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Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Hydrogen Port Fuel Injection with SCR in a DI Diesel Engine

Diesel engines are the main prime movers for public transportation vehicles, stationary power generation units and for agricultural applications. Hence it is very important to find a best alternate fuel, which emits fewer pollutants into the atmosphere from diesel engines. In this regard hydrogen is receiving considerable attention, as an alternative source of energy to replace the rapidly depleting petroleum resources. Its clean burning characteristics provide a strong incentive to study its utilization as a possible alternate fuel. Hydrogen injection along with selective catalytic converter shows very attractive results both from the performance and emissions point of view. A maximum reduction in oxides of nitrogen (NOx) of 74% is achieved for a (ratio of flow rate of ammonia to the flow rate of NO) of 1.1 with a marginal reduction in efficiency. The reduction in both hydrocarbon (HC) and NOx emission is one of the major advantages of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on Performance and Emission Characteristics of Dual Fuel DI Diesel Engine with Hydrogen Fuel

Hydrogen is one of the most promising alternate fuels due to its clean burning characteristics and better performance as compared to fossil fuels. In addition to the need for finding effective solutions to the problem of air pollution from combustion processes, increasing pressure is being placed to find alternative fuel to replace the rapidly depleting petroleum fuels. Numerous research works have been carried out on using hydrogen as a fuel in Spark Ignition (SI) engine. However the major drawback of using hydrogen in a SI engine is the reduction in power output of the engine by about 30% in addition to problems like pre ignition, back fire and knocking at higher loads. Hence the use of hydrogen in a SI engine is limited.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation on a Diesel Engine with Hydrogen Fuel Injection in Intake Manifold

During the last decade the use of alternative fuels for diesel engine has received renewed attention. The interdependence and uncertainty of petroleum based fuel availability and environmental issues, most notably air pollution are among the principal forces behind the movement towards alternative sources of energy. The main pollutants from the conventional hydrocarbon fuels are unburned / partially burned hydrocarbon (UHC), carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of Nitrogen (NOx), smoke and particulate matter. These emissions are harmful to human, animal and plant life. Emissions from automobiles are currently a dominant source of air pollution representing 70 % of carbon monoxide, 41 % of oxides of Nitrogen (NOx), 38 % of hydrocarbon emissions globally. In addition 25 % of the man made CO2 emissions globally adds to the green house effect, which results in global warming. In the present investigation hydrogen is used in a diesel engine in the dual fuel mode using diesel as an ignition source.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Combustion Analysis of Rubber Seed Oil and its Methyl Ester in a D.I. Diesel Engine

The world is confronted with the two major crisis namely, fossil fuel shortage and environmental degradation. The non edible vegetable oil and its methyl ester have been considered a promising option. In the present investigation, tests were carried out to analyze the combustion process of Rubber Seed Oil Methyl Ester (RSOME), Rubber Seed Oil (RSO) and compared with diesel. The engine performance and exhaust emissions were also studied for better understanding of the combustion process. It was observed that the premixed combustion phase of RSOME combustion was more intense than that of RSO due to its lower ignition delay. It was also noted that the ignition delay and combustion duration decreased with RSOME, which indicated higher heat release resulting in higher thermal efficiency than RSO. The brake thermal efficiency is 26.53% with RSO, 27.89% with RSOME and 29.93% with diesel at full load. The peak pressure increased by 2.3 bar for RSOME compared to that of RSO.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigations to Improve the Performance of Rubber Seed Oil by Exhaust Gas Preheating

In the context of fossil fuel crisis and ever increasing vehicle population, the search for alternative fuel has become necessary. Vegetable oil can be used as an alternative fuel for the diesel engine operation. How ever, engine performance is inferior to diesel due to their higher viscosity. The higher viscosity of vegetable oil causes improper atomization of fuel during injection resulting in incomplete combustion. This leads to smoky exhaust in a diesel engine. While pre-heating of vegetable oil, it was found that viscosity reduces exponentially with temperature. The high temperature of the exhaust, which is otherwise wasted, can be used to preheat the vegetable oil. For this purpose a heat exchanger has to be designed. It was observed that the rubber seed oil (RSO) requires a heating temperature of 155°C to bring down its viscosity to that of diesel.
Technical Paper

Effect of Biodiesel Unsaturated Fatty Acid on Combustion Characteristics of a DI Compression Ignition Engine

Several researches were carried out on biodiesel combustion, performance and emissions till today. But very few research talks about the chemistry of biodiesel that affects the diesel engine operation. Biodiesel is derived from vegetable oils or animal fats, which comprises of several fatty acids with different chain length and bonding. This paper presents affect of biodiesel molecular weight, structure (Cis and Trans), and number of double bond on diesel engine operation characteristics. For this experiment we have selected three type of biodiesel with different molecular weight and number of double bond. All these three biodiesel selected for our test was prepared and analyzed for fuel properties according to the standard. These biodiesel are tested in a constant speed diesel engine, which developing 4.4 kW power and compared with diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Hydrogen Fuel Injection in DI Dual Fuel Diesel Engine

