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Technical Paper

Imaging and Vibro-Acoustic Diagnostic Techniques Comparison for a GDI Fuel Injector

2019-09-09
2019-24-0058
This work presents the results of an experimental investigation on a GDI injector, in order to analyze fuel injection process and atomization phenomenon, correlating imaging and vibro-acoustic diagnostic techniques. A single-hole, axially-disposed, 0.200 mm diameter GDI injector was used to spray commercial gasoline in a test chamber at room temperature and atmospheric backpressure. The explored injection pressures were ranged from 5.0 to 20.0 MPa. Cycle-resolved acquisitions of the spray evolution were acquired by a high-speed camera. Simultaneously, the vibro-acoustic response of the injector was evaluated. More in detail, noise data acquired by a microphone sensor were analyzed for characterizing the acoustic emission of the injection, while a spherical loudspeaker was used to excite the spray injection at a proper distance detecting possible fuel spray resonance phenomena.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Interior Vehicle Noise by Means of NARX Neural Networks

2018-06-13
2018-01-1538
In recent years, great interest on NVH characteristics of vehicles has been paid by all the big automotive manufacturers. Interior acoustic comfort is now one of the main key factors in vehicle development process, since it contributes to improved product overall quality. Therefore, in automotive industry advanced NVH refinement needs to work in synergy with all research activities. Assessing the level of experienced noise in interior cabin requires particular arrangements for ensuring adequate measurement accuracy (AC system off, closed window, etc.). The use of parameters such as the level of seat vibration, not affected by the acoustic field conditions inside the vehicle, could facilitate experiments in parallel with engine/vehicle calibration activities.
Technical Paper

Improving Acoustic Performance of an Air Filter Box. TL Analysis and Device Optimization

2016-06-15
2016-01-1813
The characteristics of the intake system affect both engine power output and gas-dynamic noise emissions. The latter is particularly true in downsized VVA engines, where a less effective attenuation of the pressure waves is realized, due to the intake line de-throttling at part-load. For this engine architecture, a refined air-box design is hence requested. In this work, the Transmission Loss (TL) of the intake air-box of a commercial VVA engine is numerically computed through a 3D FEM approach. Results are compared with experimental data, showing a very good correlation. The validated model is then coupled to an external optimizer (ModeFRONTIERTM) to increase the TL parameter in a prefixed frequency range. The improvement of the acoustic attenuation is attained through a shape deformation of the inner structure of the base device, taking into account constraints related to the device installation inside the engine bay.
Journal Article

Knock and Cycle by Cycle Analysis of a High Performance V12 Spark Ignition Engine. Part 1: Experimental Data and Correlations Assessment

2015-09-06
2015-24-2392
In this paper, a high performance V12 spark-ignition engine is experimentally investigated at test-bench in order to fully characterize its behavior in terms of both average parameters, cycle-by-cycle variations and knock tendency, for different operating conditions. In particular, for each considered operating point, a spark advance sweep is actuated, starting from a knock-free calibration, up to intense knock operation. Sequences of 300 consecutive pressure cycles are measured for each cylinder, together with the main overall engine performance, including fuel flow, torque, and fuel consumption. Acquired data are statistically analyzed to derive the distributions of main indicated parameters, in order to find proper correlations with ensemble-averaged quantities. In particular, the Coefficient of Variation (CoV) of IMEP and of the in-cylinder peak pressure (pmax) are correlated to the average combustion phasing and duration (MFB50 and Δθb), with a good coefficient of determination.
Journal Article

Knock Detection Based on MAPO Analysis, AR Model and Discrete Wavelet Transform Applied to the In-Cylinder Pressure Data: Results and Comparison

2014-10-13
2014-01-2547
The easiest way to identify knock conditions during the operation of a SI engine is represented by the knowledge of the in-cylinder pressure. Traditional techniques like MAPO (Maximum Amplitude Pressure Oscillation) based method rely on the frequency domain processing of the pressure data. This technique may present uncertainties due to the correct specification of some model parameters, like the band-pass frequency range and the crank angle window of interest. In this paper two innovative techniques for knock detection, which make use of the in-cylinder pressure, are explained in detail, and the results are compared with those coming from the MAPO method. The first procedure is based on the use of statistical analysis by applying an Auto Regressive (AR) technique, while the second technique makes use of the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT). The data useful for the analysis have been acquired on a high compression ratio four cylinder, spark ignition engine.
Journal Article

A Comparison Between External and Internal Resonators Employment to Reduce the Gas-Dynamic Noise of a SI Engine

2014-10-13
2014-01-2864
This paper reports 1D and 3D CFD analyses aiming to improve the gas-dynamic noise emission of a downsized turbocharged VVA engine through the re-design of the intake air-box device, consisting in the introduction of external or internal resonators. Nowadays, modern spark-ignition (SI) engines show more and more complex architectures that, while improving the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), may be responsible for the increased noise radiation at the engine intake mouth. In particular VVA systems allow for the actuation of advanced valve strategies that provide a reduction in the BSFC at part load operations thanks to the intake line de-throttling. In these conditions, due to a less effective attenuation of the pressure waves that travel along the intake system, VVA engines produce higher gas-dynamic noise levels.
Technical Paper

