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Technical Paper

Macroscopic and Microscopic Characteristics of Flash Boiling Spray with Binary Fuel Mixtures

2019-04-02
2019-01-0274
Flash boiling has drawn much attention recently for its ability to enhance spray atomization and vaporization, while providing better fuel/air mixing for gasoline direct injection engines. However, the behaviors of flash boiling spray with multi-component fuels have not been fully discovered. In this study, isooctane, ethanol and the mixtures of the two with three blend ratios were chosen as the fuels. Measurements were performed with constant fuel temperature while ambient pressures were varied to adjust the superheated degree. Macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of flash boiling spray were investigated using Diffused Back-Illumination (DBI) imaging and Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA). Comparisons between flash boiling sprays with single component and binary fuel mixtures were performed to study the effect of fuel properties on spray structure as well as atomization and vaporization processes.
Technical Paper

Spray Characteristics of Gasoline-Ethanol Fuel Blends under Flash-Boiling Conditions

2019-04-02
2019-01-0297
The spray structure and vaporization processes of flash-boiling sprays in a constant volume chamber under a wide range of superheated conditions were experimentally investigated by a high speed imaging technique. The Engine Combustion Network’s Spray G injector was used. Four fuels including gasoline, ethanol, and gasoline-ethanol blends E30 and E50 were investigated. Spray penetration length and spray width were correlated to the degree of the superheated degree, which is the ratio of the ambient pressure to saturated vapor pressure (pa/ps). It is found that parameter pa/ps is critical in describing the spray transformation under flash-boiling conditions. Three distinct stages namely the slight flash-boiling, the transition flash-boiling, and the flare flash-boiling are identified to describe the transformation of spray structures.
Technical Paper

The Effect of In-Cylinder Temperature on the Ignition Initiation Location of a Pre-Chamber Generated Hot Turbulent Jet

2018-04-03
2018-01-0184
Ignition location is one of the important factors that affect the thermal efficiency, exhaust emissions and knock sensitivity in premixed-charge ignition engines. However, the ignition initiation locations of pre-chamber generated turbulent jet ignition, which is a promising ignition enhancement method, are not clearly understood due to the complex physics behind it. Motivated by this, the ignition initiation location of a transient turbulent jet in a constant volume combustor is analyzed by the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. In the CFD simulations of this work, commercial codes KIVA-3 V release 2 and an in-house-developed chemical solver with a detailed mechanism for H2/air mixtures are used. Comparisons are performed between simulated and experimental ignition initiation locations, and they agree well with one another. A detailed parametric study of the influence of in-cylinder temperature on the ignition initiation location is also performed.
Technical Paper

Measurements of the Evaporation Behavior of the Film of Fuel Blends

2018-04-03
2018-01-0290
The formation of fuel film in the combustion cylinder affects the mixing process of the air and the fuel, and the process of the combustion propagation in engines. Some models of film evaporation have been developed to predict the evaporation behavior of the film, but rarely experimental results have been produced, especially when the temperature is high. In this study, the evaporation behavior of the film of different species of oil and their blends at different temperature are observed. The 45 μL films of isooctane, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, 1-pentanol, and their blends were placed on a quartz glass substrate in the closed temperature-controlled chamber. The shape change of the film during evaporation was monitored by a high-speed camera through the window of the chamber. First, the binary blends film of isooctane and one of the other three oils were evaporated at 30 °C, 50 °C, 70 °C and 90 °C.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Quasi-1D Multi-Component Fuel Droplet Vaporization using Discrete Approach with Experimental Validation

2018-04-03
2018-01-0287
An efficient multi-component fuel droplet vaporization model has been developed in this work using discrete approach. The precise modeling of droplet vaporization process is divided into two parts: vapor-phase and liquid-phase sub-models. Temporal evolution of flow inside the droplet is considered to describe the transient behavior introduced by the slow diffusion process. In order to account for the internal circulation motion, surface regression and finite diffusion without actually resolving the spatial governing equations within the liquid phase, a set of ordinary differential equations is applied to describe the evolution of the non-uniform distributions of universal diffusional variables, i.e. temperature and species mass fraction. The differences between the droplet surface and bulk mean states are modeled by constructing a quasi-1D frame; the effect of the internal circulations is taken into consideration by using the effective diffusivity rather than physical diffusivity.
Technical Paper

