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Technical Paper

A Study on Combustion Characteristics of a High Compression Ratio SI Engine with High Pressure Gasoline Injection

2019-09-09
2019-24-0106
In order to improve thermal efficiency of spark ignition (SI) engines, an improved technology to avoid irregular combustion under high load conditions of high compression ratio SI engines is required. In this study, the authors focused on high pressure gasoline direct injection in a high compression ratio SI engine, which its rapid air-fuel mixture formation, turbulence, and flame speed, are enhanced by high-speed fuel spray jet. Effects of fuel injection pressure, injection and spark ignition timing on combustion characteristics were experimentally and numerically investigated. It was found that the heat release rate was drastically increased by raising the fuel injection pressure. The numerical simulation results show that the high pressure gasoline direct injection enhanced small-scale turbulent intensity and fuel evaporation, simultaneously.
Technical Paper

A Fundamental Study on Combustion Characteristics in a Pre-Chamber Type Lean Burn Natural Gas Engine

2019-09-09
2019-24-0123
Pre-chamber spark ignition technology can stabilize combustion and improve thermal efficiency of lean burn natural gas engines. During compression stroke, a homogeneous lean mixture is introduced into pre-chamber, which separates spark plug electrodes from turbulent flow field. After the pre-chamber mixture is ignited, the burnt jet gas is discharged through multi-hole nozzles which promotes combustion of the lean mixture in the main chamber due to turbulence caused by high speed jet and multi-points ignition. However, details mechanism in the process has not been elucidated. To design the pre-chamber geometry and to achieve stable combustion under the lean condition for such engines, it is important to understand the fundamental aspects of the combustion process. In this study, a high-speed video camera with a 306 nm band-pass filer and an image intensifier is used to visualize OH* self-luminosity in rapid compression-expansion machine experiment.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Purification Performance Enhancement by Early Activation of Three Way Catalysts for Gasoline Engines Used in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2019-09-09
2019-24-0148
Three-way catalyst (TWC) converters are used to remove harmful substances (e.g., carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and hydrocarbons (HC)) emitted from gasoline engines. However, a large amount of emissions could be emitted before the TWC reaches its light-off temperature during a cold start. For hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) powered by gasoline engines, the emission purification performance by TWC converters unfortunately deteriorates because of mode switching from engine to battery and vice versa, which can repeatedly generate cold start conditions for the TWCs. In this study, aiming to reduce emissions from series HEVs by early activation of TWCs, numerical simulations and experiments are carried out. An HEV is tested on a chassis dynamometer in the Worldwide Light-duty Test Cycle (WLTC) mode. The upstream and downstream gas conditions of the close-coupled catalyst converter are measured.
Technical Paper

Analysis and Modeling of NOx Reduction Based on the Reactivity of Cu Active Sites and Brønsted Acid Sites in a Cu-Chabazite SCR Catalyst

2019-09-09
2019-24-0150
The NOx-reducing activity of a Cu-chabazite selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst was analyzed over a wide temperature range. The analysis was based on the ammonia SCR (NH3-SCR) mechanism and accounted for Cu redox chemistry and reactions at Brønsted acid sites. The reduction of NOx to N2 (De-NOx) at Cu sites was found to proceed via different paths at low and high temperatures. Consequently, the rate-limiting step of the SCR reaction at Cu sites varied with the temperature. The rate of NOx reduction at Cu sites below 200°C was determined by the rate of Cu oxidation. Conversely, the rate of NOx reduction above 300°C was determined by the rate of NH3 adsorption on Cu sites. Moreover, the redox state of the active Cu sites differed at low and high temperatures. To clarify the role of the chabazite Brønsted acid sites, experiments were also performed using a H-chabazite catalyst that lacks Cu sites.
Technical Paper

Kinetic Modeling of Ammonia-SCR and Experimental Studies over Monolithic Cu-ZSM-5 Catalyst

2019-01-15
2019-01-0024
Ammonia-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems have been introduced commercially in diesel vehicles, however catalyst systems with higher conversion efficiency and better control characteristics are required to know the actual emissions during operation and the emissions in random test cycles. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is an effective approach when applied to SCR catalyst development, and many models have been proposed, but these models need experimental verification and are limited in the situations they apply to. Further, taking account of redox cycle is important to have better accuracy in transient operation, however there are few models considering the cycle. Model development considering the redox reactions in a zeolite catalyst, Cu-ZSM-5, is the object of the research here, and the effects of exhaust gas composition on the SCR reaction and NH3 oxidation at high temperatures are investigated.
Technical Paper

