A Multi-Pipe Junction Model for One-Dimensional Gas-Dynamic Simulations
Computer programs that simulate the wave propagation phenomena involved in manifold tuning mechanisms are used extensively in the design and development of internal combustion engines. Most comprehensive engine simulation programs are based on the governing equations of one-dimensional gas flow as these provide a reasonable compromise between modelling accuracy and computational speed. The propagation of pressure waves through pipe junctions is, however, an intrinsically multi-dimensional phenomenon. The modelling of such junctions within a one-dimensional simulation represents a major challenge, since the geometry of the junction cannot be fully represented but can have a major influence on the flow. This paper introduces a new pressure-loss junction model which can mimic the directionality imposed by the angular relationship of the pipes forming a multi-pipe junction. A simple technique for estimating the pressure-loss data required by the model is also presented.