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Journal Article

Chemical Analysis Results for Potable Water Returned from ISS Expeditions 14 and 15

2008-06-29
2008-01-2197
The Johnson Space Center Water and Food Analytical Laboratory (WAFAL) performed detailed ground-based analyses of archival water samples for verification of the chemical quality of the International Space Station (ISS) potable water supplies for Expeditions 14 and 15. During the 12-month duration of both expeditions, the Space Shuttle docked with the ISS on four occasions to continue construction and deliver additional crew and supplies; however, no Shuttle potable water was transferred to the station during Expedition 14. Russian ground-supplied potable water and potable water from regeneration of humidity condensate were both available onboard the ISS for consumption by the Expeditions 14 and 15 crews. A total of 16 chemical archival water samples were collected with U.S. hardware during Expeditions 14 and 15 and returned on Shuttle flights STS-116 (12A.1), STS-117 (13A), STS-118 (13A.1), and STS-120 (10A) in December 2006, and June, August, and November of 2007, respectively.
Technical Paper

Sampling and Chemical Analysis of Potable Water for ISS Expeditions 12 and 13

2007-07-09
2007-01-3214
The crews of Expeditions 12 and 13 aboard the International Space Station (ISS) continued to rely on potable water from two different sources, regenerated humidity condensate and Russian ground-supplied water. The Space Shuttle launched twice during the 12-months spanning both expeditions and docked with the ISS for delivery of hardware and supplies. However, no Shuttle potable water was transferred to the station during either of these missions. The chemical quality of the ISS onboard potable water supplies was verified by performing ground analyses of archival water samples at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Water and Food Analytical Laboratory (WAFAL). Since no Shuttle flights launched during Expedition 12 and there was restricted return volume on the Russian Soyuz vehicle, only one chemical archive potable water sample was collected with U.S. hardware and returned during Expedition 12. This sample was collected in March 2006 and returned on Soyuz 11.
Technical Paper

Chemical Characterization of U.S. Lab Condensate

2006-07-17
2006-01-2016
Approximately 50% of the water consumed by International Space Station crewmembers is water recovered from cabin humidity condensate. Condensing heat exchangers in the Russian Service Module (SM) and the United States On-Orbit Segment (USOS) are used to control cabin humidity levels. In the SM, humidity condensate flows directly from the heat exchanger to a water recovery system. In the USOS, a metal bellows tank located in the US Laboratory Module (LAB) collects and stores condensate, which is periodically off-loaded in about 20-liter batches to Contingency Water Containers (CWCs). The CWCs can then be transferred to the SM and connected to a Condensate Feed Unit that pumps the condensate from the CWCs into the water recovery system for processing. Samples of the condensate in the tank are collected during the off-loads and returned to Earth for analyses.
Technical Paper

ISS Expeditions 10 & 11 Potable Water Sampling and Chemical Analysis Results

2006-07-17
2006-01-2015
During the twelve month period comprising Expeditions 10 and 11, the chemical quality of the potable water onboard the International Space Station (ISS) was verified through the return and ground analysis of water samples. The two-man Expedition 10 crew relied solely on Russian-provided ground water and reclaimed cabin humidity condensate as their sources of potable water. Collection of archival water samples with U.S. hardware has remained extremely restricted since the Columbia tragedy because of very limited return volume on Russian Soyuz vehicles. As a result only two such samples were collected during Expedition 10 and returned on Soyuz 9. The average return sample volume was only 250 milliliters, which limited the breadth of chemical analysis that could be performed. Despite the Space Shuttle vehicle returning to flight in July 2005, only two potable water samples were collected with U.S. hardware during Expedition 11 and returned on Shuttle flight STS-114 (LF1).
Technical Paper

Chemical Analysis of ISS Potable Water From Expeditions 8 and 9

2005-07-11
2005-01-2885
With the Shuttle fleet grounded, limited capability exists to resupply in-flight water quality monitoring hardware onboard the International Space Station (ISS). As such, verification of the chemical quality of the potable water supplies on ISS has depended entirely upon the collection, return, and ground-analysis of archival water samples. Despite the loss of Shuttle-transferred water as a water source, the two-man crews during Expedition 8 and Expedition 9 maintained station operations for nearly a year relying solely on the two remaining sources of potable water; reclaimed humidity condensate and Russian-launched ground water. Archival potable water samples were only collected every 3 to 4 months from the systems that regenerate water from condensate (SRV-K) and distribute stored potable water (SVO-ZV).
Technical Paper

ISS Potable Water Sampling and Chemical Analysis: Expeditions 6 & 7

2004-07-19
2004-01-2537
Ever since the first crew arrived at the International Space Station (ISS), archival potable water samples have been collected and returned to the ground for detailed chemical analysis in order to verify that the water supplies onboard are suitable for crew consumption. The Columbia tragedy, unfortunately, has had a dramatic impact on continued ISS operations. A major portion of the ISS water supply had previously consisted of Shuttle-transferred water. The other two remaining sources of potable water, i.e., reclaimed humidity condensate and Russian-launched ground water, are together insufficient to maintain 3-person crews. The Expedition 7 crew launched in April of 2003 was, therefore, reduced from three to two persons. Without the Shuttle, resupply of ISS crews and supplies is dependent entirely on Russian launch vehicles (Soyuz and Progress) with severely limited up and down mass.
Technical Paper

ISS Potable Water Sampling and Chemical Analysis: Expeditions 4 & 5

2003-07-07
2003-01-2401
The International Space Station (ISS) drinking water supply consists of water recovered from humidity condensate, water transferred from Shuttle, and groundwater supplied from Russia. The water is dispensed from both the stored water dispensing system (SVO-ZV) and the condensate recovery system (SRV-K) galley. Teflon bags are used periodically to collect potable water samples, which are then transferred to Shuttle for return to Earth. The results from analyses of these samples are used to monitor the potability of the drinking water on board and evaluate the efficiency of the water recovery system. This report provides results from detailed analyses of samples of ISS recovered potable water, Shuttle-supplied water, and ground-supplied water taken during ISS Expeditions 4 and 5. During Expedition 4, processing of U.S. Lab condensate through the Russian condensate recovery system was initiated. Results indicate water recovered from both Service Module and U.S.
Technical Paper

Chemical Sampling and Analysis of ISS Potable Water: Expeditions 1-3

2002-07-15
2002-01-2537
The early International Space Station (ISS) drinking water supply primarily consists of water recovered from humidity condensate and water transferred from Shuttle. The water is dispensed both from the stored water dispensing system (SVO-ZV) and the galley, which is an integral part of the condensate recovery system. The galley provides both hot and tepid water. An assessment of the quality of each potable water source is underway and consists of periodic collection of samples into Teflon® bags for return to Earth via Shuttle. Water sampling hardware and procedures developed and used during the Shuttle-Mir program are employed on ISS without significant changes. This report provides results from detailed chemical analyses of recovered potable water and supplied (stored) water samples returned from ISS Expeditions 1 through 3. These results have been used to monitor the potability of the product and stored drinking water by comparing the results against water quality standards.
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