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Technical Paper

Spectroscopic Investigation of Initial Combustion Stages in a SI Engine Fuelled with Ethanol and Gasoline

It is well known that ethanol can be used in spark-ignition (SI) engines as a pure fuel or blended with gasoline. High enthalpy of vaporization of alcohols can affect air-fuel mixture formation prior to ignition and may form thicker liquid films around the intake valves, on the cylinder wall and piston crown. These liquid films can result in mixture non-homogeneities inside the combustion chamber and hence strongly influence the cyclic variability of early combustion stages. Starting from these considerations, the paper reports an experimental study of the initial phases of the combustion process in a single cylinder SI engine fueled with commercial gasoline and anhydrous ethanol, as well as their blend (50%vol alcohol). The engine was optically accessible and equipped with the cylinder head of a commercial power unit for two-wheel applications, with the same geometrical specifications (bore, stroke, compression ratio).
Journal Article

Alternative Diesel Fuels Characterization in Non-Evaporating and Evaporating Conditions for Diesel Engines

This paper reports the study of the effects of alternative diesel fuel and the impact for the air-fuel mixture preparation. The injection process characterization has been carried out in a non-evaporative high-density environment in order to measure the fuel injection rate and the spatial and temporal distribution of the fuel. The injection and vaporization processes have been characterized in an optically accessible single cylinder Common Rail diesel engine representing evaporative conditions similar to the real engine. The tests have been performed by means of a Bosch second generation common rail solenoid-driven fuel injection system with a 7-holes nozzle, flow number 440 cc/30s @100bar, 148deg cone opening angle (minisac type). Double injection strategy (pilot+main) has been implemented on the ECUs corresponding to operative running conditions of the commercial EURO 5 diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Optical Characterization of the Combustion Process in a 4- Stroke Engine for 2-Wheel Vehicle.

The match among the increasing performance demands and the stringent requirements of emissions and the fuel consumption reduction needs a strong evolution in the two-wheel vehicle technology. In particular, many steps forward should be taken for the optimization of modern small motorcycles and scooters at low engine speeds and high loads. To this aim, detailed understanding of thermo-fluid dynamic phenomena that occur in the combustion chamber is fundamental. In this work, low-cost solutions are proposed to optimize ported fuel injection spark ignition (PFI SI) engines for two-wheel vehicles. The solutions are based on the change of phasing and on the splitting of the fuel injection in the intake manifold. The experimental activities were carried out in the combustion chamber of a single-cylinder 4-stroke optical engine fuelled with European commercial gasoline. The engine was equipped with a four-valve head of a commercial scooter engine.
Journal Article

Spectroscopic Investigations and High Resolution Visualization of the Combustion Phenomena in a Boosted PFI SI Engine

High spatial and temporal resolution optical techniques were applied in a spark ignition (SI) engine in order to investigate the thermal and fluid dynamic phenomena occurring during the combustion process. The experiments were realized in the combustion chamber of an optically accessible single-cylinder port-fuel injection (PFI) SI engine. The engine was equipped with a four-valve head and with an external boost device. Two fuel injection strategies at closed-valve and open-valve occurring at wide open throttle were tested. Cycle-resolved digital imaging was used to follow the flame kernel growth and flame front propagation. Moreover, the effects of an abnormal combustion due to the firing of fuel deposition near the intake valves and on the piston surface were investigated. Natural emission spectroscopy in a wide wavelength range from ultraviolet to infrared was applied to detect the radical species that marked the combustion phenomena in the selected operating conditions.
Journal Article

Optical Investigations of the Abnormal Combustion in a Boosted Spark-ignition PFI Engine

The flame front propagation in normal and abnormal combustion was investigated. Cycle-resolved flame emission imaging was applied in the combustion chamber of a port fuel injection boosted spark ignition engine. The engine was fuelled with a mixture of 90% iso-octane and 10% n-heptane by volume (PRF90). The effect of fuel injection phasing was studied. The combustion process was followed from the flame kernel formation until the opening of the exhaust valves. Different phenomena correlated to the abnormal combustion were analysed. Detailed information on ignition surfaces, end-gas auto-ignitions and knock were obtained. The appearance of autoignition centres in the end gas was evaluated in terms of timing, location and frequency of occurrence.
Journal Article

