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On-Road Evaluation of an Integrated SCR and Continuously Regenerating Trap Exhaust System

Four-way, integrated, diesel emission control systems that combine selective catalytic reduction for NOx control with a continuously regenerating trap to remove diesel particulate matter were evaluated under real-world, on-road conditions. Tests were conducted using a semi-tractor with an emissions year 2000, 6-cylinder, 12 L, Volvo engine rated at 287 kW at 1800 rpm and 1964 N-m. The emission control system was certified for retrofit application on-highway trucks, model years 1994 through 2002, with 4-stroke, 186-373 kW (250-500 hp) heavy-duty diesel engines without exhaust gas recirculation. The evaluations were unique because the mobile laboratory platform enabled evaluation under real-world exhaust plume dilution conditions as opposed to laboratory dilution conditions. Real-time plume measurements for NOx, particle number concentration and size distribution were made and emission control performance was evaluated on-road.
Journal Article

Emissions Effects of Hydrogen as a Supplemental Fuel with Diesel and Biodiesel

A 1.9 liter Volkswagen TDI engine has been modified to accomodate the addition of hydrogen into the intake manifold via timed port fuel injection. Engine out particulate matter and the emissions of oxides of nitrogen were investigated. Two fuels,low sulfur diesel fuel (BP50) and soy methyl ester (SME) biodiesel (B99), were tested with supplemental hydrogen fueling. Three test conditions were selected to represent a range of engine operating modes. The tests were executed at 20, 40, and 60 % rated load with a constant engine speed o 1700 RPM. At each test condition the percentage of power from hydrogen energy was varied from 0 to 40 %. This corresponds to hydrogen flow rates ranging from 7 to 85 liters per minute. Particulate matter (PM) emissions were measured using a scaning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and a two stage micro dilution system. Oxides of nitrogen were also monitored.
Technical Paper

Significance of Fuel Sulfur Content and Dilution Conditions on Particle Emissions from a Heavily-Used Diesel Engine During Transient Operation

The effects of fuel sulfur content and dilution conditions on diesel engine PM number emissions have been researched extensively through steady state testing. Most results show that the concentration of nuclei-mode particles emitted increases with fuel sulfur content. A few studies further observed that fuel sulfur content has little effect on the emissions of heavily-used engines. It has also been found that primary dilution conditions can have a large impact on the size and number distribution of the nuclei-mode particles. These effects, however, have not yet been fully understood through transient testing, the method used by governments worldwide to certify engines and regulate emissions, and a means of experimentation which generates realistic conditions of on-road vehicles by varying the load and speed of the engine.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Engine Lubricating Oil on Diesel Nanoparticle Emissions and Kinetics of Oxidation

Earlier work [1] shows that kinetics of Diesel soot oxidation is different from that of ethylene diffusion flame soot oxidation [2], possibly due to metals from lube oil. This study investigates the influence of metals on soot oxidation and the exhaust particle emissions using lube oil dosed fuel (2 % by volume). This method does not simulate normal lube oil consumption, but is used as a means of adding metals to particles for oxidation studies. This study also provides insight into the effect of systems that mix lube oil with fuel to minimize oil change service. The HTO-TDMA (High Temperature Oxidation-Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer) technique [1] was used to measure the surface specific oxidation rate of Diesel particles over the temperature range 500-750 °C. Diesel particles sampled from the exhaust stream of a Diesel engine were size segregated by differential mobility and oxidized in situ in air in a heated flow tube of known residence time and temperature profile.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Particle Number and Size Distributions with Conventional and Fischer-Tropsch Diesel Fuels

Diesel exhaust particle number concentrations and size distributions, as well as gaseous and particulate mass emissions, were measured during steady-state tests on a US heavy-duty engine and a European passenger car engine. Two fuels were compared, namely a Fischer-Tropsch diesel fuel manufactured from natural gas, and a US D2 on-highway diesel fuel. With both engines, the Fischer-Tropsch fuel showed a considerable reduction in the number of particles formed by nucleation, when compared with the D2 fuel. At most test modes, particle number emissions were dominated by nucleation mode particles. Consequently, there were generally large reductions (up to 93%) in the total particle number emissions with the Fischer-Tropsch fuel. It is thought that the most probable cause for the reduction in nucleation mode particles is the negligible sulphur content of the Fischer-Tropsch fuel. In general, there were also reductions in all the regulated emissions with the Fischer-Tropsch fuel.
Technical Paper