Regulated and Unregulated Emissions from a Spark Ignition Engine Fueled with Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE)-Gasoline Blends

2017-10-08
2017-01-2328
Bio-butanol has been widely investigated as a promising alternative fuel. However, the main issues preventing the industrial-scale production of butanol is its relatively low production efficiency and high cost of production. Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE), the intermediate product in the ABE fermentation process for producing bio-butanol, has attracted a lot of interest as an alternative fuel because it not only preserves the advantages of oxygenated fuels, but also lowers the cost of fuel recovery for individual component during fermentation. If ABE could be directly used for clean combustion, the separation costs would be eliminated which save an enormous amount of time and money in the production chain of bio-butanol.
Technical Paper

Effect of Hydrogen Fraction on Laminar Flame Characteristics of Methanol-Hydrogen-Air Mixture at Atmospheric Pressure

2017-10-08
2017-01-2277
Methanol has been regarded as a potential transportation fuel due to its advanced combustion characteristics and flexible source. However, it is suffering from misfire and high HC emissions problems under cold start and low load conditions either on methanol SI engine or on methanol/diesel dual fuel engine. Hydrogen is a potential addition that can enhance the combustion of methanol due to its high flammability and combustion stability. In the current work, the effect of hydrogen fraction on the laminar flame characteristics of methanol- hydrogen-air mixture under varied equivalence ratio was investigated on a constant volume combustion chamber system coupled with a schlieren setup. Experiments were performed over a wide range of equivalence ratio of the premixed charge, varied from 0.8 to 1.4, as well as different hydrogen fraction, 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% (n/n). All tests were carried out at fixed temperature and pressure of 400K and 0.1MPa.
Technical Paper

Effect of Hydrogen Volume Ratio on the Combustion Characteristics of CNG-Diesel Dual-Fuel Engine

2017-10-08
2017-01-2270
CNG-diesel dual fuel combustion mode has been regarded as a practical operation strategy because it not only can remain high thermal efficiency but also make full use of an alternative fuel, natural gas. However, it is suffering from misfire and high HC emissions under cold start and low load conditions. As known, hydrogen has high flammability. Thus, a certain proportion of hydrogen can be added in the natural gas (named HCNG) to improve combustion performance. In this work, the effect of hydrogen volume ratio on combustion characteristics was investigated on an optically accessible single-cylinder CNG-diesel engine using a Phantom v7.3 color camera. HCNG was compressed into the tank under different hydrogen volume ratios varied from 0% to 30%, while the energy substitution rate of` HCNG remained at 70%.
Technical Paper

NOx Reduction in Compression-Ignition Engine by Inverted Ignition Phi-Sensitivity

2017-03-28
2017-01-0749
A new approach of NOx reduction in the compression-ignition engine is introduced in this work. The previous research has shown that during the combustion stage, the high temperature ignition tends to occur early at the near-stoichiometric region where the combustion temperature is high and majority of NOx is formed; Therefore, it is desirable to burn the leaner region first and then the near-stoichiometric region, which inhibits the temperature rise of the near-stoichiometric region and consequently suppresses the formation of NOx. Such inverted ignition sequence requires mixture with inverted phi-sensitivity. Fuel selection is performed based on the criteria of strong ignition T-sensitivity, negligible negative temperature coefficient (NTC) behavior, and large heat of vaporization (HoV).
Technical Paper

An Optical Investigation of Multiple Diesel Injections in CNG/Diesel Dual-Fuel Combustion in a Light Duty Optical Diesel Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0755
Dual-fuel combustion combining a premixed charge of compressed natural gas (CNG) and a pilot injection of diesel fuel offer the potential to reduce diesel fuel consumption and drastically reduce soot emissions. In this study, dual-fuel combustion using methane ignited with a pilot injection of No. 2 diesel fuel, was studied in a single cylinder diesel engine with optical access. Experiments were performed at a CNG substitution rate of 70% CNG (based on energy) over a wide range of equivalence ratios of the premixed charge, as well as different diesel injection strategies (single and double injection). A color high-speed camera was used in order to identify and distinguish between lean-premixed methane combustion and diffusion combustion in dual-fuel combustion. The effect of multiple diesel injections is also investigated optically as a means to enhance flame propagation towards the center of the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Study on the Effects of Hot EGR on the Operation of Natural Gas Engine Ignited by Diesel-Butanol Blends

