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Technical Paper

Development of a Dedicated CNG Three-Way Catalyst Model in 1-D Simulation Platforms

2019-09-09
2019-24-0074
A growing interest in heavy-duty engines powered with CNG dictated by stringent regulations in terms of emissions, has made it essential to study a specific Three-Way Catalyst (TWC). Oxygen storage phenomena characterize catalytic converter efficiency under real world driving operating conditions and, consequently, during strong dynamics in Air-to-Fuel (A/F) ratio. A numerical “quasi-steady” model has been set-up to simulate the chemical process inside the reactor. A dedicated experimental campaign has been performed in order to evaluate the catalyst response to a defined lambda variation pattern of the engine exhaust stream, thus providing the data necessary for the numerical model validation. In fact, goal of the present research activity was to investigate the effect of very fast composition transitions of the engine exhaust typical of the mentioned driving conditions (including fuel cutoffs etc.) on the catalyst performance and on related emissions at the tailpipe.
Technical Paper

Combustion and Emission Characteristics of a Compression Ignition Engine Fueled with Diesel-LPG Blends

2019-09-09
2019-24-0038
Alternative fuels have recently attracted considerable attention due to their potential role in improving ambient air quality and mitigating global warming. Recent research has applied a variety of alternative fuels in an attempt to satisfy these requirements. Clearly, the alternative fuels industry needs to build confidence from fuels that perform well without adding considerable cost to the consumer. Although not a renewable fuel, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is a low-cost alternative fuel that might meet these needs; albeit temporarily. LPG is well known as an alternative fuel for spark ignition (SI) engines and, more recently, LPG systems have also been introduced to compression ignition (CI) engines. In this framework, to investigate the practical application and potential of this concept, diesel was blended with LPG, in different ratios (20-35% w/w). For this purpose, a single-cylinder test rig was properly adapted and, a standard common rail fuel injection system was employed.
Technical Paper

Assessment of Engine Control Parameters Effect to Minimize GHG Emissions in a Dual Fuel NG/Diesel Light Duty Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0266
The interest in Natural Gas (NG) as alternative fuel for transportation is constantly growing, mostly due to its large availability and lower environmental impact with respect to gasoline or diesel fuel. In this scenario, the application of the Dual Fuel (DF) Diesel- Natural Gas (NG) combustion concept to light duty engines can represent an important route to increment the diffusion of natural gas use. Many studies have proven the benefits of DF with respect to conventional diesel combustion in terms of CO2, NOx, PM and PN emissions, with the main drawback of high unburned hydrocarbon, mainly at low/partial engine loads. This last aspect still prevents the application of DF mode to small displacement engines. In the present work, a 2.0 L Euro 5 compliant diesel engine, equipped with an advanced electronic closed-loop combustion control (CLCC) system, has been set up to operate in DF mode and tested on a dyno test bench.
Technical Paper

Application of a Dual Fuel Diesel-CNG Configuration in a Euro 5 Automotive Diesel Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0769
An increasing interest in the use of natural gas in CI engines is currently taking place, due to several reasons: it is cheaper than conventional Diesel fuel, permits a significant reduction of carbon dioxide and is intrinsically clean, being much less prone to soot formation. In this respect, the Dual Fuel concept has already proven to be a viable solution, industrially implemented for several applications in the heavy duty engines category. An experimental research activity was devoted to the analysis of the potentiality offered by the application of a Dual Fuel Diesel-CNG configuration on a light duty 2L Euro 5 automotive diesel engine, equipped with an advanced control system of the combustion. The experimental campaign foresaw to test the engine in dynamic and steady state conditions, comparing engine performance and emissions in conventional Diesel and Dual Fuel combustion modes.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Effect of Compression Ratio on the Combustion Behavior and Emission Performance of HVO Blended Diesel Fuels in a Single-Cylinder Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-0898
Hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) is a renewable high quality paraffinic diesel that can be obtained by the hydrotreating of a wide range of biomass feedstocks, including vegetable oils, animal fats, waste oils, greases and algal oils. HVO can be used as a drop-in fuel with beneficial effects for the engine and the environment. The main objective of this study was to explore the potential of HVO as a candidate bio blendstock for new experimental formulations of diesel fuel to be used in advanced combustion systems at different compression ratios and at high EGR rates in order to conform to the Euro 6 NOx emission standard. The experiments were carried out in a single-cylinder research engine at three steady-state operating conditions and at three compression ratios (CR) by changing the piston.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Impact of the Dual-Fuel Ethanol-Diesel System on the Size, Morphology, and Chemical Characteristics of the Soot Particles Emitted from a LD Diesel Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1613
Nowadays, alcohol fuels are of increasing interest as alternative transportation biofuels even in compression ignition engines because they are oxygenated and producible in a sustainable way. In this paper, the experimental research activity was conducted on a single cylinder research engine provided with a modern architecture and properly modified in a dual-fuel (DF) configuration. Looking at ethanol the as one of the future environmental friendly biofuels experimental campaign was aimed to evaluate in detail the effect of the use of the ethanol as port injected fuel in diesel engine on the size, morphology, reactivity and chemical features of the exhaust emitted soot particles. The engine tests were chosen properly in order to represent actual working conditions of an automotive light-duty diesel engine. A proper engine Dual-Fuel calibration was set-up respecting prefixed limits on in-cylinder peak firing pressure, cylinder pressure rise, fuel efficiency and gaseous emissions.
Technical Paper

