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Prognostics for Aerospace Propulsion Systems

2018-09-11
WIP
AIR5871A
1.1 Purpose This document applies to prognostics of aerospace propulsion systems. Its purpose is to define the meaning of prognostics in this context, explain their potential and limitations, and to provide guidelines for potential approaches for use in existing condition monitoring environments. It also includes some examples. 1.2 Field of Application This document seeks to meet the increasing interest in prognostics for aerospace propulsion systems. Specifically, the document tries to provide a timely guideline for applying prognostic technologies to enhance the capability of current monitoring and diagnostic systems. Some examples are provided that are intended to illustrate different approaches and methodologies.
Standard

Guide to Engine Lubrication System Monitoring

2018-04-10
CURRENT
AIR1828C
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides information and guidance for the selection and use of technologies and methods for lubrication system monitoring of gas turbine aircraft engines. This AIR describes technologies and methods covering oil system performance monitoring, oil debris monitoring, and oil condition monitoring. Both on-aircraft and off-aircraft applications are presented. A higher-level view of lubrication system monitoring as part of an overall engine monitoring system (EMS), is discussed in ARP1587. The scope of this document is limited to those lubrication system monitoring, inspection and analysis methods and devices that can be considered appropriate for health monitoring and routine maintenance. This AIR is intended to be used as a technical guide. It is not intended to be used as a legal document or standard.
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A Guide to APU Health Management

2018-04-09
CURRENT
AIR5317A
AIR5317 establishes the foundation for developing a successful APU health management capability for any commercial or military operator, flying fixed wing aircraft or rotorcraft. This AIR provides guidance for demonstrating business value through improved dispatch reliability, fewer service interruptions, and lower maintenance costs and for satisfying Extended Operations (ETOPS) availability and compliance requirements.
Standard

A Guide to Aircraft Power Train Monitoring

2017-07-19
CURRENT
AIR4174A
The purpose of this SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is to provide management, designers, and operators with information to assist them to decide what type of power train monitoring they desire. This document is to provide assistance in optimizing system complexity, performance and cost effectiveness. This document covers all power train elements from the point at which aircraft propulsion energy in a turbine or reciprocating engine is converted via a gear train to mechanical energy for propulsion purposes. The document covers aircraft engine driven transmission and gearbox components, their interfaces, drivetrain shafting, drive shaft hanger bearings, and associated rotating accessories, propellers, and rotor systems as shown in Figure 1. For guidance on monitoring additional engine components not addressed, herein (e.g., main shaft bearings and compressor/turbine rotors), refer to ARP1839.
Standard

Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine Health Management System Development and Integration Guide

2016-03-05
CURRENT
ARP5120
ARP5120 provides recommended best practices, procedures, and technology to guide the physical and functional design, development, integration, verification, and validation of highly reliable Engine Health Management (EHM) systems for aircraft engines and Auxiliary Power Units (APUs). This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) also serves as a concise reference of considerations, approaches, activities, and requirements for producing the end-to-end engine health management system comprised of both on and off-board subsystems for the sensing, acquisition, analysis, detection, and data handling functions for EHM. These functions may also be used to effect continued operation or return to service decisions when demonstrated as compliant with the applicable airworthiness requirements defined by the responsible Aviation Authority. Where practical, this document delineates between military and commercial practices.
Standard

A Guide to Aircraft Turbine Engine Vibration Monitoring Systems

2015-12-20
CURRENT
ARP1839
This Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) is a general overview of typical airborne engine vibration monitoring (EVM) systems applicable to fixed or rotary wing aircraft applications, with an emphasis on system design considerations. It describes EVM systems currently in use and future trends in EVM development. The broader scope of Health and Usage Monitoring Systems, (HUMS) is covered in SAE documents AS5391, AS5392, AS5393, AS5394, AS5395, AIR4174. This ARP also contains the essential elements of AS8054 which remain relevant and which have not been incorporated into Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM) specifications.
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Determination of Costs and Benefits from Implementing an Engine Health Management System

