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Technical Paper

Benchmarking a 2018 Toyota Camry 2.5-Liter Atkinson Cycle Engine with Cooled-EGR

2019-04-02
2019-01-0249
As part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) continuing assessment of advanced light-duty automotive technologies in support of regulatory and compliance programs, a 2018 Toyota Camry A25A-FKS 4-cylinder, 2.5-liter, naturally aspirated, Atkinson Cycle engine with cooled exhaust gas recirculation (cEGR) was benchmarked. The engine was tested on an engine dynamometer with and without its 8-speed automatic transmission, and with the engine wiring harness tethered to a complete vehicle parked outside of the test cell. Engine and transmission torque, fuel flow, key engine temperatures and pressures, onboard diagnostics (OBD) data, and Controller Area Network (CAN) bus data were recorded. This paper documents the test results under idle, low, medium, and high load engine operation. Motoring torque, wide open throttle (WOT) torque and fuel consumption are measured during transient operation using both EPA Tier 2 and Tier 3 test fuels.
Technical Paper

Potential Fuel Economy Improvements from the Implementation of cEGR and CDA on an Atkinson Cycle Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-1016
EPA has been benchmarking engines and transmissions to generate inputs for use in its technology assessments supporting the Midterm Evaluation of EPA’s 2017-2025 Light-Duty Vehicle greenhouse gas emissions assessments. As part of an Atkinson cycle engine technology assessment of applications in light-duty vehicles, cooled external exhaust gas recirculation (cEGR) and cylinder deactivation (CDA) were evaluated. The base engine was a production gasoline 2.0L four-cylinder engine with 75 degrees of intake cam phase authority and a 14:1 geometric compression ratio. An open ECU and cEGR hardware were installed on the engine so that the CO2 reduction effectiveness could be evaluated. Additionally, two cylinders were deactivated to determine what CO2 benefits could be achieved. Once a steady state calibration was complete, two-cycle (FTP and HwFET) CO2 reduction estimates were made using fuel weighted operating modes and a full vehicle model (ALPHA) cycle simulation.
Technical Paper

Air Flow Optimization and Calibration in High-Compression-Ratio Naturally Aspirated SI Engines with Cooled-EGR

2016-04-05
2016-01-0565
As part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) “Midterm Evaluation of Light-duty Vehicle Standards for Model Years 2022-2025 [1]”, the U.S. EPA is evaluating engines and assessing the effectiveness of future engine technologies for reducing CO2 emissions. Such assessments often require significant development time and resources in order to optimize intake and exhaust cam variable valve timing (VVT), exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) flow rates, and compression ratio (CR) changes. Mazda SkyActiv-G spark-ignition (SI) engines were selected by EPA for an internal engine development program based upon their high geometric compression ratio (14:1 in Europe and Japan, 13:1 in North America) and their use of a flexible valve train configuration with electro-mechanical phasing control on the intake camshaft. A one-dimensional GT-Power engine model was calibrated and validated using detailed engine dynamometer test data [2] from 2.0L and 2.5L versions of the SkyActiv-G engine.
Journal Article

Emissions of PCDD/Fs, PCBs, and PAHs from a Modern Diesel Engine Equipped with Selective Catalytic Reduction Filters

2013-04-08
2013-01-1778
Exhaust emissions of seventeen 2,3,7,8-substituted chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/furan (CDD/F) congeners, tetra-octa CDD/F homologues, twelve WHO 2005 chlorinated biphenyls (CB) congeners, mono-nona CB homologues, and nineteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from a model year 2008 Cummins ISB engine equipped with aftertreatment including a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and wall flow copper or iron urea selective catalytic reduction filter (SCRF) were investigated. These systems differ from a traditional flow through urea selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst because they place copper or iron catalyst sites in close proximity to filter-trapped particulate matter. These conditions could favor de novo synthesis of dioxins and furans. The results were compared to previously published results of modern diesel engines equipped with a DOC, catalyzed diesel particulate filter (CDPF) and flow through urea SCR catalyst.
Technical Paper

Testing of Catalytic Exhaust Emission Control Systems Under Simulated Locomotive Exhaust Conditions

2011-04-12
2011-01-1313
Exhaust emissions were evaluated for four different catalytic exhaust emission control systems. Each system utilized a diesel oxidation catalyst, a metal-substrate partial-flow diesel particulate filter, an iron-exchanged or copper-exchanged Y-zeolite catalyst for urea selective catalytic reduction, and an ammonia slip catalyst. A 5.9-liter diesel truck engine was modified to match the exhaust conditions of a four-stroke diesel locomotive engine meeting the current Tier 2 locomotive emissions standards. NOx emissions, CO₂ emissions and exhaust temperatures were matched to the eight locomotive "throttle notch" power settings while exhaust mass flow was maintained near a constant fraction of locomotive exhaust mass flow for each "throttle notch" position. Regulated and unregulated exhaust emissions were measured over a steady-state test cycle for each of the four systems at low hours and following accelerated thermal aging and accelerated oil ash accumulation.
Technical Paper