2017-03-28
2017-01-0760
Butanol, which is a renewable biofuel, has been regarded as a promising alternative fuel for internal combustion engines. When blended with diesel and applied to pilot ignited natural gas engines, butanol has the capability to achieve lower emissions without sacrifice on thermal efficiency. However, high blend ratio of butanol is limited by its longer ignition delay caused by the higher latent heat and higher octane number, which restricts the improvement of emission characteristics. In this paper, the potential of increasing butanol blend ratio by adding hot exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is investigated. 3D CFD model based on a detailed kinetic mechanism was built and validated by experimental results of natural gas engine ignited by diesel/butanol blends. The effects of hot EGR is then revealed by the simulation results of the combustion process, heat release traces and also the emissions under different diesel/butanol blend ratios.
Technical Paper

An Efficient and Unified Combustion Model for CFD of SI and CI Engine Operation

2017-03-28
2017-01-0572
In this work, an efficient and unified combustion model is introduced to simulate the flame propagation, diffusion-controlled combustion, and chemically-driven ignition in both SI and CI engine operation. The unified model is constructed upon a G-equation model which addresses the premixed flame propagation. The concept of the Livengood-Wu integral is used with tabulated ignition delay data to account for the chemical kinetics which is responsible for the spontaneous ignition of fuel-air mixture. A set of rigorously defined operations are used to couple the evolution of the G scalar field and the Livengood-Wu integral. The diffusion-controlled combustion is simulated equivalent to applying the Burke-Schumann limit. The combined model is tested in the simulation of the premixed SI combustion in a constant volume chamber, as well as the CI combustion in a conventional small bore diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Effect of Acetone-Gasoline Blend Ratio on Combustion and Emissions Characteristics in a Spark-Ignition Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0870
Due to the increasing consumption of fossil fuels, alternative fuels in internal combustion engines have attracted a lot of attention in recent years. Ethanol is the most common alternative fuel used in spark ignition (SI) engines due to its advantages of biodegradability, positively impacting emissions reduction as well as octane number improvement. Meanwhile, acetone is well-known as one of the industrial waste solvents for synthetic fibers and most plastic materials. In comparison to ethanol, acetone has a number of more desirable properties for being a viable alternative fuel such as its higher energy density, heating value and volatility.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study of the Combustion, Performance and Emission Characteristics of a CI Engine under Diesel-1-Butanol/CNG Dual Fuel Operation Mode

2016-04-05
2016-01-0788
In order to comply with the stringent emission regulations, many researchers have been focusing on diesel-compressed natural gas (CNG) dual fuel operation in compression ignition (CI) engines. The diesel-CNG dual fuel operation mode has the potential to reduce both the soot and NOx emissions; however, the thermal efficiency is generally lower than that of the pure diesel operation, especially under the low and medium load conditions. The current experimental work investigates the potential of using diesel-1-butanol blends as the pilot fuel to improve the engine performance and emissions. Fuel blends of B0 (pure diesel), B10 (90% diesel and 10% 1-butanol by volume) and B20 (80% diesel and 20% 1-butanol) with 70% CNG substitution were compared based on an equivalent input energy at an engine speed of 1200 RPM. The results indicated that the diesel-1-butanol pilot fuel can lead to a more homogeneous mixture due to the longer ignition delay.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study and Parameter Optimization on a Diesel - Natural Gas Dual Fuel Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0769
This work presents a comprehensive computational study of diesel - natural gas (NG) dual fuel engine. A complete computational model is developed for the operation of a diesel - NG dual fuel engine modified from an AVL 5402 single cylinder diesel test engine. The model is based on the KIVA-3V program and includes customized sub-models. The model is validated against test cell measurements of both pure diesel and dual fuel operation. The effects of NG on ignition and combustion in dual fuel operation are analyzed in detail. Zero-dimensional computations with a diesel surrogate reaction mechanism are conducted to discover the effects of NG on ignition and combustion and to reveal the fundamental chemical mechanisms behind such effects. Backed by the detailed theoretical analysis, the engine operation parameters are optimized with genetic algorithm (GA) for the dual fuel operation of the modified AVL 5402 test engine.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation and Analysis of Combustion Process in a Diesel Engine Fueled with Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol/ Diesel Blends