Estimation of TTW and WTW Factors for a Light Duty Dual Fuel NG-Diesel EU5 Passenger Car

2014-04-01
2014-01-1621
An increasing interest in the use of natural gas in CI engines is currently taking place, due to several reasons: it is cheaper than conventional Diesel fuel, permits a significant reduction in the amount of emitted carbon dioxide and is intrinsically cleaner, being much less prone to soot formation. In this respect, the Dual Fuel (DF) concept has already proven to be a viable solution, industrially implemented for several applications in the high duty engines category. Despite this, some issues still require a technological solution, preventing the commercialization of DF engines in wider automotive fields: the release of high amounts of unburned fuel, the risk of engine knock, the possible thermal efficiency reduction are some factors regarding the fuel combustion aspect. DF configuration examined in the present paper corresponds to Port Fuel Injection of natural gas and direct injection of the Diesel Fuel.
Technical Paper

Effect of Port Injected Ethanol on Combustion Characteristics in a Dual-Fuel Light Duty Diesel Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-1692
Nowadays, alcoholic fuels gain increased interest as alternative transportation biofuel even in compression ignition engines due to the fact that they contain oxygen and can be produced in a sustainable way. Furthermore, due to their lower CN (Cetane Number) they suit better for premixed combustion applications. Experimental research was conducted on a single cylinder engine provided with modern engine architecture modified for DF (Dual-Fuel) purposes. The authors have investigated the use of ethanol in a DF engine in order to exploit its well-known advantages in premixed combustion mode. The DF approach appears to be a promising solution because it permits flexible control of the premixed fuel fraction regardless from the operating conditions. This improves the exploitation of the ethanol potential according the engine working conditions.
Journal Article

Study of the Effect of the Engine Parameters Calibration to Optimize the Use of Bio-Ethanol/RME/Diesel Blend in a Euro5 Light Duty Diesel Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-1695
In the global scenario of encouraging the use of renewable sources, the bioethanol as fuel supply in the automotive sector is receiving increasing interest. In the present paper the results of a research activity aimed to study the impact of a bioethanol/biodiesel/mineral diesel blend on performance and emissions of an automotive diesel engine are reassumed. An experimental campaign has been devoted to characterize the engine fuelled by the ethanol based blend highlighting the advantages and issues related to the bioethanol use. Moreover, the effects of the most important injection settings on the engine performance have been detailed, applying a Design of Experiment (DoE) method, to identify the potentiality offered by a proper engine calibration to optimize the ethanol blend use.
Technical Paper

Low Cetane Number Renewable Oxy-fuels for Premixed Combustion Concept Application: Experimental Investigation on a Light Duty Diesel Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-1310
This paper illustrates the results of an experimental study on the impact of a low cetane number (CN) oxygenated fuel on the combustion process and emissions of a light-duty (LD) single-cylinder research engine. In an earlier study, it was concluded that cyclic oxygenates consistently outperformed their straight and branched counterparts at equal oxygen content and with respect to lowering soot emissions. A clear correlation was reported linking soot and CN, with lower CN fuels leading to more favorable soot levels. It was concluded that a lower CN fuel, when realized by adding low reactive cyclic oxygenates to commercial diesel fuel, manifests in longer ignition delays and thus more premixing. Ultimately, a higher degree of premixing, in turn, was thought to suppress soot formation rates.
Technical Paper

Impact of Biodiesel on Particle Emissions and DPF Regeneration Management in a Euro5 Automotive Diesel Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-0839
Biofuel usage is increasingly expanding thanks to its significant contribution to a well-to-wheel (WTW) reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In addition, stringent emission standards make mandatory the use of Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) for the particulate emissions control. The different physical properties and chemical composition of biofuels impact the overall engine behaviour. In particular, the PM emissions and the related DPF regeneration strategy are clearly affected by biofuel usage due mainly to its higher oxygen content and lower low heating value (LHV). More specifically, the PM emissions and the related DPF regeneration strategy are clearly affected by biofuel usage due mainly to its higher oxygen content and lower low heating value, respectively. The particle emissions, in fact, are lower mainly because of the higher oxygen content. Subsequently less frequent regenerations are required.
Technical Paper

