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Technical Paper

A Heuristic Supervisory Controller for a 48V Hybrid Electric Vehicle Considering Fuel Economy and Battery Aging

Most studies on supervisory controllers of hybrid electric vehicles consider only fuel economy in the objective function. Taking into consideration the importance of the energy storage system health and its impact on the vehicle’s functionality, cost, and warranty, recent studies have included battery degradation as the second objective function by proposing different energy management strategies and battery life estimation methods. In this paper, a rule-based supervisory controller is proposed that splits the torque demand based not only on fuel consumption, but also on the battery capacity fade using the concept of severity factor. For this aim, the severity factor is calculated at each time step of a driving cycle using a look-up table with three different inputs including c-rate, working temperature, and state of charge of the battery. The capacity loss of the battery is then calculated using a semi-empirical capacity fade model.
Journal Article

Transient Power Optimization of an Organic Rankine Cycle Waste Heat Recovery System for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Applications

This paper presents the transient power optimization of an organic Rankine cycle waste heat recovery (ORC-WHR) system operating on a heavy-duty diesel (HDD). The optimization process is carried on an experimentally validated, physics-based, high fidelity ORC-WHR model, which consists of parallel tail pipe and EGR evaporators, a high pressure working fluid pump, a turbine expander, etc. Three different ORC-WHR mixed vapor temperature (MVT) operational strategies are evaluated to optimize the ORC system net power: (i) constant MVT; (ii) constant superheat temperature; (iii) fuzzy logic superheat temperature based on waste power level. Transient engine conditions are considered in the optimization. Optimization results reveal that adaptation of the vapor temperature setpoint based on evaporation pressure strategy (ii) provides 1.1% mean net power (MNP) improvement relative to a fixed setpoint strategy (i).
Technical Paper

Computationally Efficient Li-Ion Battery Aging Model for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Supervisory Control Optimization

This paper presents the development of an electrochemical aging model of LiFePO4-Graphite battery based on single particle (SP) model. Solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) growth is considered as the aging mechanism. It is intended to provide both sufficient fidelity and computational efficiency required for integration within the HEV power management optimization framework. The model enables assessment of the battery aging rate by considering instantaneous lithium ion surface concentration rather than average concentration, thus enhancing the fidelity of predictions. In addition, an approximate analytical method is applied to speed up the calculation while preserving required accuracy. Next, this aging model are illustrated two applications. First is hybrid electric powertrain system model integration and simulation.
Journal Article

Optimal Supervisory Control of the Series HEV with Consideration of Temperature Effects on Battery Fading and Cooling Loss

This paper develops a methodology to optimize the supervisory controller for a heavy-duty series hybrid electric vehicle, with consideration of battery aging and cooling loss. Electrochemistrybased battery aging model is integrated into vehicle model. The side reaction, reductive electrolyte decomposition, is modeled to determine battery aging rate, and the thermal effect on this reaction rate is considered by Arrhenius Law. The resulting capacity and power fading is included in the system-level study. Sensitivity analysis shows that battery aging could cause fuel economy loss by 5.9%, and increasing temperature could improve fuel economy at any given state-of-health, while accelerating battery aging. Stochastic dynamic programming algorithm is applied to a modeled system to handle the tradeoff between two objectives: maximizing fuel economy and minimizing battery aging.
Technical Paper

Influence of Directly Injected Gasoline and Porosity Fraction on the Thermal Properties of HCCI Combustion Chamber Deposits

The limited operational range of low temperature combustion engines is influenced by near-wall conditions. A major factor is the accumulation and burn-off of combustion chamber deposits. Previous studies have begun to characterize in-situ combustion chamber deposit thermal properties with the end goal of understanding, and subsequently replicating the beneficial effects of CCD on HCCI combustion. Combustion chamber deposit thermal diffusivity was found to differ depending on location within the chamber, with significant initial spatial variations, but a certain level of convergence as equilibrium CCD thickness is reached. A previous study speculatively attributed these spatially dependent CCD diffusivity differences to either local differences in morphology, or interactions with the fuel-air charge in the DI engine. In this work, the influence of directly injected gasoline on CCD thermal diffusivity is measured using the in-situ technique based on fast thermocouple signals.
Technical Paper