Single-Stage Dilution Tunnel Design

A single-stage dilution system has been designed to simulate the process of engine exhaust dilution in the atmosphere. An exhaust sample stream is introduced into a partial flow tunnel where it is diluted at a controlled rate. Temperature, relative humidity, dilution ratio and rate, and residence time are all adjustable. The system includes a turbulence generator to adjust the intensity of turbulence in the tunnel and a wake disk to control the initial mixing rate. Numerical methods were used to simulate flow fields, velocity fields, and mixing profiles for gases and particles. Mixing profiles for a gaseous tracer and particles of different sizes were also determined experimentally and compared with the model predictions. Critical parameters that influence mixing profiles and dilution rates predicted by modeling were demonstrated experimentally. Predicted and measured normalized mixing profiles were found to be in good agreement.
Technical Paper

Single-Stage Dilution Tunnel Performance

A one-stage dilution tunnel has been developed to sample and dilute diesel exhaust. The tunnel has the capability of simulating many aspects of the atmospheric dilution process. The dilution rate and overall dilution ratio, temperature, relative humidity, and residence time in the tunnel, as well as residence time and temperature in the transfer line between the tunnel and exhaust sampling point may be varied. In this work we studied the influence of the exhaust transfer line, tunnel residence time, and dilution air temperature on the exhaust particle size distribution. The influences of fuel sulfur content on the size distribution and on the sensitivity of the size distribution to dilution and sampling conditions were also examined. We do not suggest an optimum dilution scheme, but do identify critical variables.
Technical Paper

Influence of Fuel Additives and Dilution Conditions on the Formation and Emission of Exhaust Particulate Matter from a Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine

Experiments were performed to measure the number-weighted particle size distributions emitted from a gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine. Measurements were made on a late model vehicle equipped with a direct injection spark ignition engine. The vehicle was placed on a chassis dynamometer, which was used to load the engine to road load at five different vehicle speeds ranging from 15 - 100 km/hr. Dilution of the exhaust aerosol was carried out using a two-stage dilution system in which the first stage dilution occurs as a free jet. Particle size distributions were measured using a TSI 3934 scanning mobility particle sizer. Generally speaking, the presence of the additives did not have a strong, consistent influence on the particle emissions from this engine. The polyether amine demonstrated a reduction in particle number concentration as compared to unadditized base fuel.
Technical Paper

Nanoparticle Growth During Dilution and Cooling of Diesel Exhaust: Experimental Investigation and Theoretical Assessment

Nanoparticle formation during exhaust sampling and dilution has been examined using a two-stage micro-dilution system to sample the exhaust from a modern, medium-duty diesel engine. Growth rates of nanoparticles at different exhaust dilution ratios and temperatures have been determined by monitoring the evolution of particle size distributions in the first stage of the dilution system. Two methods, graphical and analytical, are described to determine particle growth rate. Extrapolation of size distribution down to 1 nm in diameter has been demonstrated using the graphical method. The average growth rate of nanoparticles is calculated using the analytical method. The growth rate ranges from 6 nm/sec to 24 nm/sec, except at a dilution ratio of 40 and primary dilution temperature of 48 °C where the growth rate drops to 2 nm /sec. This condition seems to represent a threshold for growth. Observed nucleation and growth patterns are consistent with predictions of a simple physical model.
Technical Paper

Diesel Trap Performance: Particle Size Measurements and Trends

Particle concentrations and size distributions were measured in the exhaust of a turbocharged, aftercooled, direct-injection, Diesel engine equipped with a ceramic filter (trap). Measurements were performed both upstream and downstream of the filter using a two-stage, variable residence time, micro-dilution system, a condensation particle counter and a scanning mobility particle sizer set up to count and size particles in the 7-320 nm diameter range. Engine operating conditions of the ISO 11 Mode test were used. The engine out (upstream of filter) size distribution has a bimodal, log normal structure, consisting of a nuclei mode with a geometric number mean diameter, DGN, in the 10-30 nm range and an accumulation mode with DGN in the 50-80 nm range. The modal structure of the size distribution is less distinct downstream of the filter. Nearly all the particle number emissions come from the nuclei mode, are nanoparticles (Dp < 50nm), and are volatile.
Technical Paper