Effects of Soot Deposition on NOx Purification Reaction and Mass Transfer in a SCR/DPF Catalyst

2018-09-10
2018-01-1707
Experimental studies were carried out to investigate the effect of soot deposition on NOx purification phenomena in an ammonia selective catalytic reduction coated diesel particulate filter (SCR/DPF) catalyst. To study soot deposition effects on the chemical reactions and mass transfer, two types of testing device were used. A synthetic gas bench enabling tests to be conducted with temperature and flow rate ranges relevant to real driving conditions was used to investigate the soot influence on reduction of NOx to N2 (DeNOx). A micro-reactor that removed the effect of soot deposition on mass transfer in the catalyst layer was used to analyze chemical reactions on a soot surface and their interaction with the SCR catalyst. A filter test brick of a Cu-zeolite SCR/DPF catalyst and a powder catalyst were used for the synthetic gas bench and micro-reactor tests, respectively. Engine soot was sampled in all the tests.
Journal Article

Combustion Noise Reduction with High Thermal Efficiency by the Control of Multiple Fuel Injections in Premixed Diesel Engines

2017-03-28
2017-01-0706
Premixed diesel combustion is effective for high thermal efficiency and reductions of NOx and PM emissions, but a reduction of combustion noise is necessary for medium-high load engine operation. The control of the fuel injection has become more accurate because of the technical progress of the common rail fuel injection system, and the target heat release shape, calculated by computation, can be achieved by control of EGR, boosting, fuel injection timing, and injection quantity of multiple fuel injections. In this paper, the reduction of premixed diesel combustion noise maintaining high thermal efficiency has been investigated by the control of injection timings and heating values of multiple fuel injections. There are two aspects of the combustion noise reduction by multiple fuel injections. One is the reduction of the maximum rate of pressure rise in each combustion cycle, and the other is noise reduction effects by the noise cancelling spike (NCS) combustion.
Technical Paper

Impingement and Adhesion on Cylinder Liners with Post Diesel Fuel Injections

2016-10-17
2016-01-2193
Diesel particulate filters (DPF) are widely used in diesel engines, and forced regeneration is necessary to remove particulate matter (PM) accumulating on the DPF. This may be achieved with fuel injected after the main combustion is complete, the socalled “post fuel injection”, and supplied to the diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) upstream of the DPF. This increases the exhaust gas temperature in the DOC and the DPF is regenerated with the high temperature gas flow. In most cases, the post fuel injection takes place at 30-90CA ATDC, and fuel may impinge on and adhere to the cylinder liner wall in some cases. Buddie and Pischinger [1] have reported a lubricant oil dilution with the post fuel injection by engine tests and simulations, and adhering fuel is a cause of worsening fuel consumption. In this paper, the impingement and adhesion of post diesel fuel injections on the cylinder liner was investigated by an optical method with a high pressure constant volume chamber (ϕ110mm, 883cm3).
Journal Article

Diesel Engine Combustion Noise Reduction by the Control of Timings and Heating Values in Two Stage High Temperature Heat Releases

2016-04-05
2016-01-0731
Reductions in combustion noise are necessary in high load diesel engine operation and multiple fuel injections can achieve this with the resulting reductions in the maximum rate of pressure rise. In 2014, Dr. Fuyuto reported the phenomenon that the combustion noise produced in the first combustion can be reduced by the combustion noise of the second fuel injection, and this has been named “Noise Cancelling Spike Combustion (NCS combustion)”. To investigate more details of NCS combustion, the effects of timings and heating values of the first and second heat releases on the reduction of overall combustion noise are investigated in this paper. The engine employed in the research here is a supercharged, single cylinder DI diesel engine with a high pressure common rail fuel injection system.
Technical Paper

Semi-Premixed Diesel Combustion with Twin Peak Shaped Heat Release Using Two-Stage Fuel Injection

2016-04-05
2016-01-0741
Characteristics of semi-premixed diesel combustion with a twin peak shaped heat release (twin combustion) were investigated under several in-cylinder gas conditions in a 0.55 L single cylinder diesel engine with common-rail fuel injection, super-charged, and with low pressure loop cooled EGR. The first-stage combustion fraction, the second injection timing, the intake oxygen concentration, and the intake gas pressure influence on thermal efficiency related parameters, the engine noise, and the exhaust gas emissions was systematically examined at a middle engine speed and load condition (2000 rpm, 0.7 MPa IMEP). The twin peak shaped heat release was realized with the first-stage premixed combustion with a sufficient premixing duration from the first fuel injection and with the second fuel injection taking place just after the end of the first-stage combustion.
Journal Article

