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Technical Paper

Real World Accident Analysis of Driver Car-to-Car Intersection Near-Side Impacts: Focus on Impact Location, Impact Angle and Lateral Delta-V

2018-04-03
2018-01-1328
In total, 865 intersection car-to-car crashes (NASS-CDS CY 2004-2014) are analyzed in detail to determine the injury level outcome based on different crash factors, such as delta-V, age, airbag deployment, number of events, impact locations (F,Y,P,Z,D,B-regions based on CDC codes), amount of compartment intrusion and impact angle. A multivariate logistic regression test was performed to predict the probability of MAIS3+ serious injuries using lateral delta-V, location of maximum deformation from B-PLR, age (0: <60/1: ≥60 years), number of events (0: single/ 1: multiple), intrusion (0: <16cm/ 1: ≥16cm), side airbag deployment (yes/no) and direction of impact (0: 9/ 1: 10 o’clock). It is found that direction of impact is one of the significant (p<0.05) parameters and 10 o’clock angle impact has more influence than 9 o’clock perpendicular lateral impact. Frequency of AIS3+ injuries was high in Y-region impact cases.
Technical Paper

Estimation of Pelvis Injuries and Head Impact Time using Different Pedestrian Human FE Models

2014-04-01
2014-01-0522
A logistic regression analysis of accident cases in the NASS-PCDS (National Automotive Sampling System-Pedestrian Crash Data Study) database clearly shows that pedestrian pelvis injuries tend to be complex and depend on various factors such as the impact speed, the ratio of the pedestrian height to that of the bonnet leading edge (BLE) of the striking vehicle, and the gender and age of the pedestrian. Adult female models (50th %ile female AF50: 161 cm and 61 kg; 5th %ile female AF05: 154 cm and 50 kg) were developed by morphing the JAMA 50th %ile male AM50 and substituting the pelvis of the GHBMC AM50 model. The fine-meshed pelvis model thus obtained is capable of predicting pelvis fractures. Simulations conducted with these models indicate that the characteristics of pelvis injury patterns in male and female pedestrians are influenced by the hip/BLE height ratio and to some extent by the pelvis bone shape.
Technical Paper

Estimation of Body Mass Index Effect on Lower Extremity Injuries for Lateral Collision With-out Airbag

2014-04-01
2014-01-0489
A comprehensive analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of BMI on different body region injuries for side impact. The accident data for this study was taken from the National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS). It was found that the mean BMI values for driver and front passengers increases over the years in the US. To study the effect of BMI, the range was divided into three groups: Thin (BMI<21), Normal (BMI 24-27) and Obese (BMI>30). Other important variables considered for this study were model year (MY1995-99 for old vehicles & MY2000-08 for newer vehicles), impact location (side-front F, side-center P & side-distributed Y) and direction of force (8-10 o'clock for nearside & 2-4 o'clock for far-side). Accident cases involving older occupants above 60 years was omitted in order to minimize the bone strength depreciation effect. Results of the present study indicated that the Model Year has influence on lower extremity injuries.
Journal Article

Flex-PLI Application to High-Bumper Vehicles - Optimization of Supplemental Weight

2013-04-08
2013-01-0215
The Flexible Pedestrian Legform Impactor (Flex-PLI) was developed to evaluate the risk of pedestrian lower extremity injuries. However, it has been pointed out that the post-crash kinematics of the Flex-PLI differs from those of a human body when it is hit by high-bumper vehicles. This paper describes the feasibility of applying the Flex-PLI to a wide range of vehicle types by adding a supplemental weight. The following aspects are discussed in this regard: A human body finite element (FE) model analysis shows that the upper body of the Flex-PLI is not involved in tibia and knee ligament injury indexes in the first contact with a high-bumper vehicle. A rigid bar model is introduced and its rotational energy ratio is formulated. The rotational energy ratio is employed to evaluate the post-crash kinematics of the Flex-PLI and a human leg model. The feasibility of adding a supplemental weight to the Flex-PLI with regard to the bumper height is discussed.
Technical Paper

Effect of Impact-Triggered Automatic Braking in Multiple Impact Crashes

2012-04-16
2012-01-1181
This study proposes an impact-triggered automatic braking system as a potential safety improvement based on the characteristics of the Multiple Impact Crashes (MICs). The system activates with a signal of airbag deployment in a collision to reduce the vehicle speed in the subsequent collisions. The effectiveness was estimated by an in-depth review of the National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS). The cases were extracted on the basis of the 3-point lap and shoulder belted occupants, incurring Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale level 3 to 6 injuries (MAIS 3+), in the crashes occurred from 2004 to 2006, without vehicle rollover or occupant ejection, where the involved vehicles were 2000 and newer model year cars and light trucks.
Journal Article

Different Factors Influencing Post-crash Pedestrian Kinematics

2012-04-16
2012-01-0271
Pedestrian crashes are the most frequent cause of traffic-related fatalities worldwide. The high number of pedestrian accidents justifies more active research work on passive and active safety technology intended to mitigate pedestrian injuries. Post-impact pedestrian kinematics is complex and depends on various factors such as impact speed, height of the pedestrian, front-end profile of the striking vehicle and pedestrian posture, among others. The aim of this study is to investigate the main factors that determine post-crash pedestrian kinematics. The injury mechanism is also discussed. A detailed study of NASS-PCDS (National Automotive Sampling System - Pedestrian Crash Data Study, US, 1994-1998), showed that the vehicle-pedestrian interaction in frontal crashes can be categorized into four types: “Thrown forward”, “Wrapped position”, “Slid to windshield” and “Passed over vehicle”.
Technical Paper

