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Technical Paper

An Innovative Test System for Holistic Vehicle Dynamics Testing

2019-04-02
2019-01-0449
In the automotive industry, there is a continued need to improve the development process and handle the increasing complexity of the overall vehicle system. One major step in this process is a comprehensive and complementary approach to both simulation and testing. Knowledge of the overall dynamic vehicle behavior is becoming increasingly important for the development of new control concepts such as integrated vehicle dynamics control aiming to improve handling quality and ride comfort. However, with current well-established test systems, only separated and isolated aspects of vehicle dynamics can be evaluated. To address these challenges and further merge the link between simulation and testing, the Institute of Internal Combustion Engines and Automotive Engineering (IVK), University of Stuttgart is introducing a new Handling Roadway (HRW) Test System in cooperation with The Research Institute of Automotive Engineering and Vehicle Engines Stuttgart (FKFS) and MTS Systems Corporation.
Technical Paper

Introduction of the AeroSUV-A New Generic SUV Model for Aerodynamic Research

2019-04-02
2019-01-0646
Since the introduction of the DrivAer model, an increasing amount of aerodynamic research and CAE method development activities are based on this detailed generic car body. Due to the Open Access nature of the model, it has not only been quickly adopted by academia but also by several automotive OEMs and CAE software developers. The DrivAer has delivered high quality experimental data to permit validation of existing aerodynamic CAE capabilities and to accelerate the development of new sophisticated numerical methods. Within the last decades, the registration number of SUV, especially in Europe, has increased significantly. Among other things, a large cross-sectional area, an increased ground clearance and larger wheels characterize this kind of vehicle. The DrivAer is not capable of depicting this vehicle category. Therefore, there is a demand for an expansion of this generic vehicle concept.
Technical Paper

Reduced Model of a Vehicle Cabin for Transient Thermal Simulation

2018-05-30
2018-37-0022
In the proposed work the transient thermal modeling of a vehicle cabin has been performed. Therefore, a reduced model has been developed based on a one-node discretization of the cabin air. The conduction in the solid parts is accounted for by a one-dimensional heat transfer approach, the radiation exchange between the surfaces is based on view factors adopted from a 3D reference and the convective heat transfer from the cabin surfaces to the cabin air is conducted with the help of heat transfer coefficients calculated in a 3D reference simulation. The cabin surface is discretized by planar wall elements, including the outer shell of the cabin and inner elements such as seats. Each wall element is composed of several homogeneous material layers with individual thicknesses. Investigations have been conducted on the temporal and spatial resolution of the layer structure of these wall elements, for the 3D model as well as for the reduced one.
Technical Paper

Robust Optimization for Real World CO2 Reduction

2018-05-30
2018-37-0015
Ground transportation industry contributes to about 14% of the global CO2 emissions. Therefore, any effort in reducing global CO2 needs to include the design of cleaner and more energy efficient vehicles. Their design needs to be optimized for the real-world conditions. Using wind tunnels that can only reproduce idealized conditions quite often does not translate into real-world on-road CO2 reduction and improved energy efficiency. Several recent studies found that very rarely can the real-world environment be represented by turbulence-free conditions simulated in wind tunnels. The real-world conditions consist of both transversal flow velocity component (causing an oncoming yaw flow) as well as large-scale turbulent fluctuations, with length scales of up to many times the size of a vehicle. The study presented in this paper shows how the realistic wind affects the aerodynamics of the vehicle.
Journal Article

Active Crosswind Generation and Its Effect on the Unsteady Aerodynamic Vehicle Properties Determined in an Open Jet Wind Tunnel

2018-04-03
2018-01-0722
In this article the unsteady aerodynamic properties of a 25% scale DrivAer notchback model as well as the influence of the wind tunnel environment on the resulting unsteady aerodynamic forces and moments under crosswind excitation are investigated using experimental and corresponding numerical methods. Research Institute of Automotive Engineering and Vehicle Engines Stuttgart (FKFS) swing® (side wind generator) is used to reproduce the essential properties of natural stochastic crosswind in the open jet test section of the Institute for Internal Combustion Engines and Automotive Engineering (IVK) model scale wind tunnel (MWK). The results show that the test environment of an open jet wind tunnel alters the amplitudes of side force and yaw moment under crosswind excitation when compared to an ideal environment neglecting wind tunnel interference effects.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Simulation of a Standalone Rotating Treaded Tire

