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Technical Paper

Simulation of a 1.9 Litre Direct Injection Turbocharged Diesel Engine at Part Load

Engine cycle simulation is an essential tool in the development of modern internal combustion engines. As engines evolve to meet tougher environmental and consumer demands, so must the analysis tools that the engineer employs. This paper reviews the application of such a tool, VIRTUAL 4-STROKE [1], in the modelling of a benchmark 1.9 Litre TDI engine. In an earlier paper presented to the Society [2] the authors presented results of a validation study on the same engine under full load operation. This paper expands on that work with validation of the simulation model against measured data over a full range of part load operation.
Technical Paper

Computer Simulation of the Performance of a 1.9 Litre Direct Injection Diesel Engine

Recent environmental legislation to reduce emissions and improve efficiency means that there is a real need for improved thermodynamic performance models for the simulation of direct-injection, turbocharged diesel engines, which are becoming increasingly popular in the automotive sector. An accurate engine performance simulation software package (VIRTUAL 4-STROKE) is employed to model a benchmark automotive 1.9-litre Turbocharged Direct Injection (TDI) diesel engine. The accuracy of this model is scrutinised against actual test results from the engine. This validation includes comparisons of engine performance characteristics and also instantaneous gas dynamic and thermodynamic behaviour in the engine cylinders, turbocharger and ducting. It is seen that there is excellent agreement in all of these areas.
Technical Paper


At the 1999 SETC meeting, a paper presented a simple, tuned and silenced exhaust system for a two-stroke engine which theoretically reduced both noise and exhaust emissions and increased engine power and fuel efficiency. In this paper that design concept is applied to a small 56 cc industrial engine and experimentally shown to deliver the projected behaviour which was predicted in that earlier publication. Experimental test results are presented for power output, fuel consumption, and exhaust emissions to illustrate these statements. An accurate engine simulation software package (VIRTUAL 2-STROKE) is employed to model the entire two-stroke engine and to demonstrate not only its effectiveness as a design tool in this area but also that it can accurately predict the above-mentioned performance and emission characteristics.
Technical Paper


The paper discusses the application of maps of measured discharge coefficients for poppet valves, cylinder ports, and in-pipe throttles within a theoretical simulation of the unsteady gas flow through an internal combustion engine. The maps provided cover both inflow and outflow at the discontinuity being discussed and are displayed as contour maps of the discharge coefficient as some function of the geometrical flow area of that discontinuity and of the pressure ratio across it up to a maximum value of 2.0. An engine simulation package is used for both a four-stroke and a two-stroke engine to determine the typical pressure ratio and area ratio characteristics which pertain at all such discontinuities at representative engine speed and load conditions.
Technical Paper

Reducing Exhaust Hydrocarbon Emissions from a Small Low Cost Two-Stroke Engine

An experimental and theoretical investigation to minimise the hydrocarbon emissions from a 25 cm3 two-stroke engine with finger transfer ports is described. Finger ports have the side of each passage closest to the cylinder axis open to the cylinder bore making it possible to produce high-pressure die castings with the simplest of dies. Cylinders utilising this type of porting are believed to have inferior scavenging characteristics compared to those using closed or cup-handle porting. The effects of cylinder scavenging characteristics and port optimisation on engine performance were examined using a computer simulation. It is concluded that there is potential for a 70% reduction in exhaust hydrocarbon emissions through scavenging efficiency improvements and port optimisation, provided the cylinder scavenging can be developed to match that of the best existing unconventional crossflow scavenged designs.
Technical Paper

Coefficients of Discharge at the Aperatures of Engines

This paper reports on the experimental evaluation of certain aspects concerning the mathematical modelling of pressure wave propagation in engine ducting. A particular aspect is the coefficient of discharge of the various ports, valves or apertures of the ducting connected to the cylinder of an engine or to the atmosphere. The traditional method for the deduction of the coefficients of discharge employs steady flow experimentation. While the traditional experimental method may well be totally adequate, it is postulated in this paper that the traditional theoretical approach to the deduction of the discharge coefficient from the measured data leads to serious inaccuracies if incorporated within an engine simulation by computer. An accurate theoretical method for the calculation of the discharge coefficient from measured data is proposed.
Technical Paper

Experimental Validation of a 1D Modelling Code for a Pipe Containing Gas of Varying Properties

This paper reports on the experimental evaluation of certain aspects of the mathematical modelling by the GPB method of pressure wave propagation through finite systems, of unsteady gas flow in engine ducting. The aspects under examination are the propagation of pressure waves through a pipe which contains gases of dissimilar properties. In this case the gases are carbon dioxide and air. The experimentation is conducted using the QUB SP (single pulse) pressure wave generator consisting of a cylinder, connected via a sliding valve to a long duct. The pressure waves it creates closely mimic those to be found in i.e. engines. The initial cylinder pressure may be set to simulate either an induction or an exhaust process, but the experiments reported here are of compression waves only. The duct attached to the pressure wave generator is a straight pipe. The cylinder and part of the pipe are filled with carbon dioxide and air.
Technical Paper

Experimental Validation of 1-D Modelling Codes for a Pipe System Containing Area Discontinuities