2013-02-05
CURRENT
ARP4176
This ARP provides an insight into how to approach a cost benefit analysis (CBA) to determine the return on investment (ROI) that would result from implementing a propulsion Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) system on an air vehicle. It describes the complexity of features that can be considered in the analysis, the different tools and approaches for conducting a CBA and differentiates between military and commercial applications. This document is intended to help those who might not necessarily have a deep technical understanding or familiarity with PHM systems but want to either quantify or understand the economic benefits (i.e., the value proposition) that a PHM system could provide.
Standard

Lessons Learned from Developing, Implementing, and Operating a Health Management System for Propulsion and Drive Train Systems

2011-01-03
CURRENT
AIR1871C
SAE Aerospace Information Report AIR1871 provides valuable insight into lessons learned in the development, implementation, and operation of various health monitoring systems for propulsion engines and drive train systems. This document provides an overview of the lessons learned for ground-based systems, oil debris monitoring systems, lubrication systems, and Health and Usage Monitoring Systems (HUMS) for military and commercial programs. For each case study, this document presents a brief technical description, the design requirements, accomplishments, lessons learned, and future recommendations. The lessons learned presented in this document represent a fragment of the knowledge gained through experience when developing and implementing a propulsion health management system. Previous versions of this document contain additional lessons learned during the 1980’s and 1990’s that may be of additional value to the reader.
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Prognostics for Gas Turbine Engines

2008-06-09
CURRENT
AIR5871
This document applies to prognostics of gas turbine engines and its related auxiliary and subsystems. Its purpose is to define the meaning of prognostics with regard to gas turbine engines and related subsystems, explain its potential and limitations, and to provide guidelines for potential approaches for use in existing condition monitoring environments. It also includes some examples.
Standard

A Guide to Aircraft Turbine Engine Vibration Monitoring Systems

2008-02-16
HISTORICAL
AIR1839C
This Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is a general overview of typical airborne engine vibration monitoring (EVM) systems applicable to fixed or rotary wing aircraft applications, with an emphasis on system design considerations. It describes EVM systems currently in use and future trends in EVM development. The broader scope of Health and Usage Monitoring Systems, (HUMS ) is covered in SAE documents AS5391, AS5392, AS5393, AS5394, AS5395, AIR4174.
Standard

Guidelines for Integrating Typical Engine Health Management Functions Within Aircraft Systems

2008-02-14
HISTORICAL
AIR4061B
SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) 4061 provides best practice guidelines for the integration of Engine Health Management (EHM) system functions within aircraft systems to include both its main engine(s) and any Auxiliary Power Unit(s) (APU). This document provides an overview of some of the functions EHM typically integrates, offers some system variations encountered with different aircraft, and suggests general considerations involved with integration. It presents a sample EHM parameter coverage matrix to show the types of parameters with which a typical EHM system might interface, offers insight into signal and data processing and retrieval, and offers a view of typical EHM parameter requirements by function. Where practical, this document delineates between military and commercial practices.
Standard

Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine Health Management System Guide

2007-05-21
CURRENT
ARP1587B
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) examines the whole construct of an Engine Health Management (EHM) system. This keystone document gives a top-level view and addresses EHM description, benefits, and capabilities, and provides examples. This ARP purposely addresses a wide range of EHM architectures to demonstrate possible EHM design options. This ARP is not intended as a legal document and does not provide detailed implementation steps, but does address general implementation concerns and potential benefits. Other SAE documents (Aerospace Standards, Aerospace Recommended Practices, and Aerospace Information Reports) address specific component specifications, procedures and "lessons learned".
Standard

Engine Monitoring System Reliability and Validity

2006-11-15
HISTORICAL
AIR5120
For Engine Monitoring Systems to meet their potential for improved safety and reduced operation and support costs, significant attention must be focused on their reliability and validity throughout the life cycle. This AIR will provide program managers, designers, developers and customers a concise reference of the activities, approaches and considerations for the development and verification of a highly reliable engine monitoring system. When applying the guidelines of this AIR it should be noted that engine monitoring systems physically or functionally integrated with the engine control system and/or performing functions that affect engine safety or are used to effect continued operation or return to service decisions shall be subject to the Type Investigation of the product in which they'll be incorporated and have to show compliance with the applicable airworthiness requirements as defined by the responsible Aviation Authority.
Standard