Effect of Injection Phasing on Valves and Chamber Fuel Deposition Burning in a PFI Boosted Spark-Ignition Engine

A satisfactory answer to the future severe normative on emissions and to the market request for spark ignition engines seems to be the use of downsized engines for passenger cars. Downsizing permits the increase in engines power and torque without the increase in cylinder capacity. The downsizing benefits are evident at part loads; on the other hand, more work should be done to optimize boosted engines at higher and full load. To this goal, a detailed knowledge of the thermo-fluid dynamic processes that occur in the combustion chamber is fundamental. The aim of this paper is the experimental investigation of the effect of the fuel injection in the intake manifold on the combustion process and pollutant formation in a boosted spark ignition (SI) engine. The experiments were performed on a partially transparent single-cylinder port fuel injection (PFI) SI engine, equipped with a four-valve head and boost device.
Technical Paper

Influence of a Swirling Air Flow on an Evaporating Diesel Spray from a Common Rail Injection System under Realistic Engine Conditions

The aim of the present paper is to provide an insight into the fluid dynamic processes that occur during the air/fuel mixture formation period in direct injection diesel engines. An experimental and numerical investigation has been performed to analyse the mixing process between an evaporating diesel spray and a swirl air flow under realistic engine conditions. Experimental tests have been carried out spraying the fuel within an optically accessible prototype 2-stroke Diesel engine equipped with an external combustion chamber having cylindrical shape. The intake air flow, coming from the engine cylinder, is forced within the combustion chamber by means of a tangential duct generating a well structured swirl flow similar to that developing in a real light duty diesel engine with a high swirl ratio. A micro-sac 5-hole, 0.13 mm diameter, 150° spray angle electro-hydraulic injector supplies the fuel by a common rail injection system able to manage multiple injection strategies.
Technical Paper

Flame Diagnostics in the Combustion Chamber of Boosted PFI SI Engine

The growing demands on fuel economy and always stricter limitations on pollutant emissions has increased the interest in the ignition phenomena to guarantee successful flame development for all the spark ignition (SI) engine operating conditions. The initial size and the growth of the flame have a strong influence on the further development of the combustion process. In particular, for the new FIAT generation of turbocharged SI engines, the first times of spark ignition combustion are not yet fully understood. This is mainly due to the missing knowledge concerning the detailed physical and chemical processes taking place during the all set of the flame propagation. These processes often occur simultaneously, making difficult the interpretation of measurements. In the present paper, flame dynamic was followed by UV-visible emission imaging in an optical SI engine.
Technical Paper

Development and Experimental Validation of a Combustion Model with Detailed Chemistry for Knock Predictions

Aim of this work is to develop a general purpose model for combustion and knocking prediction in SI engines, by coupling a thermo-fluid dynamic model for engine simulation with a general detailed kinetic scheme, including the low-temperature oxidation mechanism, for the prediction of the auto-ignition behavior of hydrocarbons. A quasi-D approach is used to describe the in-cylinder thermodynamic processes, applying the conservation of mass and energy over the cylinder volume, modeled as a single open system. The complex chemistry model has been embedded into the code, by using the same integration algorithm for the conservation equations and the reacting species, and taking into account their mutual interaction in the energy balance. A flame area evolution predictive approach is used to evaluate the turbulent flame front propagation as function of the engine operating parameters.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of a Spray from a Multi-jet Common Rail Injection System for Small Engines

This paper illustrates the results of an experimental investigation on the liquid fuel spray from a multi-jet common rail injection system both under non evaporative and evaporative conditions. Tests have been taken using a 5 hole, 0.13 mm diameter, 150° spray angle, micro-sac nozzle having a flow rate of 270 cm3/30 sec@10 MPa exploring different injection strategies. Experiments have been taken, under non evaporative conditions, injecting the fuel within stagnant inert gas, at different density, in a high-pressure optically-accessible cylindrical vessel with three large quartz windows. Under evaporative conditions, the experiments have been taken within a crank-case scavenged single-cylinder 2-stroke direct injection Diesel engine provided of optical accesses to the combustion chamber. It allows to study the fuel injection process under thermodynamic conditions similar to those currently reached in modern direct injection diesel engines.
Technical Paper

