustion process. The complete model works with 7 reactions until the critical temperature is reached, leading to the detection of the ignition delay time value.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Characterization of Diesel Injection in Single-Cylinder Research Engine with Rate Shaping Strategy

2017-09-04
2017-24-0113
The management of multiple injections in compression ignition (CI) engines is one of the most common ways to increase engine performance by avoiding hardware modifications and after-treatment systems. Great attention is given to the profile of the injection rate since it controls the fuel delivery in the cylinder. The Injection Rate Shaping (IRS) is a technique that aims to manage the quantity of injected fuel during the injection process via a proper definition of the injection timing (injection duration and dwell time). In particular, it consists in closer and centered injection events and in a split main injection with a very small dwell time. From the experimental point of view, the performance of an IRS strategy has been studied in an optical CI engine. In particular, liquid and vapor phases of the injected fuel have been acquired via visible and infrared imaging, respectively. Injection parameters, like penetration and cone angle have been determined and analyzed.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigations on the Sources of Particulate Emission within a Natural Gas Spark-Ignition Engine

2017-09-04
2017-24-0141
The aim of the present work is to provide further guidance into better understanding the production mechanisms of soot emissions in Spark-Ignition SI engines fueled with compressed natural gas. In particular, extensive experimental investigations were designed with the aim to isolate the contribution of the fuel from that of lubricant oil to particle emissions. This because the common thought is that particulate emerging from the engine derives mainly from fuel, otherwise the contribute of lubricant oil cannot be neglected or underestimated, especially when the fuel itself produces low levels of soot emissions, such as in the case of premixed natural gas. The fuel-derived contribution was studied by analyzing the influence that natural gas composition has on soot emitted from a single cylinder Spark-Ignition (SI) engine. To achieve this purpose, methane/propane mixtures were realized and injected into the intake manifold of a Single-Cylinder SI engine.
Technical Paper

On the Entrainment Velocity and Characteristic Length Scales Used for Quasi-Dimensional Turbulent Combustion Modeling in Spark Ignition Engines

2017-09-04
2017-24-0002
Quasi-dimensional modeling is used on a wide scale in engine development, given its potential for saving time and resources compared to experimental investigations. Often it is preferred to more complex CFD codes that are much more computationally intensive. Accuracy is one major issue of quasi-dimensional simulations and for this reason sub-models are continuously developed for improving predictive capabilities. This study considers the use of equivalent fluid velocity and characteristic length scales for simulating the processes of fresh charge entrainment and oxidation behind the flame front. Rather than dividing combustion into three different phases (i.e. laminar kernel, turbulent flame propagation and oxidation near the walls), the concept of turbulent heat and mass transfer is imposed throughout the entire process.
Journal Article

Real Time Prediction of Particle Sizing at the Exhaust of a Diesel Engine by Using a Neural Network Model

2017-09-04
2017-24-0051
In order to meet the increasingly strict emission regulations, several solutions for NOx and PM emissions reduction have been studied. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) technology has become one of the more used methods to accomplish the NOx emissions reduction. However, actual control strategies do not consider, in the definition of optimal EGR, its effect on particle size and density. These latter have a great importance both for the optimal functioning of after-treatment systems, but also for the adverse effects that small particles have on human health. Epidemiological studies, in fact, highlighted that the toxicity of particulate particles increases as the particle size decreases. The aim of this paper is to present a Neural Network model able to provide real time information about the characteristics of exhaust particles emitted by a Diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Correlation between Simulated Volume Fraction Burned Using a Quasi-Dimensional Model and Flame Area Measured in an Optically Accessible SI Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0545
Multi-fuel operation is one of the main topics of investigative research in the field of internal combustion engines. Spark ignition (SI) power units are relatively easily adaptable to alternative liquid-as well as gaseous-fuels, with mixture preparation being the main modification required. Numerical simulations are used on an ever wider scale in engine research in order to reduce costs associated with experimental investigations. In this sense, quasi-dimensional models provide acceptable accuracy with reduced computational efforts. Within this context, the present study puts under scrutiny the assumption of spherical flame propagation and how calibration of a two-zone combustion simulation is affected when changing fuel type. A quasi-dimensional model was calibrated based on measured in-cylinder pressure, and numerical results related to the two-zone volumes were compared to recorded flame imaging.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Combustion and Emissions of a Propane-Diesel Blend in a Research Diesel Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0810
The interest of the vehicle producers in fulfillment emission legislations without adopting after treatment systems is driving to the use of non-conventional energy sources for modern engines. A previous test campaign dealing with the use of blends of diesel and propane in a CI engine has pointed out the potential of this non-conventional fuel for diesel engines. The soft adaptation of the common rail injection system and the potential benefits, in terms of engine performances and pollutant emissions, encourage the use of propane-diesel blends if an optimization of the injection strategies is performed. In this work, the performances of a propane-diesel mixture in a research diesel engine have been investigated. The injection strategies of Euro 5 calibration have been used as reference for the development of optimized strategies. The aim of the optimization process was to ensure the same engine power output and reduce the pollutant emissions.
Technical Paper

An Experimental and Numerical Investigation of GDI Spray Impact over Walls at Different Temperatures

2016-04-05
2016-01-0853
Internal combustion engines performance greatly depends on the air-fuel mixture formation and combustion processes. In gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines, in particular, the impact of the liquid spray on the piston or cylinder walls is a key factor, especially if mixture formation occurs under the so-called wall-guided mode. Impact causes droplets rebound and/or deposition of a liquid film (wallfilm). After being rebounded, droplets undergo what is called secondary atomization. The wallfilm may remain of no negligible size, so that fuel vapor rich zones form around it leading to so-called pool-flames (flames placed in the piston pit), hence to unburned hydrocarbons (HC) and particulate matter (PM) formation. A basic study of the spray-wall interaction is here performed by directing a multi-hole GDI spray against a real shape engine piston, possibly heated, under standard air conditions.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Split Injections on the Performance of a GDI Engine Under Lean Operation

2015-09-06
2015-24-2413
Gasoline direct injection (GDI) allows flexible operation of spark ignition engines for reduced fuel consumption and low pollutants emissions. The choice of the best combination of the different parameters that affect the energy conversion process and the environmental impact of a given engine may either resort to experimental characterizations or to computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Under this perspective, present work is aimed at discussing the assessment of a CFD-optimization (CFD-O) procedure for the highest performance of a GDI engine operated lean under both single and double injection strategies realized during compression. An experimental characterization of a 4-stroke 4-cylinder optically accessible engine, working stratified lean under single injection, is first carried out to collect a set of data necessary for the validation of a properly developed 3D engine model.
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