Spark Ignition Engine Knock Detection Using In-Cylinder Optical Probes

Two types of in-cylinder optical probes were applied to a single cylinder CFR engine to detect knocking combustion. The first probe was integrated directly into the engine spark plug to monitor the radiation from burned gas in the combustion process. The second was built into a steel body and installed near the end gas region of the combustion chamber. It measured the radiant emission from the end gas in which knock originates. The measurements were centered in the near infrared region because thermal radiation from the combustion products was believed to be the main source of radiation from a spark ignition engine. As a result, ordinary photo detectors can be applied to the system to reduce its cost and complexity. It was found that the measured luminous intensity was strongly dependent upon the location of the optical sensor.
Technical Paper

Reducing Utility Engine Exhaust Emissions with a Thermal Reactor

A test reactor was designed for a 6.7 kW, 303 cc, single cylinder, air cooled, gasoline fueled engine. The reactor was very efficient at hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) reductions - with up to 99.9 and 98.6% removed, respectively. It had no effect on oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions. With the reactor, the engine met the California Air Resources Board (ARB) proposed Tier II emission standards. A factorial test was used to determine that A/F ratio and air injection rate significantly affected CO reduction efficiency whereas air injection location, ignition timing, and engine load did not. Relationships were established between CO reduction, air injection rate, and reactor core temperature.
Technical Paper

Real Time Measurement of Volatile and Solid Exhaust Particles Using a Catalytic Stripper

A system has been developed that allows near real time measurements of total, volatile, and nonvolatile particle concentrations in engine exhaust. It consists of a short section of heated catalyst, a cooling coil, and an electrical aerosol analyzer. The performance of this catalytic stripper system has been characterized with nonvolatile (NaCl), volatile sulfate ((NH4)2 SO4), and volatile hydrocarbon (engine oil) particles with diameters ranging from 0.05-0.5 μm. The operating temperature of 300°C gives essentially complete removal of volatile sulfate and hydrocarbon particles, but also leads to removal of 15-25% of solid particles. This system has been used to determine total, volatile, and nonvolatile particle concentrations in the exhaust of a Diesel engine and a spark ignition engine. Volatile volume fractions measured in Diesel exhaust with the catalytic stripper system increased from 19-65% as the equivalence ratio (load) decreased from 0.64-0.13.
Technical Paper

Physical Factors Affecting Hydrocarbon Oxidation in a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst

A study of factors affecting hydrocarbon oxidation in a diesel oxidation catalyst was undertaken. The objective was to determine whether interactions between particulate-adsorbed hydrocarbons and the catalyst significantly influenced hydrocarbon oxidation. Theoretical modeling supported by experimental data obtained at the U.S. Bureau of Mines' Diesel Emissions Research Laboratory indicated that the mass of particles interacting with the ceramic support was negligible. Additionally, a model of hydrocarbon adsorption onto diesel particulate predicted that over 98% by mass of exhaust hydrocarbons would be gas-phase, rather than particulate-adsorbed, at converter operating temperatures. A second physical process, the diffusion of gas phase hydrocarbons to the catalytic surface, was subsequently investigated. Theoretical and experimental results for the unburnt fuel hydrocarbons indicated that hydrocarbon oxidation was diffusion limited under high temperature operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Influence of a Fuel Additive on the Performance and Emissions of a Medium-Duty Diesel Engine

This report describes tests of a fuel additive in a medium-duty, high-swirl, direct-injection diesel engine. The additive was found to have little influence on general combustion performance or on NOx emissions. On the other hand, it had a profound effect on particulate emissions. This was most clear under high load where particle emissions are highest. Here, when the engine was switched from running on the base fuel to the additive treated fuel, particle emissions at first increased and then fell to levels about 40% lower (by particle volume) than those initially produced by the base fuel. The additive had a long lasting effect. After running with the additive for about 25 hours, emission levels with the base fuel were only slightly higher than those with the additive treated fuel. We believe that the additive action is associated with a combination of cleaning and surface conditioning. More work should be done to understand the relative importance of these two mechanisms.
Technical Paper