Detailed Diesel Combustion and Soot Formation Analysis with Improved Wall Model Using Large Eddy Simulation

2015-11-17
2015-32-0715
A mixed time-scale subgrid large eddy simulation was used to simulate mixture formation, combustion and soot formation under the influence of turbulence during diesel engine combustion. To account for the effects of engine wall heat transfer on combustion, the KIVA code's standard wall model was replaced to accommodate more realistic boundary conditions. This were carried out by implementing the non-isothermal wall model of Angelberger et al. with modifications and incorporating the log law from Pope's method to account for the wall surface roughness. Soot and NOx emissions predicted with the new model are compared to experimental data acquired under various EGR conditions.
Journal Article

Low Temperature Premixed Diesel Combustion with Blends of Ordinary Diesel Fuel and Normal Heptane

2015-11-17
2015-32-0754
Premixed diesel combustion blending high volatility fuels into diesel fuel were investigated in a modern diesel engine. First, various fractions of normal heptane and diesel fuel were examined to determine the influence of the blending of a highly ignitable and volatile fuel into diesel fuel. The indicated thermal efficiency improves almost linearly with increasing normal heptane fraction, particularly at advanced injection timings when the fuel is not injected directly into the piston cavity. This improvement is mainly due to decreases in the other losses, ϕother which are calculated with the following equation based on the energy balance. ηu: The combustion efficiency calculated from the exhaust gas compositions ηi: The indicated thermal efficiency ϕex: The exhaust loss calculated from the enthalpy difference between intake and exhaust gas The decreases in the other losses with normal heptane blends are due to a reduction in the unburned fuel which does not reach the gas analyzer.
Technical Paper

Numerical Optimization of Parameters to Improve Thermal Efficiency of a Spark-Ignited Natural Gas Engine

2015-09-01
2015-01-1884
Natural gas is a promising alternative fuel for internal combustion engines because of its clean combustion characteristics and abundant reserves. However, it has several disadvantages due to its low energy density and low thermal efficiency at low loads. Thus, to assist efforts to improve the thermal efficiency of spark-ignited (SI) engines operating on natural gas and to minimize test procedures, a numerical simulation model was developed to predict and optimize the performance of a turbocharged test engine, considering flame propagation, occurrence of knock and ignition timing. The numerical results correlate well with empirical data, and show that increasing compression ratios and retarding the intake valve closing (IVC) timing relative to selected baseline conditions could effectively improve thermal efficiency. In addition, employing moderate EGR ratios is also effective for avoiding knock.
Technical Paper

Influence of Fuel Volatility on Evaporation Characteristics of Diesel Sprays in Various Low Temperature and Low Density Surrounding Conditions Like at Early Pilot or Late Post Injections

2015-09-01
2015-01-1923
The diesel spray characteristics in early pilot and late post fuel injections in a constant volume chamber which can create the in-cylinder conditions of a diesel engine were visualized with high speed video. At the early pilot and late post fuel injection, there was a longer penetration of the liquid phase fuel spray as well as slower evaporation. With normal heptane the impingement of liquid spray with early pilot and post fuel injections can be avoided due to a faster evaporation. The penetration of liquid phase fuel spray increases significantly at low IMEP and late post injection conditions with diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Developments of the Reduced Chemical Reaction Scheme for Multi-Component Gasoline Fuel

2015-09-01
2015-01-1808
The reduced chemical reaction scheme which can take the effect of major fuel components on auto ignition timing into account has been developed. This reaction scheme was based on the reduced reaction mechanism for the primary reference fuels (PRF) proposed by Tsurushima [1] with 33 species and 38 reactions. Some pre-exponential factors were modified by using Particle Swarm Optimization to match the ignition delay time versus reciprocal temperature which was calculated by the detailed scheme with 2,301 species and 11,116 elementary chemical reactions. The result using the present reaction scheme shows good agreements with that using the detailed scheme for the effects of EGR, fuel components, and radical species on the ignition timing under homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion (HCCI) conditions.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Combustion and Emissions in a Dual Fuel Compression Ignition Engine with Natural Gas as the Main Fuel