Analysis of a High Pressure Diesel Spray at High Pressure and Temperature Environment Conditions

This paper illustrates the results of an experimental characterization of a high pressure diesel spray injected by a common rail (CR) injection system both under non-evaporative and evaporative conditions. Tests have been made injecting the fuel with a single hole injector having a diameter of 0.18 mm with L/D=5.56. The fuel has been sprayed at 60, 90 and 120 MPa, with an ambient pressure ranging between 1.2 to 5.0 MPa. The spray evolution has been investigated, by the Mie scattering technique, illuminating the fuel jet and acquiring single shot images by a CCD camera. Tests under non-evaporative conditions have been carried out in an optically accessible high pressure vessel filled with inert gas (N2) at diesel-like density conditions. The instantaneous fuel injection rate, obtained with a time resolution of 10 microseconds, has been also evaluated by an AVL Fuel Meter working on the Bosch Tube principle.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Mixture Formation Process in a HDDI Diesel Engine by CFD and Imaging Technique

The paper aims at providing information about the spray structure and its evolution within the combustion chamber of a heavy duty direct injection (HDDI) diesel engine. The spray penetration is investigated, firstly under quiescent conditions, injecting the fuel in a vessel under ambient temperature and controlled back pressure by both numerical and experimental analyses using the STAR-CD code and the imaging technique, respectively. Experimental results of fuel injection rate, fuel penetration, and spray cone angle are used as initial conditions to the code and for the comparison of predictions. The experimental investigation is carried out using a mechanical injection pump equipped by the heavy duty eight cylinder engine. Only one of its plungers has been activated and the fuel is discharged through a seven holes mechanical injector, 0.40 mm in diameter.
Technical Paper

Multidimensional Modelling and Spectroscopic Analysis of the Soot Formation Process in a Diesel Engine

Multidimensional simulation of the soot formation process in a diesel engine is realised exploiting quantitative measurements of the soot volume fraction and diameter obtained by optical techniques. Broadband extinction and scattering measurements are performed on an optically accessible 4-stroke engine where a forced air motion allows a strong prevalence of the premixed stage of combustion with respect to the non-premixed one. Two semi-empirical models for soot formation are tested in the numerical simulation, which is performed using a customized version of the KIVA-3 code. The need of furnishing coherent values of the soot particles density and mean diameter to the one of the two models requiring this kind of information, is highlighted and demonstrated to be crucial in avoiding over-prediction of the soot concentration.
Technical Paper

Spectral Analysis of Combustion Process of Common Rail Diesel Engine

Polychromatic extinction and chemiluminescence techniques, from ultraviolet to visible, were applied in an optical diesel engine, in order to analyze the temporal and spatial evolution of a high pressure fuel jet interacting with a swirling air motion. A fully flexible Common Rail fuel injection system equipped with a single hole nozzle was used. The experiments were performed at fixed engine speed and air/fuel ratio for three injection strategies. The first one consisted of a main injection to compare with those operating at low pressure injection. The other ones were based on a pilot and main injections, typical of current direct injection diesel engines, with different dwell time. A detailed investigation of the mixture formation process inside the combustion chamber during the ignition delay time was performed. The liquid and vapor fuel distribution in the combustion chamber was obtained analyzing the polychromatic extinction spectra.
Technical Paper

Absolute NO and OH Concentrations During Diesel Combustion Process by Multiwavelength Absorption Spectroscopy

Conventional methods to measure gas concentrations and, in particular, NO are typically based on sampling by valve, sample treatment and subsequent analysis. These methods suffer low spatial and temporal resolution. The introduction of high energy lasers in combination with fast detection systems allowed to detect the NO distribution inside optically accessible Diesel engines. In this paper, a high spatial and temporal resolution in-situ technique based on ultraviolet - visible absorption spectroscopy is proposed. The characterization of the combustion process by the detection of gaseous compounds from the start of combustion until the exhaust phase was performed. In particular, this technique allows the simultaneous detection of NO and OH absolute concentrations inside an optically accessible Diesel combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Modelling of soot formation in diesel engines exploiting measurements of soot volume fraction and diameter