Injection Timing and Bowl Configuration Effects on In-Cylinder Particle Mass

The formation of particles in the combustion chamber of a direct injection diesel engine has been studied with the use of the Total Cylinder Sampling Method. With this method, nearly the entire contents of the cylinder of an operating diesel engine can be quickly removed at various times during the combustion process. The particle mass and size distributions present in the sample can then be analyzed. If quenching of the combustion process is quick and complete, the resulting samples are representative of the particle mass and size distributions present in the cylinder near the time sampling begins. This paper discusses the effect of injection timing and piston bowl shape on the particle formation and oxidation. Example size distribution measurements are also shown. The particle concentrations in the cylinder were measured for three different injection timings with the standard piston installed in the engine.
Technical Paper

Oxidation of Soot Agglomerates in a Direct Injection Diesel Engine

Carbon black particles, which morphologically and chemically simulate a diesel exhaust soot, were mixed with the intake air of a single-cylinder direct injection diesel engine to investigate the efficiency of their removal by oxidation in the combustion chamber. An aerosol generation system, which is capable of generating carbon black aerosol of a size distribution and mass flow rate comparable to those of the soot agglomerates, was developed first. The aerosol was then introduced into the engine which was operating on conventional fuel. Four methods were used to characterize the exhaust particles: an electrical aerosol analyzer, a condensation nuclei counter, a low volume filter, and a micro-orifice cascade impactor. The size distribution and concentration of the diesel soot particles in the lubricants were investigated by methods of photosedimentation and quantitative spectrophotometry, respectively.
Technical Paper

Size Distribution of Diesel Soot in the Lubricating Oil

Soot is the largest component of contaminants found in the diesel engine lubricating oil. The soot enters lubricating oil mainly through thermophoretic deposition on the cylinder wall. Although the mechanism is still not fully understood, it is generally accepted that soot particles promote engine wear, reducing engine component service life, fuel efficiency and performance. This problem will be further exacerbated when more and more diesel engines use EGR to reduce NOx emissions and when lubricating oil consumption is drastically reduced to control particulate emissions. In this study, lubricating oil samples were taken from 7 different operating diesel engines. The size distribution and concentration of the diesel soot particles in the lubricants were investigated by methods of photosedimentation and quantitative spectrophotometry. The size distributions were compared to those of soot particles in the exhaust.
Technical Paper

Variability in Particle Emission Measurements in the Heavy Duty Transient Test

A study of the sources of variability in particulate measurements using the Heavy-Duty Transient Test (40 CFR Subpart N) has been conducted. It consisted of several phases: a critical examination of the test procedures, visits to representative facilities to compare and contrast facility designs and test procedures, and development of a simplified model of the systems and procedures used for the Heavy-Duty Transient Test. Some of the sources of variability include; thermophoretic deposition of particulate matter onto walls of the sampling system followed by subsequent reentrainment in an unpredictable manner, the influence of dilution and cooling upon the soluble organic fraction, inconsistency among laboratories in the engine and dynamometer control strategies, and errors in measurements of flows into and out of the secondary dilution tunnel.
Technical Paper

Further Studies of Electrostatic Collection and Agglomeration of Diesel Particles

The use of a corona-less electrostatic precipitator as a collection and agglomeration device for diesel soot has been investigated. It collects and grows diesel particles which are emitted in the submicron diameter range and grow into much larger particles. These larger particles may then be collected with a relatively simple inertial device. Previous testing of a full scale precipitator designed for a Caterpillar 3304 engine showed that the reduction in sub-micron sized mass from the engine was roughly 30 to 40%. Greater reductions were desired. A sub-scale electrostatic agglomerator was built to analyze in greater detail the behavior of an existing full scale device. Tests were designed to determine; the charged fraction of the particles from the engine used, the collection efficiency of the electrostatic agglomerator, the effect of geometry on collection efficiency, and the size distribution of the particles reentrained after electrostatic collection.