A Hybrid Electric Vehicle Thermal Management System - Nonlinear Controller Design

The components in a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) powertrain include the battery pack, an internal combustion engine, and the electric machines such as motors and possibly a generator. These components generate a considerable amount of heat during driving cycles. A robust thermal management system with advanced controller, designed for temperature tracking, is required for vehicle safety and energy efficiency. In this study, a hybridized mid-size truck for military application is investigated. The paper examines the integration of advanced control algorithms to the cooling system featuring an electric-mechanical compressor, coolant pump and radiator fans. Mathematical models are developed to numerically describe the thermal behavior of these powertrain elements. A series of controllers are designed to effectively manage the battery pack, electric motors, and the internal combustion engine temperatures.
Technical Paper

An Evaluation of Knock Determination Techniques for Diesel-Natural Gas Dual Fuel Engines

The recent advent of highly effective drilling and extraction technologies has decreased the price of natural gas and renewed interest in its use for transportation. Of particular interest is the conversion of dedicated diesel engines to operate on dual-fuel with natural gas injected into the intake manifold. Dual-fuel systems with natural gas injected into the intake manifold replace a significant portion of diesel fuel energy with natural gas (generally 50% or more by energy content), and produce lower operating costs than diesel-only operation. Diesel-natural gas engines have a high compression ratio and a homogeneous mixture of natural gas and air in the cylinder end gases. These conditions are very favorable for knock at high loads. In the present study, knock prediction concepts that utilize a single step Arrhenius function for diesel-natural gas dual-fuel engines are evaluated.
Journal Article

Optimization of the Series-HEV Control with Consideration of the Impact of Battery Cooling Auxiliary Losses

This paper investigates the impact of battery cooling ancillary losses on fuel economy, and optimal control strategy for a series hybrid electric truck with consideration of cooling losses. Battery thermal model and its refrigeration-based cooling system are integrated into vehicle model, and the parasitic power consumption from cooling auxiliaries is considered in power management problem. Two supervisory control strategies are compared. First, a rule-based control strategy is coupled with a thermal management strategy; it controls power system and cooling system separately. The second is optimal control strategy developed using Dynamic Programming; it optimizes power flow with consideration of both propulsion and cooling requirement. The result shows that battery cooling consumption could cause fuel economy loss as high as 5%.
Technical Paper

Deaeration Device Study for a Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle

This paper investigates the development of a deaeration device to remove nitrogen from the hydraulic fluid in hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHVs). HHVs, which use accumulators to store and recycle energy, can significantly reduce vehicle emissions in urban delivery vehicles. In accumulators, nitrogen behind a piston cylinder or inside a bladder pressurizes an incompressible fluid. The permeation of the nitrogen through the rubber bladder into the hydraulic fluid limits the efficiency and reliability of the HHV system, since the pressure drop in the hydraulic fluid can in turn cause cavitation on pump components and excessive noise in the system. The nitrogen bubbles within the hydraulic fluid may be removed through the employment of commercial bubble eliminators if the bubbles are larger than a certain threshold. However, gas is also dissolved within the hydraulic fluid; therefore, novel design is necessary for effective deaeration in the fluid HHV circuit.
Journal Article

Optimization of Rule-Based Control Strategy for a Hydraulic-Electric Hybrid Light Urban Vehicle Based on Dynamic Programming

This paper presents a low-cost path for extending the range of small urban pure electric vehicles by hydraulic hybridization. Energy management strategies are investigated to improve the electric range, component efficiencies, as well as battery usable capacity. As a starting point, a rule-based control strategy is derived by analysis of synergistic effects of lead-acid batteries, high efficient operating region of DC motor and the hydraulic pump/motor. Then, Dynamic Programming (DP) is used as a benchmark to find the optimal control trajectories for DC motor and Hydraulic Pump/Motor. Implementable rules are derived by studying the optimal control trajectories from DP. With new improved rules implemented, simulation results show electric range improvement due to increased battery usable capacity and higher average DC motor operating efficiency.
Journal Article