Combustion Behaviour and Emission Performance of Neat and Blended Polyoxymethylene Dimethyl Ethers in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-1053
The combustion behaviour, the mechanisms of soot formation, and the emission performance of a mixture of polyoxymethylene dimethyl ethers (POMDME) oligomers with a number of oxymethylene units ranging from 3 to 5, both neat and blended at 12.5% and 50% levels with commercial diesel fuel have been investigated. The goals were a first evaluation of the POMDME impact on the diesel injector behaviour, on the combustion process as well as on the emission performance of a light duty engine. Then a brief screening on the capability to improve the NOx-PM trade-off using POMDME by means of the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate increment was also assessed.
Journal Article

The Key Role of the Closed-loop Combustion Control for Exploiting the Potential of Biodiesel in a Modern Diesel Engine for Passenger Car Applications

2011-06-09
2011-37-0005
The present paper describes the results of a cooperative research project between GM Powertrain Europe and Istituto Motori - CNR aimed at studying the capability of GM Combustion Closed-Loop Control (CLCC) in enabling seamless operation with high biodiesel blending levels in a modern diesel engine for passenger car applications. As a matter of fact, fuelling modern electronically-controlled diesel engines with high blends of biodiesel leads to a performance reduction of about 12-15% at rated power and up to 30% in the low-end torque, while increasing significantly the engine-out NOx emissions. These effects are both due to the interaction of the biodiesel properties with the control logic of the electronic control unit, which is calibrated for diesel operation. However, as the authors previously demonstrated, if engine calibration is re-tuned for biodiesel fuelling, the above mentioned drawbacks can be compensated and the biodiesel environmental inner qualities can be fully deployed.
Technical Paper

Assessment of Closed-Loop Combustion Control Capability for Biodiesel Blending Detection and Combustion Impact Mitigation for an Euro5 Automotive Diesel Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-1193
The present paper describes the results of a cooperative research project between GM Powertrain Europe and Istituto Motori - CNR aimed at studying the impact of both fresh and highly oxidized Rapeseed Methyl Ester (RME) at different levels of blending on performance, emissions and fuel consumption of modern automotive diesel engines featuring Closed-Loop Combustion Control (CLCC). In parallel, the capability of this system to detect the level of biodiesel blending through the use of specific detection algorithms was assessed. The tests were performed on the recently released 2.0L Euro5 GM diesel engine for passenger car application equipped with embedded pressure sensors in the glow plugs. Various blends of fresh and aged RME with reference diesel fuel were tested, notably 20% RME by volume (B20), 50% (B50) and pure RME (B100).
Journal Article

Impact of RME and GTL Fuel on Combustion and Emissions of a “Torque-Controlled” Diesel Automotive Engines

2010-05-05
2010-01-1477
The present paper describes some results of a research project aimed at studying the impact of alternative fuels blends on the emissions and fuel consumption of an Euro 5 automotive diesel engine. Two alternative fuels were chosen for the experiments: RME and GTL. The tests were done in the three most important operating conditions for the engine emission calibration. Moreover, the NOx-PM trade-off by means of EGR sweep was performed in the same operating conditions, in order to evaluate the engine EGR tolerability when burning low sooting fuels as the RME. The investigations put in evidence that the impact of the alternative fuels on modern diesel engines remains significant. This also depends on the interaction between the alternative fuel characteristics and the engine-management strategies, as described in detail in the paper.
Journal Article

Alternative Diesel Fuels Effects on Combustion and Emissions of an Euro5 Automotive Diesel Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0472
The present paper describes some results of a cooperative research project between GM Powertrain Europe and Istituto Motori of CNR aimed at studying the impact of FAME and GTL fuel blends on the performance, emissions and fuel consumption of the latest-generation automotive diesel engines. The investigation was carried out on the newly released GM 2.0L 4-cylinder “torque-controlled” Euro 5 diesel engine for PC application and followed previous tests on its Euro 4 version, in order to track the interaction between the alternative fuels and the diesel engine, as the technology evolves. Various blends of first generation biodiesels (RME, SME) and GTL with a reference diesel fuel were tested, notably B20, B50 and B100. The tests were done in a wide range of engine operation points for the complete characterization of the biodiesels performance in the NEDC cycle, as well as in full load conditions.
Journal Article

Alternative Diesel Fuels Effects on Combustion and Emissions of an Euro4 Automotive Diesel Engine

2009-09-13
2009-24-0088
The present paper describes the first results of a cooperative research project between GM Powertrain Europe and Istituto Motori of CNR aimed at studying the impact of Fatty-Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) and gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuel blends on the performance, emissions and fuel consumption of modern automotive diesel engines. The tests were performed on the architecture of GM 1.9L Euro4 diesel engine for passenger car application, both on optical single-cylinder and on production four-cylinder engines, sharing the same combustion system configuration. Various blends of biodiesels as well as reference diesel fuel were tested. The experimental activity on the single-cylinder engine was devoted to an in-depth investigation of the combustion process and pollutant formation, by means of different optical diagnostics techniques, based on imaging multiwavelength spectroscopy.
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