2017-03-28
2017-01-1551
The aerodynamics of a rotating tire can contribute up to a third of the overall aerodynamic force on the vehicle. The flow around a rotating tire is very complex and is often affected by smallest tire features. Accurate prediction of vehicle aerodynamics therefore requires modeling of tire rotation including all geometry details. Increased simulation accuracy is motivated by the needs emanating from stricter new regulations. For example, the upcoming Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Procedures (WLTP) will place more emphasis on vehicle performance at higher speeds. The reason for this is to bring the certified vehicle characteristics closer to the real-world performance. In addition, WLTP will require reporting of CO2 emissions for all vehicle derivatives, including all possible wheel and tire variants. Since the number of possible derivatives can run into the hundreds for most models, their evaluation in wind tunnels might not be practically possible.
Technical Paper

A New Approach to Predicting Component Temperature Collectives for Vehicle Thermal Management

2017-03-28
2017-01-0134
There is a growing need for life-cycle data – so-called collectives – when developing components like elastomer engine mounts. Current standardized extreme load cases are not sufficient for establishing such collectives. Supplementing the use of endurance testing data, a prediction methodology for component temperature collectives utilizing existing 3D CFD simulation models is presented. The method uses support points to approximate the full collective. Each support point is defined by a component temperature and a position on the time axis of the collective. Since it is the only currently available source for component temperature data, endurance testing data is used to develop the new method. The component temperature range in this data set is divided in temperature bands. Groups of driving states are determined which are each representative of an individual band. Each of the resulting four driving state spaces is condensed into a substitute load case.
Journal Article

Accurate Fuel Economy Prediction via a Realistic Wind Averaged Drag Coefficient

2017-03-28
2017-01-1535
The ultimate goal for vehicle aerodynamicists is to develop vehicles that perform well on the road under real-world conditions. One of the most important metrics to evaluate vehicle performance is the drag coefficient. However, vehicle development today is performed mostly under controlled settings using wind tunnels and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with artificially uniform upstream conditions, neglecting real-world effects due to road turbulence from wind and other vehicles. Thus, the drag coefficients computed with these methods might not be representative of the real performance of the car on the road. This might ultimately lead engineers to develop design solutions and aerodynamic devices which, while performing well in idealized conditions, do not perform well on the road. For this reason, it is important to assess the vehicle’s drag as seen in real-world environments. An effort in this direction is represented by using the wind-averaged drag.
Journal Article

Subjective Perception and Evaluation of Driving Dynamics in the Virtual Test Drive

2017-03-28
2017-01-1564
In addition to the analysis of human driving behavior or the development of new advanced driver assistance systems, the high simulation quality of today’s driving simulators enables investigations of selected topics pertaining to driving dynamics. With high reproducibility and fast generation of vehicle variants the subjective evaluation process leads to a better system understanding in the early development stages. The transfer of the original on-road test run to the virtual reality of the driving simulator includes the full flexibility of the vehicle model, the maneuver and the test track, which allows new possibilities of investigation. With the opportunity of a realistic whole-vehicle simulation provided by the Stuttgart Driving Simulator new analysis of the human’s thresholds of perception are carried out.
Journal Article

New Motion Cueing Algorithm for Improved Evaluation of Vehicle Dynamics on a Driving Simulator

2017-03-28
2017-01-1566
In recent years, driving simulators have become a valuable tool in the automotive design and testing process. Yet, in the field of vehicle dynamics, most decisions are still based on test drives in real cars. One reason for this situation can be found in the fact that many driving simulators do not allow the driver to evaluate the handling qualities of a simulated vehicle. In a driving simulator, the motion cueing algorithm tries to represent the vehicle motion within the constrained motion envelope of the motion platform. By nature, this process leads to so called false cues where the motion of the platform is not in phase or moving in a different direction with respect to the vehicle motion. In a driving simulator with classical filter-based motion cueing, false cues make it considerably more difficult for the driver to rate vehicle dynamics.
Journal Article