HD Diesel Thermal Management Improvements Toward Meeting 2010 Standards

2007-04-16
2007-01-0230
Thermal management of the exhaust has become important as exhaust catalyst systems are being added to heavy duty (HD) diesel engines. The HD certification cycle consists of a cold-start transient cycle followed by a twenty minute soak with the engine off and then another ‘hot’ transient cycle. The first half of the HD transient cycle represents urban driving and consequently the engine duty cycle is very low. The low duty cycle results in low exhaust temperatures that can challenge the performance of catalysts. The cycle then transitions to a highway simulation at high loads. The high loads require high catalyst efficiency. If the catalysts are below optimum temperature prior to this transition, they need to warm up very quickly to prevent excessive emissions slip. The twenty minute soak also provides opportunity for catalysts to experience a significant temperature drop prior to the ‘hot’ cycle.
Technical Paper

Four-Flow Path High-Efficiency NOx and PM Exhaust Emission Control System for Heavy-Duty On-Highway Diesel Engines

2003-06-23
2003-01-2305
A 5.9 liter medium-heavy-duty diesel engine, meeting the emissions performance of a MY 2000 US heavy-duty on-highway engine, was tested with and without a diesel exhaust emission control system consisting of catalyzed diesel particulate filters and adsorber catalysts NOx arranged in a four-flow path configuration. This four-flow path system represents a significant reduction in catalyst volume when compared to previous systems tested by EPA. The goal of this project was to achieve high NOx reduction over the Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Federal Test Procedure (HDDE-FTP) and Supplemental Emission Test (SET), consistent with the 2007 U.S. heavy-duty engine emissions standards, using this reduced volume system. Supply of hydrocarbon reductant for NOx adsorber regeneration was accomplished via a secondary exhaust fuel injection system.
Technical Paper

NOx Adsorber Aging on a Heavy-Duty On-Highway Diesel Engine - Part One

2003-03-03
2003-01-0042
A 5.9-liter medium-heavy-duty diesel engine, equipped with a diesel exhaust emission control system consisting of catalyzed diesel particulate filters and NOx adsorber catalysts arranged in a dual flow path configuration was evaluated with the goal of studying the thermal aging characteristics of a number of NOx adsorber formulations. These adsorbers were tested with near zero sulfur fuel and low sulfur engine oil to minimize the impact of sulfur poisoning on the test results. Testing was performed at a high temperature engine operating mode to provide accelerated but not abusive aging. The test duration ranged from 100 to 250 hours depending on the severity of the aging at the 100 hour mark. The initial “zero” sulfur testing screened the NOx adsorber formulations for future testing and established a thermal aging baseline.
Technical Paper

NOx Adsorber Desulfation Techniques for Heavy-Duty On-Highway Diesel Engines

2002-10-21
2002-01-2871
A 5.9 liter medium-heavy-duty diesel engine, equipped with a diesel exhaust emission control system consisting of catalyzed diesel particulate filters (CDPF) and NOx adsorber catalysts arranged in a dual-path configuration, was evaluated with the goal of developing desulfation strategies for in-use NOx adsorber desulfation. NOx adsorber desulfation was accomplished by providing reductant via a secondary exhaust fuel injection system and exhaust flow via an exhaust bypass valve. An alternating restriction of the exhaust flow between the two flow paths allowed reductant injection and adsorber desulfation to occur under very low space velocity conditions. An exhaust bypass valve connecting the dual path configuration upstream of the catalyzed diesel particulate filters allowed controlled addition of exhaust into the desulfating pathway for desulfation method development.
Technical Paper

High-Efficiency NOx and PM Exhaust Emission Control for Heavy-Duty On-Highway Diesel Engines - Part Two

2001-09-24
2001-01-3619
A 5.9 liter medium-heavy-duty diesel engine was modified to approximate the emissions performance of a MY 2004 US heavy-duty on-highway engine. The engine was tested with and without a diesel exhaust emission control system consisting of catalyzed diesel particulate filters and NOx adsorber catalysts arranged in a dual-path configuration. The goal of this project was to achieve hot-start HDDE-FTP emissions consistent with the recently announced 2007 U.S. heavy-duty engine emissions standards. Supply of hydrocarbon reductant for NOx adsorber regeneration was accomplished via a secondary exhaust fuel injection system. An alternating restriction of the exhaust flow between the two flow paths allowed injection and adsorber regeneration to occur under very low space velocity conditions. NOx and PM emissions over the hot-start portion of the HDDE-FTP transient cycle were 0.13 g/bhp-hr and less than 0.002 g/bhp-hr, respectively.
Technical Paper

High-Efficiency NOx and PM Exhaust Emission Control for Heavy-Duty On-Highway Diesel Engines

2001-03-05
2001-01-1351
A diesel exhaust emission control system consisting of catalyzed diesel particulate filters and NOx adsorber catalysts arranged in a dual-path configuration was developed and evaluated using a 1999-specification 5.9 liter medium-heavy-duty diesel engine. NOx adsorber regeneration was accomplished via a secondary exhaust fuel injection system. An alternating restriction of the exhaust flow between the two flow paths allowed injection and adsorber regeneration to occur under very low space velocity conditions. NOx and PM reductions in excess of 90% were observed over a broad range of steady-state operating conditions and over the hot-start HDDE-FTP transient cycle.
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