Soil Trip Rollover Simulation and Occupant Kinematics in Real World Accident

2007-08-05
2007-01-3680
With SUVs and minivans accounting for a larger share of the US market in the past decade, rollover accidents have drawn greater attention, leading to more active research from different perspectives. This ranges from investigations for elucidating the basic causes and mechanisms of rollover accidents to studies of more advanced occupant protection measures. As the phenomenon of a rollover accident is longer in duration than frontal, side or rear impacts, it is relatively difficult [1] to simulate such accidents for experimental verification and also for proper evaluation of occupant restraint system performance. In this work, we focused on the trip-over type, which occurs most frequently, and performed simulations to reproduce real-world rollover accidents by combining PC-Crash and FEA. Soil trip-over simulation was carried out based on real world accidents.
Technical Paper

Effective Numerical Simulation Tool for Real-World Rollover Accidents by Combining PC-Crash and FEA

2007-04-16
2007-01-1773
With SUVs and minivans accounting for a larger share of the US market in the past decade, rollover accidents have drawn greater attention, leading to more active research from different perspectives. This ranges from investigations for elucidating the basic causes and mechanisms of rollover accidents to studies of more advanced occupant protection measures. As the phenomenon of a rollover accident is longer in duration than frontal, side or rear impacts, it is relatively difficult [1] to simulate such accidents for experimental verification and also for proper evaluation of occupant restraint system performance. In this work, we focused on the trip-over type, which occurs most frequently, and performed simulations to reproduce real-world rollover accidents by combining PC-Crash and FEA.
Technical Paper

Development of a Brake-Operated Pre-Crash Seatbelt System and Performance Evaluation

2004-03-08
2004-01-0851
The brake-operated pre-crash seatbelt system retracts the seatbelt webbing by activating an electric motor attached to the seatbelt retractor. Detection of emergency braking is used as a trigger to activate the motor. Retracting the seatbelt helps to reduce an occupant's forward movement due to inertial force acting on the occupant's body during deceleration in braking. Addtionally, retraction of the seatbelt webbing also helps existing occupant restraint devices to work more effectively in a crash. The effectiveness of the pre-crash system was evaluated by considering two conditions combined. One involved the dynamic behavior of the vehicle and occupants prior to a crash. The other concerned the safety performance of the vehicle during the crash event. Experiments were conducted to measure the behavior of the vehicle and occupants under emergency braking prior to a crash.
Technical Paper

Evaluation and Research of Vehicle Body Stiffness and Strength for Car to Car Compatibility

2003-03-03
2003-01-0908
In a CTC (car to car) crash, interaction between two vehicles is quite important. Interaction is primarily described by the contact area between two vehicles but interaction force (impact force) is also important for the entire crash phenomenon. In a frontal crash, impact force is resisted by the body structures, engine block, and tires. The resultant share of energy absorption, as well as the magnitude of body deformation, is greatly affected by the force profile. It is desired, therefore, to evaluate those factors of vehicle bodies in order to achieve CTC compatibility. There are some technical obstacles, however, in measuring those factors in testing. Impact force, for instance, cannot be measured directly in a CTC crash test unless load cells are installed in body frames. It is also difficult to analyze body deformation in a CTC crash test because both vehicles are moving.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Vehicle Body Stiffness and Strength for Car to Car Compatibility

2001-10-16
2001-01-3098
When considering a CTC (car to car) frontal crash between a small light car and a large heavy car, it is necessary to evaluate the stiffness and strength of each vehicle body. As interactive force at the contact surface cannot be measured directly in a car to car crash test, a simplified practical method has been developed to estimate the interactive force based on the vehicle deceleration. The adequacy and consistency of the proposed method was verified by using the principle of conservation of energy. The calculated force-deformation curves revealed that the interactive force reached the maximum designed strength of the small light car based on the ODB (Offset Deformable Barrier) test for crash protection, while the force level was far below the corresponding design limit of the large heavy car. It was observed that the relatively lower stiffness of the small light car resulted in absorbing a larger share of the total input energy of the system when crashed into the large heavy car.
Technical Paper

Development and Evaluation of a Human Lower Extremity Model

2001-06-04
2001-06-0049
A finite element model of the human lower extremity has been developed in this study to simulate lower extremity behavior in frontal car crashes. Precise geometry of the human lower extremity and material properties of the hard and soft tissues were introduced to the model. The performance of the model was evaluated by comparing with dynamic loading test data using post mortem human subjects (PMHS). The comparison proved its ability to estimate dynamic responses of the human lower extremity. A study was conducted using the model to investigate possible factors of loading to the ankle and tibia. Force and moment were calculated with different time history profiles of footwell intrusion and pelvis motion. The results suggested that timing of maximum intrusion was important as well as its magnitude. It was also found that loading to the tibia could be affected not only by intrusion but also by pelvis motion.
Technical Paper

Development and Improvement of Finite Element Side Impact Dummy (EUROSID) Model Based on Experimental Verifications

1997-02-24
971041
In side-crash phenomena, finite element modeling is essential in investigating the occupant's post-impact dynamic behavior after contact with the door panels. A number of modifications have been made to the model described here based on combined simulation and experimental verifications of the dynamic and pseudo-static characteristics of different materials such as foam, damper and individual sub-assemblies. This report illustrates how the modified material and structural modeling of different components improve the accuracy of the overall dynamic behavior of the FEM model in simulating different HYGE experiments to speed up and optimize the vehicle design process. The rib-module drop test results with two different polypropylene pads clearly indicate the effect of the pad unloading characteristics on rib displacement.
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