Investigation of Aerodynamic Drag in Turbulent Flow Conditions

2016-04-05
2016-01-1605
In this paper the influence of different turbulent flow conditions on the aerodynamic drag of a quarter scale model with notchback and estate back rear ends is investigated. FKFS swing® (Side Wind Generator) is used to generate a turbulent flow field in the test section of the IVK model scale wind tunnel. In order to investigate the increase in drag with increasing yaw, a steady state yaw sweep is performed for both vehicle models. The shape of the drag curves vary for each vehicle model. The notchback model shows a more pronounced drag minimum at 0° yaw angle and experiences a more severe increase in drag at increasing yaw when compared to the estate back model. Unsteady time averaged aerodynamic drag values are obtained at two flow situations with different turbulent length scales, turbulence intensities, and yaw angle amplitudes. While the first one is representing light wind, the second one is recreating the presence of strong gusty wind.
Technical Paper

The New Interchangeable Three-belt System in the IVK Full-Scale Wind Tunnel of University of Stuttgart: Design and First Results

2016-04-05
2016-01-1581
With its recent wind tunnel upgrade, FKFS installed the first interchangeable three-belt / five-belt-system (FKFS first®) in a full scale automotive wind tunnel. With the five-belt system, which today is a state-of-the-art ground simulation technique, the system is ideally suited for production vehicle development work. The five-belt system offers high flexibility, quick access to the underfloor and vehicle fixation, and setting the vehicle’s ride height by the restraint device. The first results of the five-belt system have already been published in SAE 2015-01-1557 [1]. The three-belt system on the other hand, offers a much more sophisticated ground simulation technique which is necessary especially for sports and racing cars. For such vehicles with very low ground clearances, it is important to have a more accurate ground simulation, in order to capture the same aerodynamic modes of action and response as on the road.
Technical Paper

Challenges and Opportunities of Numerically Simulating the Idle Load Case for Vehicle Thermal Management

2015-04-14
2015-01-0340
Collective life-cycle data is needed when developing components like elastomer suspension mounts. Life-time prediction is only possible using thermal load frequency distributions. In addition to current extreme load cases, the Idle Load Case is examined at Mercedes-Benz Car Group as a collective load case for Vehicle Thermal Management (VTM) numerical simulations in early development stages. It combines validation opportunities for HVAC, cooling and transmission requirements in hot-country-type ambient conditions. Experiments in climatic wind tunnels and coupled 3D CFD and heat transfer simulations of the Idle Load Case have been performed. Measurements show steady conditions at the end of the load case. Decoupling of the torque converter, changes in ambient temperature and the technical implementation of a wind barrier for still air conditions exhibit influence on component-level results. Solar load, however, does not significantly change the examined component temperatures.
Technical Paper

Advances in Modelling A-Pillar Water Overflow

2015-04-14
2015-01-1549
Driving when it is raining can be a stressful experience. Having a clear unobstructed view of the vehicles and road around you under these conditions is especially important. Heavy rain conditions can however overwhelm water management devices resulting in water rivulets flowing over the vehicle's side glass. These rivulets can significantly impair the driver's ability to see the door mirror, and laterally onto junctions. Designing water management features for vehicles is a challenging venture as testing is not normally possible until late in the design phase. Additionally traditional water management features such as grooves and channels have both undesirable design and wind noise implications. Having the ability to detect water management issues such as A-pillar overflow earlier in the design cycle is desirable to minimize the negative impact of water management features. Numerical simulation of windscreen water management is desirable for this reason.
Technical Paper

Application of Real-World Wind Conditions for Assessing Aerodynamic Drag for On-Road Range Prediction

2015-04-14
2015-01-1551
Aerodynamic evaluation of vehicles using static yaw angle changes in wind tunnel testing and numerical simulation has been used as standard practice for evaluating vehicle performance under a range of wind conditions. However, this approach does not consider dynamic wind effects coming from changing wind conditions, passing other vehicles and roadside obstacles, and transient non-uniform wind conditions coming from environmental turbulence. In previous work by the authors, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation methodology for considering dynamic wind conditions and on-road turbulence was demonstrated, showing the important effects of the wind conditions on the vehicle aerodynamics. The technique allows the vehicle to be tested under a range of transient gust conditions, also accounting for wind turbulence coming from upstream vehicles and natural environmental wind fluctuations.
Journal Article