Quantitative measurements of the soot volume fraction and diameter performed by spectroscopic techniques within the combustion chamber of a diesel engine are employed to aid multidimensional simulation of the soot formation and oxidation processes. By changing the start of fuel injection, two different operating conditions are considered, which are characterized by different relative importance of the premixed to the diffusive stage of the combustion process. Both the reduced models by Hiroyasu et al., and the one by Nagle and Strikland- Constable are employed within the numerical simulation. The reason of the peculiar over-prediction of soot concentration of the latter model is discussed and related to the need of furnishing coherent values of the soot particle density and mean diameter.
Technical Paper

Characterization of CR diesel exhaust by UV-visible extinction and scattering spectroscopy

Non-intrusive diagnostic techniques based on broadband (190-550 nm) extinction and scattering spectroscopy were applied at undiluted exhaust Common- Rail (CR) diesel engine in real time. The influence of load and Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on soot mass concentration, size distribution of emitted particles and NO concentration was analyzed. NO concentration was evaluated by ""in-situ"" ultraviolet-visible absorption measurements and compared with those obtained by conventional analyzer. The extinction and scattering spectra were compared with those evaluated by the Lorenz-Mie model for spherical particles in order to retrieve the size, the number concentration of the emitted particles and particulate mass. The optical measurements showed that new generation diesel engines, in spite of a drastic reduction of the exhaust mass concentration, caused the emission in the atmosphere of high number concentration of carbonaceous nanoparticles.
Technical Paper

Optical Detection of Absolute NO and OH Concentration inside Diesel Combustion Chamber

Conventional methods for combustion gas concentration measurement are typically based on gas sampling, sample treatment and subsequent analysis. These procedures could affect the species concentrations in particular when temporal variations of process parameters are under study. Moreover, in these methods, the concentration measurements are usually performed at standard temperature and pressure. In order to overcome these limitations, in-situ and real-time concentration measurement techniques are needed. In this paper, an in-situ technique with high spatial and temporal resolution, based on ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, was proposed. This technique allowed the simultaneous determination of NO and OH absolute concentrations inside optically accessible diesel combustion chamber. Temporal and spatial distribution of OH and NO was evaluated.
Technical Paper

Fuel Composition Effects on Air-Fuel Mixing and Self-Ignition in a Divided Chamber Diesel System by Optical Diagnostics

The influence of fuel composition on mixture formation and first stage of combustion, occurring in a small high swirl combustion chamber of an IDI Diesel engine, was analyzed from measurements of spectral extinction and flame emissivity. Measurements were carried out in an optically accessible combustion chamber in which an air swirling flow is forced from the main chamber through a tangential passage. A conventional injection system was used to inject Tetradecane, N-heptane and Diesel fuel. The distribution of liquid and vapor and the interaction of the jet with air swirl were detected by UV-visible extinction measurements. The autoignition phase was characterized by UV-visible chemiluminescence measurements. For all fuels examined, it was observed that initially the liquid fuel penetrates almost linearly with time until reaching a maximum characteristic length, slightly dependent on the fuel.
Technical Paper

LDV Measurements of Integral Length Scales in an IC Engine

Tangential component of velocity and turbulence were measured in three locations in the re-entrant combustion chamber of a motored single-cylinder d.i. Diesel engine (0.435 liter, 21:1 compression ratio) using a Laser Doppler Velocimetry system. Moreover, a modified LDV system with two-probe volume was used to measure directly lateral integral length scales of the velocity tangential component at two engine speeds. The measurements were made on a horizontal plane at 5 mm below the engine head from 100 degrees before TDC to 60 degrees after TDC of both the compression and expansion strokes. The engine was motored at 1,000 and 1,500 rpm respectively. An ensemble-averaging technique was performed to analyze the instantaneous velocity information supplied by two Burst Spectrum Analyzers. The lateral integral length scale was obtained from the integral of the spatial correlation coefficient of the velocity fluctuation for different separation.