Hydrogen is expected to be one of the most important fuel in the near future to solve greenhouse problem and to save conventional fuels. In this study, a Direct Injection (DI) diesel engine was tested for its performance and emissions in dual-fuel (Hydrogen-Diesel) mode operation. Hydrogen was injected into the intake port along with air, while diesel was injected directly inside the cylinder. Hydrogen injection timing and injection duration were varied for a wider range with constant injection timing of 23° Before Injection Top Dead Centre (BITDC) for diesel fuel. When hydrogen is used as a fuel along with diesel, emissions of Hydro Carbon (HC), Carbon monoxide (CO) and Oxides of Nitrogen (NOX) decrease without exhausting more amount of smoke. The maximum brake thermal efficiency obtained is about 30 % at full load for the optimized injection timing of 5° After Gas Exchange Top Dead Centre (AGTDC) and for an injection duration of 90° crank angle.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on Performance and Emission Characteristics of DI Diesel Engine with Hydrogen Fuel

The internal combustion engines, have already, become an indispensable and integral part of our present day life style, particularly in the transportation and agricultural sectors. Unfortunately the survival of these engines has, of late, been threatened due to the problems of fuel crisis and environmental pollution. Therefore, to sustain the present growth rate of civilization, a non-depletable, clean fuel must be expeditiously sought. Hydrogen exactly caters to the specified needs. Hydrogen, even though “Renewable” and “clean burning”, does give rise to some undesirable combustion problems in an engine operation, such as backfire, pre-ignition, knocking and rapid rate of pressure rise. The present investigation compares the performance and emission characteristics of a DI diesel engine with gaseous Hydrogen as a fuel inducted by means of Carburation and Timed Port Injection (TPI) techniques along with diesel as a source of ignition.
Technical Paper

Tyre Pyrolysis Oil as an Alternate Fuel for Diesel Engines

Intensified search for alternative fuels is the main interest across the world due to the impact of fossil fuel crisis, ever increasing vehicle population and oil price and stringent emission norms. On the other hand, the disposal of waste tyres from automotive vehicles becomes complex. Apart from alternative biomass derived fuels like Ethanol, Methanol, Hydrogen, Vegetable oils etc, the new sources for alternative fuels are also appreciable. In this context, Pyrolysis of solid wastes is currently receiving renewed interest. The disposal of waste tyres can be simplified to some extent by Pyrolysis. In this paper, the properties of the pyrolysis oil derived from the waste automobile tyres were analysed and compared with the petroleum products and pure rubber pyrolysis oil. Also, Tyre pyrolysis oil-Diesel blends were used as alternate fuel in a four stroke Diesel Engine without any modification in the engine and the performance and emission characteristics have been studied.
Technical Paper

On the Operation of a Hybrid Electric Vehicle with Ethanol Flexible Fuel System for Indian Transportation Sector

Vehicular emissions contribute nearly two-third of the environmental pollution. The increasing usage of personal transportation and higher emissions from the tail pipe contribute significantly to the climate change. Though catalytic converters and other regulatory measures have brought down the emission levels, it is a serious concern about addressing the problems of depleting fossil fuel sources and the green house gas emissions. The effective use of ethanol either as a neat fuel or as a mixture with gasoline has proved technically feasible and environmentally acceptable. Electric Vehicle (EV) which is a Zero emission vehicle is yet to be accepted due to its poor drivability range. Hence Hybrid Electric Vehicles is emerging as an alternate solution that overcome the disadvantages of EV's and the existing prime movers can suitably be combined with the electric drive to produce optimal results.
Technical Paper


Diethyl Ether (DEE) is a significant component in a blend or as a complete replacement for diesel fuel. The presence of smoke in the diesel engine exhaust is an indication of poor combustion due to so many reasons. Nevertheless with increasing concern for the effect of air pollution on the environment, animal and plant life, particularly in road transport, vehicle exhaust emissions have in recent years been subjected to increasingly stringent regulations. A novel way of approaching in this direction is utilization of LPG in direct injection Diesel engine as a fuel with DEE as an ignition enhancer. This paper reports on the study of performance and emissions characteristics in a four stroke, 3.7 kW, single cylinder, DI diesel engine on homogeneous charge compression ignition mode (HCCI).
Technical Paper

An Innovative Application of Isomerisation of LPG by Al2O3/Pt Catalyst for Diesel Engine in Dual Fuel Operation

In the efforts for developing relatively clean and efficient burning fuels, attention is being focused on various gaseous fuels. Gaseous fuels in diesel are possible in dual fuel operation. It is well known that the operation of LPG-Diesel dual fuel engine at lower loads suffers from lower thermal efficiency and higher unburned percentages of fuel. To overcome this drawback, a new methodology has been adopted in the present work, namely, isomerisation of gaseous fuels. Experiments have been conducted by using Al2O3/Pt as an isomerisation catalyst. It is concluded that thermal efficiency at light loads can be improved significantly and emission levels reduced at all loads.