Comparison of Computational Simulation of Automotive Spinning Wheel Flow Field with Full Width Moving Belt Wind Tunnel Results

2015-04-14
2015-01-1556
One of the remaining challenges in the simulation of the aerodynamics of ground vehicles is the modeling of the airflows around the spinning tires and wheels of the vehicle. As in most advances in the development of simulation capabilities, it is the lack of appropriately detailed and accurate experimental data with which to correlate that holds back the advance of the technology. The flow around the wheels and tires and their interfaces with the vehicle body and the ground is a critical area for the development of automobiles and trucks, not just for aerodynamic forces and moments, and their result on fuel economy and vehicle handling and performance, but also for the airflows and pressures that affect brake cooling, engine cooling airflows, water spray management etc.
Journal Article

Alternative Simulation Methods for Assessing Aerodynamic Drag in Realistic Crosswind

2014-04-01
2014-01-0599
The focus of evaluating yaw characteristics in automotive aerodynamics has been primarily with regards to the effects of crosswind on vehicle handling. However, changes to drag that the vehicle experiences due to prevalent on-road crosswind can also be significant, even at low yaw angles. Using wind tunnel testing, it is possible to quickly determine the static yaw performance of the vehicle by rotating the vehicle on a turntable to different yaw angles during a single wind tunnel run. However, this kind of testing does not account for dynamic crosswind effects or non-uniform crosswind such as with natural on-road turbulence. Alternatively, numerical simulations using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can be used to evaluate yaw performance. In this paper, Exa's PowerFLOW is used to examine two alternative methods of simulating aerodynamic performance in the presence of realistic on-road crosswind for the Tesla Model S sedan.
Journal Article

Insights into Rear Surface Contamination Using Simulation of Road Spray and Aerodynamics

2014-04-01
2014-01-0610
Contamination of vehicle rear surfaces is a significant issue for customers. Along with being unsightly, it can degrade the performance of rear camera systems and lighting, prematurely wear rear screens and wipers, and transfer soil to customers moving goods through the rear tailgate. Countermeasures, such as rear camera wash or automated deployment add expense and complexity for OEMs. This paper presents a rear surface contamination model for a fully detailed SUV based on the use of a highly-resolved time-accurate aerodynamic simulation realised through the use of a commercial Lattice-Boltzmann solver, combined with Lagrangian Particle Tracking to simulate droplet advection and surface water dynamics via a thin film model. Droplet break-up due to aerodynamic shear is included, along with splash and stripping from the surface film. The effect of two-way momentum coupling is included in a sub-set of simulations.
Technical Paper

Model Scale Based Process for the Development of Aerodynamic Tire Characteristics

2014-04-01
2014-01-0585
The geometric shape of the tires can have a large influence on the aerodynamic drag of a passenger car as it has been shown already in different publications like for example [1, 2, 3]. However, to optimize the shape of a tire, nowadays quite some effort is needed in terms of wind tunnel time and costs for prototype tires. In this paper an approach to optimize the tire's shape in model scale is described, which can help to reduce both development time and costs. The first step in the development of this method was to verify that the aerodynamic effects of the tire geometry in model scale are comparable to full scale tests. This was achieved by measuring different production tires in full scale and also by measuring the quarter scale version of the same tires. The only difference between the original and the model scale tires was that the scaled tires were not deformable. The results show that the difference between two sets of tires is comparable in full scale and in quarter scale.
Technical Paper

An Approach for Water Jacket Flow Simulations

2014-04-01
2014-01-0659
The increasing importance of electric mobility results into the need for optimizing all power train components to further reduce the energy consumption of the vehicle. The aim of this study is to predict the thermal behavior and the pressure losses in water jackets of electric machines by use of CFD. The heat loss of electric machines in passenger cars is sufficient to let its components reach critical temperatures. For this reason, the optimization of heat dissipation plays an important role. The goal of efficient heat dissipation is a high heat transfer coefficient. At the same time, the pressure loss should be low in order to reduce the required power of the pump. Flow simulations can help to evaluate different water jacket concepts in an early stage of development. In this work, the validation of flow simulations in water jackets is based on measurements of a simplified geometry with constant boundary conditions.
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