Analysis and Design of an Intake Filter Box for a Downsized VVA Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1693
The present paper reports 1D and 3D CFD analyses of the air-filter box of a turbocharged VVA engine, aiming to predict and improve the gas-dynamic noise emissions through a partial re-design of the device. First of all, the gas-dynamic noise at the intake mouth is measured during a dedicated experimental campaign. The developed 1D and 3D models are then validated at full load operation, based on experimental data. In particular, 1D model provides a preliminary evaluation of the radiated noise and simultaneously gives reliable boundary conditions for the unsteady 3D CFD simulations. The latter indeed allow to better take into account the geometrical details of the air-filter and guarantee a more accurate gas-dynamic noise prediction. 3D CFD analyses put in evidence that sound emission mainly occur within a frequency range of 350 to 450 Hz.
Journal Article

Analysis of Knock Tendency in a Small VVA Turbocharged Engine Based on Integrated 1D-3D Simulations and Auto-Regressive Technique

2014-04-01
2014-01-1065
In the present paper, two different methodologies are adopted and critically integrated to analyze the knock behavior of a last generation small size spark ignition (SI) turbocharged VVA engine. Particularly, two full load operating points are selected, exhibiting relevant differences in terms of knock proximity. On one side, a knock investigation is carried out by means of an Auto-Regressive technique (AR model) to process experimental in-cylinder pressure signals. This mathematical procedure is used to estimate the statistical distribution of knocking cycles and provide a validation of the following 1D-3D knock investigations. On the other side, an integrated numerical approach is set up, based on the synergic use of 1D and 3D simulation tools. The 1D engine model is developed within the commercial software GT-Power™. It is used to provide time-varying boundary conditions (BCs) for the 3D code, Star-CD™.
Technical Paper

Knock Detection in a Turbocharged S.I. Engine Based on ARMA Technique and Chemical Kinetics

2013-10-14
2013-01-2510
During the last years, a number of techniques aimed at the experimental identification of the knocking onset in Spark-Ignition (SI) Internal Combustion Engines have been proposed. Besides the traditional procedures based on the processing of in-cylinder pressure data in the frequency domain, in the present paper two innovative methods are developed and compared. The first one is based on the use of statistical analysis by applying an Auto Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) technique, coupled to a prediction algorithm. It is shown that such parametric model, applied to the instantaneous in-cylinder pressure measurements, is highly sensitive to knock occurrence and is able to identify soft or heavy knock presence in different engine operating conditions. An alternative, more expensive procedure is developed and compared to the previous one.
Journal Article

CFD Gas-Dynamic Noise Prediction of a VVA Engine Intake System

2013-05-13
2013-01-1884
Modern VVA systems offer new potentialities in improving fuel consumption for spark-ignition engines at low and medium load, meanwhile they grant a higher volumetric efficiency and performance at high load. Recently introduced systems enhance this concept through the possibility of modifying the intake valve opening, closing and lift, leading to the development of almost ‘throttle-less’ engines. However, at low loads, the absence of throttling, while improving the fuel consumption, also produces an increased gas-dynamic noise at the intake mouth. Wave propagation inside the intake system is in fact no longer absorbed by the throttle valve and directly impact the radiated noise. In the paper, 1D and 3D simulations of the gas-dynamic noise radiated by a production VVA engine are performed at full load and in two part-load conditions. Both models are firstly validated at full load, through comparisons with experimental data.
Technical Paper

Noise Prediction of a Multi-Cylinder Engine Prototype Using Multi-Body Dynamic Simulation

2011-09-11
2011-24-0216
In the paper a coupled Multi-Body and FEM-BEM methodology used to predict the noise radiated by a turbocharged 4-cylinder diesel engine prototype is described. A Multi-Body Dynamic Simulation (MBDS) of the engine has been carried out, simulating an engine speed sweep from 1500 to 4000 rpm, in order to determine the excitation force of the powertrain, and in particular to estimate the forces acting on the cylinder block. Thanks to the Multi-Body approach, the dynamics of the engine powertrain have been described taking into account both the effects of the burnt gas pressure during the combustion process and the inertia forces of the moving parts. Moreover to assess the real engine operating behaviour, both the crank and the block have been considered as flexible bodies.
Technical Paper

Pros and Cons of Using Different Numerical Techniques for Transmission Loss Evaluation of a Small Engine Muffler

2010-09-28
2010-32-0028
Automotive exhaust systems give a major contribution to the sound quality of a vehicle and must be properly designed in order to produce acceptable acoustic performances. Obviously, noise attenuation is strictly related to the used materials and to its internal geometry. This last influences the wave propagation and the gas-dynamic field. The purpose of this paper is to describe advantages and disadvantages of different numerical approaches in evaluating the acoustic performance in terms of attenuation versus frequency (Transmission Loss) of a commercial two perforated tube muffler under different conditions. At first, a one-dimensional analysis is performed through the 1D GTPower® code, solving the nonlinear flow equations which characterize the wave propagation phenomena. The muffler is characterized as a network of properly connected pipes and volumes starting from 3D CAD information. Then, two different 3D analyses are performed within the commercial STS VNOISE® code.
Technical Paper

Analysis and Control of Noise Emissions of a Small Single Cylinder D.I. Diesel Engine

2003-05-05
2003-01-1459
Comfort requirements, government regulations as well as consumer action groups are pressing the automotive industry to produce less noisy vehicles than in the past. These circumstances become more and more important for off-road and human operating machines forcing engine developers to investigate new and more effective control strategies of noise emissions. This paper concerns with the experimental vibro-acoustic analysis of a small (224 cc) single-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine used for agricultural and industrial applications as well as off road small vehicles. In order to evaluate the engine acoustic behaviour, experimental identification and localization of noise sources were performed at different speed and load engine conditions by several investigating tools. Within them, the intensity technique was chosen because of its peculiarities to be performed “in situ” without a specific anechoic test environment.
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