This paper reports on the first phase of an experimental evaluation of four different methods for the mathematical modelling of unsteady gas flow in a pipe system containing an area discontinuity. The four methods under investigation are the non-homentropic method of characteristics, the two-step Lax-Wendroff method with flux corrected transport, the Harten-Lax-Leer upstream difference method and the GPB finite system method. The experimentation is conducted using the QUB SP (single-pulse) pressure wave generator consisting of a cylinder, connected via a sliding valve to a long duct. The pressure waves it creates closely mimic those to be found in i.c. engines. The initial cylinder pressure may be set to simulate either an induction or an exhaust process. Various ducts are attached to the pressure wave generator to simulate both sudden and gradual area changes. Each duct is sufficiently long as to permit pressure wave observation without superposition effects.
Technical Paper

Design of Exhaust Systems for V-Twin Motorcycle Engines to Meet Silencing and Performance Criteria

This paper reports on the use of mathematical modelling by the GPB method of pressure wave propagation through finite systems, for the design of prototype exhaust systems and silencers for a Harley-Davidson motorcycle. The motorcycle engine is the classic 1340 cm3 45° V-twin power unit. The design objectives were to gain mid-range power and torque without loss of performance at either end of the speed range and to design silencers which would enhance the performance and the noise image of the machine. The Queen's University of Belfast (QUB) (3)* employed their unsteady gas flow modelling techniques to the design of the system and its silencers to complement a new camshaft design from Crane Cams. The results of the use of these computer based design techniques are reported as performance characteristics of power and torque for the new design by comparison with the stock system.
Technical Paper

Experimental Evaluation of 1-D Computer Codes for the Simulation of Unsteady Gas Flow Through Engines - A First Phase

This paper reports on the first phase of an experimental evaluation of five different methods for the mathematical modelling of unsteady gas flow in engine ducting. The five methods under investigation are the homentropic method of characteristics, the non-homentropic method of characteristics, the two-step Lax-Wendroff method with flux corrected transport, the Harten-Lax-Leer upstream difference method and the Blair method of pressure wave propagation through finite spaces. A single cycle pressure wave generator consisting of a cylinder, connected via a sliding valve to a long duct, has been designed and built. The pressure waves it creates closely mimic those to be found in i.e. engines. The cylinder and the ducts of the device can be filled with any gas and at elevated temperatures. A perfect seal exists between the cylinder and the valve thus enabling mass- flow correlation. The initial cylinder pressure may be set to simulate an induction or an exhaust process.
Technical Paper

Application of Direct Air-Assisted Fuel Injection to a SI Cross-Scavenged Two-Stroke Engine

A 500 cc single cylinder two-stroke engine employing cross scavenging and direct air-assisted gasoline injection is described. Preliminary engine test results are presented for 3000 rpm full load and 1600 rpm part load operating conditions. The effects of fuel injection timing on full and part load brake specific fuel consumption and exhaust emissions are examined.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Fuel Consumption and Emissions for a Small Capacity Two-Stroke Cycle Engine

The emissions produced from a simple carburetted crankcase scavenged two-stroke cycle engine primarily arise due to losses of fresh charge from the exhaust port during the scavenging process. These losses lead to inferior fuel consumption and a negative impact on the environment. Pressure on exhaust emissions and fuel consumption has reduced the number of applications of the two-stroke cycle engine over the years, however the attributes of simplicity, high power density and potential low manufacturing costs have ensured its continuing use for mopeds and motorcycles, small outboard engines and small utility engines. Even these last bastions of the simple two-stroke engine are being challenged by the four stroke alternative as emissions legislation becomes tighter and is newly formulated for many categories of engines. A simple solution is described which reduces short circuit and scavenge losses in a cost effective way.
Technical Paper

Non-Isentropic Analysis of Varying Area Flow in Engine Ducting

In two previous papers to this Society (1, 2)* an ‘alternative’ method was presented for the prediction of the unsteady gas flow behaviour through a reciprocating internal combustion engine. The computational procedures led further to the prediction of the overall performance characteristics of the power unit, be it operating on a two- or a four-stroke cycle. Correlation with measurements was given to illustrate its effectiveness and accuracy. In the ducts of such engines there are inevitably sectional changes of area which are either gradual or sudden. A tapered pipe is typical of a gradual area change whereas a throttle or a turbocharger nozzle represents a sudden area change. In those previous papers it was indicated that a fuller explanation, of the theoretical procedures required to predict accurately the unsteady gas flow in such duct sections would be given in a later paper to this Society; this is that necessary publication.
Technical Paper

Correlation of an Alternative Method for the Prediction of Engine Performance Characteristics with Measured Data

This paper presents confirmation of the accuracy of prediction of an engine simulation model. The experimental data used to compare with the output of the simulation model are from a single cylinder four-stroke cycle engine and from a single-cylinder two-stroke cycle engine; both engines are naturally aspirated and use spark- ignition. In addition, for the two-stroke cycle engine, the experimental data includes two cylinders with different scavenging characteristics which induce variations of performance characteristics of up to 20%. The fundamentals of the theoretical approach have been presented before to SAE (1)* and this paper extends that theory by providing a detailed discussion on the inclusion of measured scavenging characteristics to enable the simulation model to predict the mechanism of the in-cylinder gas exchange process.
Technical Paper