Guide to Engine Lubrication System Monitoring

2005-06-27
HISTORICAL
AIR1828B
The purpose of this SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is to provide information and guidance for the selection and use of lubrication system monitoring methods. This AIR is intended to be used as a technical guide. It is not intended to be used as a legal document or standard. The scope of this document is limited to those inspection and analysis methods and devices that can be considered appropriate for routine maintenance.
Standard

A Guide to the Development of a Ground Station for Engine Condition Monitoring

2005-02-16
HISTORICAL
AIR4175A
An effective GSS is vital to the successful implementation of an EMS and is a fundamental part of the total monitoring system design, including asset management. Unlike the on-board part of the EMS which principally uses real time data to indicate when engine maintenance is required, a GSS can offer much greater processing power to comprehensively analyze and manipulate EMS data for both maintenance and logistics purposes. This document reviews the main EMS functions and discusses the operating requirements used to determine the basis design of a GSS, including the interfaces with other maintenance or logistic systems. A brief discussion is also included on some of the more recent advances in GSS technology that have been specifically developed to provide more effective diagnostic capabilities for gas turbine engines.
Standard

A Methodology for Quantifying the Performance of an Engine Monitoring System

2005-01-05
CURRENT
AIR4985
The purpose of this SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is to present a quantitative approach for evaluating the performance and capabilities of an Engine Monitoring System (EMS). The value of such a methodology is in providing a systematic means to accomplish the following: 1 Determine the impact of an EMS on key engine supportability indices such as Fault Detection Rate, Fault Isolation Rate, Mean Time to Diagnose, In-flight Shutdowns (IFSD), Mission Aborts, and Unscheduled Engine Removals (UERs). 2 Facilitate trade studies during the design process in order to compare performance versus cost for various EMS design strategies, and 3 Define a “common language” for specifying EMS requirements and the design features of an EMS in order to reduce ambiguity and, therefore, enhance consistency between specification and implementation.
Standard

A Guide to Aircraft Turbine Engine Vibration Monitoring Systems

2001-07-01
HISTORICAL
AIR1839B
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is a general overview of typical airborne engine vibration monitoring (EVM) systems with an emphasis on system design considerations. It describes EVM systems currently in use and future trends in EVM development.
Standard

Engine Electrostatic Gas Path Monitoring

1999-03-01
HISTORICAL
AIR4986
Turbine engine malfunctions account for a substantial portion of the maintenance actions required to keep both fixed and rotary wing aircraft operational. Undetected incipient component failures can result in secondary engine damage and expensive unscheduled maintenance actions. Recent developments of electrostatic methods now provide the potential for the detection of foreign object ingestion and early detection of distress in gas path components. This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) seeks to outline the history of the electrostatic technique and provides examples of state-of-the-art systems for both inlet and exhaust gas debris monitoring systems along with examples of most recent testing.
Standard

Guide to Life Usage Monitoring and Parts Management for Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines

1998-05-01
HISTORICAL
AIR1872A
The effectiveness of Engine Life Usage Monitoring and Parts Management systems is largely determined by the aircraft-specific requirements. This document addresses the following areas: a Safety b Life-limiting criteria c Life usage algorithm development d Data acquisition and management e Parts life tracking f Design feedback g Cost effectiveness It primarily examines the requirements and techniques currently in use, and considers the potential impact of new technology to the following areas: a Parts classification and control requirements b Failure causes of life-limited parts c Engine life prediction and usage measurement techniques d Method validation e Parts life usage data management f Lessons learned g Life usage tracking benefits
Standard

Guide to Temperature Monitoring in Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines

1997-11-01
CURRENT
AIR1900A
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides an overview of temperature measurement for engine monitoring systems in various areas of aircraft gas turbine engines while focusing on current usage and methods, systems, selection criteria, and types of hardware. This document emphasizes temperature monitoring for diagnostics and condition monitoring purposes.
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