Frequency Domain Power Distribution Strategy for Series Hybrid Electric Vehicles

Electrification and hybridization have great potential for improving fuel economy and reducing visual signature or soot emissions in military vehicles. Specific challenges related to military applications include severe duty cycles, large and uncertain energy flows through the system and high thermal loads. A novel supervisory control strategy is proposed to simultaneously mitigate severe engine transients and to reduce high electric current in the battery without oversizing the battery. The described objectives are accomplished by splitting the propulsion power demand through filtering in the frequency domain. The engine covers only low frequency power demand profile while the battery covers high frequency components. In the proposed strategy, the separation filter is systematically designed to identify different frequency components with the consideration of fuel consumption, aggressive engine transients, and battery electric loads.
Technical Paper

Hydraulic Hybrid Powertrain-In-the-Loop Integration for Analyzing Real-World Fuel Economy and Emissions Improvements

The paper describes the approach, addresses integration challenges and discusses capabilities of the Hybrid Powertrain-in-the-Loop (H-PIL) facility for the series/hydrostatic hydraulic hybrid system. We describe the simulation of the open-loop and closed-loop hydraulic hybrid systems in H-PIL and its use for concurrent engineering and development of advanced supervisory strategies. The configuration of the hydraulic-hybrid system and details of the hydraulic circuit developed for the H-PIL integration are presented. Next, software and hardware interfaces between the real components and virtual systems are developed, and special attention is given to linking component-level controllers and system-level supervisory control. The H-PIL setup allows imposing realistic dynamic loads on hydraulic pump/motors and accumulator based on vehicle driving schedule.
Journal Article

Impact of Model-Based Lithium-Ion Battery Control Strategy on Battery Sizing and Fuel Economy in Heavy-Duty HEVs

Electrification and hybridization show great potential for improving fuel economy and reducing emission in heavy-duty vehicles. However, high battery cost is unavoidable due to the requirement for large batteries capable of providing high electric power for propulsion. The battery size and cost can be reduced with advanced battery control strategies ensuring safe and robust operation covering infrequent extreme conditions. In this paper, the impact of such a battery control strategy on battery sizing and fuel economy is investigated under various military and heavy-duty driving cycles. The control strategy uses estimated Li-ion concentration information in the electrodes to prevent battery over-charging and over-discharging under aggressive driving conditions. Excessive battery operation is moderated by adjusting allowable battery power limits through the feedback of electrode-averaged Li-ion concentration estimated by an extended Kalman filter (EKF).
Technical Paper

Energy Management Options for an Electric Vehicle with Hydraulic Regeneration System

Energy security and climate change challenges provide a strong impetus for investigating Electric Vehicle (EV) concepts. EVs link two major infrastructures, the transportation and the electric power grid. This provides a chance to bring other sources of energy into transportation, displace petroleum and, with the right mix of power generation sources, reduce CO₂ emissions. The main obstacles for introducing a large numbers of EVs are cost, battery weight, and vehicle range. Battery health is also a factor, both directly and indirectly, by introducing limits on depth of discharge. This paper considers a low-cost path for extending the range of a small urban EV by integrating a parallel hydraulic system for harvesting and reusing braking energy. The idea behind the concept is to avoid replacement of lead-acid or small Li-Ion batteries with a very expensive Li-Ion pack, and instead use a low-cost hydraulic system to achieve comparable range improvements.
Journal Article

Design Optimization of a Series Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle for Real-World Driving Conditions

This paper proposes a framework to perform design optimization of a series PHEV and investigates the impact of using real-world driving inputs on final design. Real-World driving is characterized from a database of naturalistic driving generated in Field Operational Tests. The procedure utilizes Markov chains to generate synthetic drive cycles representative of real-world driving. Subsequently, PHEV optimization is performed in two steps. First the optimal battery and motor sizes to most efficiently achieve a desired All Electric Range (AER) are determined. A synthetic cycle representative of driving over a given range is used for function evaluations. Then, the optimal engine size is obtained by considering fuel economy in the charge sustaining (CS) mode. The higher power/energy demands of real-world cycles lead to PHEV designs with substantially larger batteries and engines than those developed using repetitions of the federal urban cycle (UDDS).
Technical Paper