2015-04-14
2015-01-0863
Dual fuel combustion with premixed natural gas as the main fuel and diesel fuel as the ignition source was investigated in a 0.83 L, single cylinder, DI diesel engine. At low loads, increasing the equivalence ratio of natural gas to around 0.5 with intake throttling makes it possible to reduce the THC and CO emissions as well as to improve the thermal efficiency. At high loads, increasing the boost pressure moderates the combustion, but increases the THC and CO emissions, resulting in deterioration of the thermal efficiency. The EGR is essential to suppress the rapid combustion. As misfiring occurs with a compression ratio of 14.5 and there is excessively rapid combustion with 18.5 compression ratio, 16.5 is a suitable compression ratio.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Heat Release Shape and the Connecting Rod Crank Radius Ratio for Low Engine Noise and High Thermal Efficiency of Premixed Diesel Engine Combustion

2015-04-14
2015-01-0825
Premixed diesel combustion offers the potential of high thermal efficiency and low emissions, however, because the rapid rate of pressure rise and short combustion durations are often associated with low temperature combustion processes, noise is also an issue. The reduction of combustion noise is a technical matter that needs separate attention. Engine noise research has been conducted experimentally with a premixed diesel engine and techniques for engine noise simulation have been developed. The engine employed in the research here is a supercharged, single cylinder DI diesel research engine with a high pressure common rail fuel injection system. In the experiments, the engine was operated at 1600 rpm and 2000 rpm, the engine noise was sampled by two microphones, and the sampled engine noise was averaged and analyzed by an FFT sound analyzer.
Technical Paper

Computational Study to Improve Thermal Efficiency of Spark Ignition Engine

2015-03-10
2015-01-0011
The objective of this paper is to investigate the potential of lean burn combustion to improve the thermal efficiency of spark ignition engine. Experiments used a single cylinder gasoline spark ignition engine fueled with primary reference fuel of octane number 90, running at 4000 revolution per minute and at wide open throttle. Experiments were conducted at constant fueling rate and in order to lean the mixture, more air is introduced by boosted pressure from stoichiometric mixture to lean limit while maintaining the high output engine torque as possible. Experimental results show that the highest thermal efficiency is obtained at excess air ratio of 1.3 combined with absolute boosted pressure of 117 kPa. Three dimensional computational fluid dynamic simulation with detailed chemical reactions was conducted and compared with results obtained from experiments as based points.
Journal Article

Molecular Structure of Hydrocarbons and Auto-Ignition Characteristics of HCCI Engines

2014-11-11
2014-32-0003
The chemical composition of marketed gasoline varies depending on the crude oil, refinery processes of oil refineries, and season. The combustion characteristics of HCCI engines are very sensitive to the fuel composition, and a fuel standard for HCCI is needed for HCCI vehicles to be commercially viable. In this paper, the effects of the structure of the fuel components on auto-ignition characteristics and HCCI engine performance were investigated. The engine employed in the experiments is a research, single cylinder HCCI engine with a compression ratio of 14.7. The intake manifold was equipped with a heater attachment allowing control of the intake air temperature up to 150 °C at 2000 rpm. Thirteen kinds of hydrocarbons, 4 kinds of paraffins, 3kinds of naphthenes, and 6 kinds of aromatics, were chosen for the investigation, and 20vol% of each of the pure hydrocarbons was blended with the 80 vol% of PFR50 fuel.
Technical Paper

Visualization Analysis of Diesel Combustion with Water and Diesel Fuel Emulsified Blend in a Constant Volume Chamber Vessel

2014-11-11
2014-32-0127
Diesel-like combustion of an emulsified blend of water and diesel fuel in a constant volume chamber vessel was visualized with high speed color video, further analyzing with a 2-D two color method and shadowgraph images. When the temperature at the fuel injection is 900 K, here while the combustion with unblended diesel fuel in the vessel is similar to ordinary diesel combustion with diffusive combustion, combustion with the emulsified fuel is similar to premixed diesel combustion with a large premixed combustion and very little diffusive combustion. With the emulsified fuel the flame luminosity and temperature are lower, the luminous flame and high temperature regions are smaller, and the duration of the luminous flame is shorter than with diesel fuel. This is due to promotion of premixing with increases in the ignition delay and decreases in the combustion temperature with the water vaporization.
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