2016-04-05
2016-01-0737
The performance and emission of an AVL 5402 single-cylinder engine fueled with acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) / diesel blends were experimentally investigated at various load conditions and injection timings. The fuels tested in the experiments were ABE10 (10% ABE, 90% diesel), ABE20 and diesel as baseline. Thermodynamics analyses of pressure traces acquired in experiments were performed to show the impact of ABE concentration to the overall combustion characteristics of the fuel mixtures. Cumulative heat release analysis showed that ABE mixtures generally retarded the overall combustion phasing, ignition delays of ABE-containing fuels were significantly extended, however, combustion rate during CA10∼CA50 were accelerated at different extent. Pressure rise rate of ABE-containing fuels further implicated that the premixed combustion were more dominant than that of diesel. Polytropic indices of both expansion and compression strokes were calculated from p-V diagram.
Technical Paper

A Modeling Study of the Effects of Butanol Addition on Aromatic Species in Premixed Butane Flames

2016-04-05
2016-01-0574
The motivation of the present work was to understand the mechanism by which alcohols produce less aromatic species in their combustion process than an equal amount of hydrocarbon with similar molecular structure does. Due to its numerous advantages over short-chain alcohols, butanol has been considered very promising in soot reduction. Excluding the influence of spray, vaporization and mixing process in engine cases, an adiabatic constant-pressure reactor model was applied to investigate the effect of butanol additives on aromatic species, which are known to be soot precursors, in fuel-rich butane flames. To keep the carbon flux constant, 5% and 10% oxygen by mass of the fuel were added to butane using butanol additive, respectively. Based on the soot reduction effects proposed in literature, effects on temperature, key radical concentrations and the carbon removal from the pathway to aromatic species were considered to identify the major mechanism of reduction in aromatic species.
Journal Article

A Semi-Detailed Chemical Kinetic Mechanism of Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE) and Diesel Blends for Combustion Simulations

2016-04-05
2016-01-0583
With the development of advanced ABE fermentation technology, the volumetric percentage of acetone, butanol and ethanol in the bio-solvents can be precisely controlled. To seek for an optimized volumetric ratio for ABE-diesel blends, the previous work in our team has experimentally investigated and analyzed the combustion features of ABE-diesel blends with different volumetric ratio (A: B: E: 6:3:1; 3:6:1; 0:10:0, vol. %) in a constant volume chamber. It was found that an increased amount of acetone would lead to a significant advancement of combustion phasing whereas butanol would compensate the advancing effect. Both spray dynamic and chemistry reaction dynamic are of great importance in explaining the unique combustion characteristic of ABE-diesel blend. In this study, a semi-detailed chemical mechanism is constructed and used to model ABE-diesel spray combustion in a constant volume chamber.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study on Performance and Emission of Acetone-Ethanol and Gasoline Blends in a PFI Spark Ignition Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0833
To face the challenges of fossil fuel shortage and air pollution problems, there is growing interest in the potential usage of alternative fuels such as bio-ethanol and bio-butanol in internal combustion engines. The literature shows that the acetone in the Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE) blends plays an important part in improving the combustion performance and emissions, owing to its higher volatility. In order to study the effects of acetone addition into commercial gasoline, this study focuses on the differences in combustion, performance and emission characteristics of a port-injection spark-ignition engine fueled with pure gasoline (G100), ethanol-containing gasoline (E30) and acetone-ethanol-gasoline blends (AE30 at A:E volumetric ratio of 3:1). The tests were conducted at 1200RPM with the default calibration (for gasoline), at 3 bar and 5 bar BMEP under various equivalence ratios.
Technical Paper

Combustion and Emissions Performance of a Spark Ignition Engine Fueled with Water Containing Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol and Gasoline Blends

2015-04-14
2015-01-0908
Butanol has proved to be a very promising alternative fuel in recent years. The production of bio-butanol, typically done using the acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation process is expensive and consumes a lot of energy. Hence it is of interest to study the intermediate fermentation product, i.e. water-containing ABE as a potential fuel. The combustion and emissions performance of ABE29.5W0.5 (29.5 vol.% ABE, 0.5 vol.% water and gasoline blend), ABE30 (30 vol.% ABE and gasoline blend) and ABE0 (pure gasoline) were investigated in this study. The results showed that ABE29.5W0.5 enhanced engine torque by 9.6%-12.7% and brake thermal efficiency (BTE) by 5.2%-11.6% compared to pure gasoline, respectively. ABE29.5W0.5 also showed similar brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) relative to pure gasoline.
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