Simulation Based Assessment of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Behavior During Real-World 24-Hour Missions

This paper proposes a simulation based methodology to assess plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHEV) behavior over 24-hour periods. Several representative 24-hour missions comprise naturalistic cycle data and information about vehicle resting time. The data were acquired during Filed Operational Tests (FOT) of a fleet of passenger vehicles carried out by the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI) for safety research. Then, PHEV behavior is investigated using a simulation with two different charging scenarios: (1) Charging overnight; (2) Charging whenever possible. Charging/discharging patterns of the battery as well as trends of charge depleting (CD) and charge sustaining (CS) modes at each scenario were assessed. Series PHEV simulation is generated using Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and in-house Matlab codes.
Technical Paper

Turbulence Intensity Calculation from Cylinder Pressure Data in a High Degree of Freedom Spark-Ignition Engine

The number of control actuators available on spark-ignition engines is rapidly increasing to meet demand for improved fuel economy and reduced exhaust emissions. The added complexity greatly complicates control strategy development because there can be a wide range of potential actuator settings at each engine operating condition, and map-based actuator calibration becomes challenging as the number of control degrees of freedom expand significantly. Many engine actuators, such as variable valve actuation and flow control valves, directly influence in-cylinder combustion through changes in gas exchange, mixture preparation, and charge motion. The addition of these types of actuators makes it difficult to predict the influences of individual actuator positioning on in-cylinder combustion without substantial experimental complexity.
Journal Article

Simulation-based Assessment of Various Dual-Stage Boosting Systems in Terms of Performance and Fuel Economy Improvements

Diesel engines have been used in large vehicles, locomotives and ships as more efficient alternatives to the gasoline engines. They have also been used in small passenger vehicle applications, but have not been as popular as in other applications until recently. The two main factors that kept them from becoming the major contender in the small passenger vehicle applications were the low power outputs and the noise levels. A combination of improved mechanical technologies such as multiple injection, higher injection pressure, and advanced electronic control has mostly mitigated the problems associated with the noise level and changed the public notion of the Diesel engine technology in the latest generation of common-rail designs. The power output of the Diesel engines has also been improved substantially through the use of variable geometry turbines combined with the advanced fuel injection technology.
Technical Paper

Thermal Characterization of Combustion Chamber Deposits on the HCCI Engine Piston and Cylinder Head Using Instantaneous Temperature Measurements

Extending the operating range of the gasoline HCCI engine is essential for achieving desired fuel economy improvements at the vehicle level, and it requires deep understanding of the thermal conditions in the cylinder. Combustion chamber deposits (CCD) have been previously shown to have direct impact on near-wall phenomena and burn rates in the HCCI engine. Hence, the objectives of this work are to characterize thermal properties of deposits in a gasoline HCCI engine and provide foundation for understanding the nature of their impact on autoignition and combustion. The investigation was performed using a single-cylinder engine with re-induction of exhaust instrumented with fast-response thermocouples on the piston top and the cylinder head surface. The measured instantaneous temperature profiles changed as the deposits grew on top of the hot-junctions.
Technical Paper

Characterization of the Fluid Deaeration Device for a Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle System

The attractiveness of the hydraulic hybrid concept stems from the high power density and efficiency of the pump/motors and the accumulator. This is particularly advantageous in applications to heavy vehicles, as high mass translates into high rates of energy flows through the system. Using dry case hydraulic pumps further improves the energy conversion in the system, as they have 1-4% better efficiency than traditional wet-case pumps. However, evacuation of fluid from the case introduces air bubbles and it becomes imperative to address the deaeration problems. This research develops a bubble elimination efficiency testing apparatus (BEETA) to establish quantitative results characterizing bubble removal from hydraulic fluid in a cyclone deaeration device. The BEETA system mixes the oil and air according to predetermined ratio, passes the mixture through a cyclone deaeration device, and then measures the concentration of air in the exiting fluid.