Motored and Steady Flow Boundary Conditions Applied to the Prediction of Scavenging Flow in a Loop Scavenged Two-Stroke Cycle Engine

The application of in-cylinder multi-dimensional modelling to the scavenging process within the cylinder of a two-stroke cycle engine requires a prior knowledge of the flow entering that cylinder. Without this information, assumptions must be made which limit the accuracy of the theoretical simulation. This paper describes laser doppler anemometry measurements of transfer port efflux flow for a two-port loop scavenged test cylinder motored at 200 rev/min. The cylinder was externally blown to ensure scavenge flow into the cylinder over the entire transfer port open period. The test results indicate that the flow does not enter the cylinder in the port design direction, but varies as a function of port height during both port opening and closing. Comparison of motoring results with those obtained under steady flow testing of the same cylinder, shows adequate correlation, thereby justifying the use of steady flow information for dynamic simulation.
Technical Paper

Initial Development of a Two-Stroke Cycle Diesel Engine for Automotive Applications

A three cylinder two-stroke cycle diesel engine is proposed for automotive use. The engine is of the simple loop or cross-scavenging type with a crosshead seal and under piston scavenging pump. This paper records the initial investigations of this concept using a purpose built single cylinder engine. Results from different combustion systems are presented together with tests with the same engine when using an external air supply. Measurements from a parallel investigation using a laser doppler anemometer to measure air swirl motion within one of the chambers are also presented.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Comparison of Loop and Cross Scavenging of the Two-Stroke Cycle Engine

In a previous paper (6)* SAE 850178, the authors pointed out that the single-cycle gas simulation rig which they had developed would prove to be an invaluable experimental tool for the development of two-stroke cycle engine cylinders to attain better scavenging and trapping efficiency of the fresh charge. This paper reports on the use of that now proven experimental technique to examine one of the longest running, and hitherto unresolved, discussions in the field of small two-stroke cycle engines: is loop-scavenging really superior to cross-scavenging? All of the cross-scavenging tests in the paper are compared to tests conducted on loop-scavenged cylinders of the same basic geometry and which were reported previously to SAE. The main conclusion from the experimental investigation is that cross-scavenging is superior to loop-scavenging at low or modest scavenge ratios but is inferior at high scavenge ratios.
Technical Paper

Computational Fluid Dynamics Applied to Two-Stroke Engine Scavenging

A three dimensional computational fluid dynamics program is used to simulate theoretically the scavenging process in the loop-scavenged two-stroke cycle engine. The theoretical calculation uses the k - ε turbulence model and all calculations are confined to the in-cylinder region. The calculation geometry is oriented towards five actual engine cylinders which have been tested under firing conditions for the normal performance characteristics of power, torque, and specific fuel consumption. The same five engine cylinders have also been experimentally tested on a single-cycle gas testing rig for their scavenging efficiency - scavenge ratio characteristics. The ranking of the cylinders in order of merit in terms of scavenging efficiency by both the rig and the theoretical calculations is shown to be in good agreement with the evidence provided by the actual firing engine test results.
Technical Paper

A New Piston Design for a Cross-Scavenged Two-Stroke Cycle Engine with Improved Scavenging and Combustion Characteristics

This paper describes a unique design of deflector piston for a cross-scavenged two-stroke cycle engine which incorporates the advantages of good scavenging, rapid combustion and reduced thermal loading on the piston. Test results are presented to confirm this statement from two small capacity outboard marine engines and comparisons are made between the experimental test results from the modified and standard power units; of significance is the reduced fuel consumption rate of the modified engines in both cases. A high bmep 400 cm3 single cylinder engine is designed, constructed and tested so as to determine the extent of deflector burning under conditions of high thermal loading. On all three engines the ignition timing for best power is shown to be in the 21-24° btdc region, by comparison with 32-38° btdc conventionally. The spark plug seat temperatures are reduced to 150 C maximum at peak power by comparison with 250-280 °C normally.
Technical Paper

Further Tests on Reducing Fuel Consumption with a Carburetted Two-Stroke Cycle Engine

This paper describes a unique and uncomplicated method of stratified-charging a two-stroke cycle engine which assists in reducing the short-circuited loss of fuel during scavenging. Performance characteristics as presented were acquired from tests conducted on a 400 cm3 naturally aspirated, single cylinder, spark ignition two-stroke engine with carburettor control of gasoline fuel, the design and construction of the engine also being done at The Queen's University of Belfast. Using a tuned exhaust pipe, the engine produces a peak power of 16 kW at 5000 rev/min and has a minimum brake specific fuel consumption of 0.275 kg/kWh. Moreover, for the tests presented at full and quarter throttle openings, virtually all of the brake specific fuel consumption values are below 0.36 kg/kWh. Most of the performance characteristics shown at various engine speeds are as a function of air/fuel ratio. This paper is a continuation of that presented as SAE 830093.