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Technical Paper

Estimating the CO2 Emissions Reduction Potential of Various Technologies in European Trucks Using VECTO Simulator

2017-09-04
2017-24-0018
Heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) account for some 5% of the EU’s total greenhouse gas emissions. They present a variety of possible configurations that are deployed depending on the intended use. This variety makes the quantification of their CO2 emissions and fuel consumption difficult. For this reason, the European Commission has adopted a simulation-based approach for the certification of CO2 emissions and fuel consumption of HDVs in Europe; the VECTO simulation software has been developed as the official tool for the purpose. The current study investigates the impact of various technologies on the CO2 emissions of European trucks through vehicle simulations performed in VECTO. The chosen vehicles represent average 2015 vehicles and comprised of two rigid trucks (Class 2 and 4) and a tractor-trailer (Class 5), which were simulated under their reference configurations and official driving cycles.
Technical Paper

NOx Engine Exhaust Emissions Generated from Diesel (CI) Passenger Cars Registered from 2000 to 2012

2014-04-01
2014-01-1620
Real world engine emissions measurements were carried out from the University of Antwerp in Belgium and more than 600 passenger cars were measured when entering and leaving two different University campuses. All measurements were done according to the European Commission Directive 2010/48/EU on roadworthiness tests for motor vehicles and their trailers. A database, including a wide variety of vehicles with completely different engine specifications and technological characteristics (engine size, emissions standards exhaust after-treatment devices etc.) has been created and various parameters influencing emissions will be examined. The influence of various parameters on NOx emissions was considered and discussed in this paper. Important conclusions have been made for diesel vehicles and presented in this work. Cold and hot start engine emissions were taken and analyzed in order to determine the percentage that NOx emission increased over the years.
Technical Paper

Real World Diesel Engine Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Diesel Fuel and B100

2013-04-08
2013-01-1514
The transport sector is one of the major contributors to greenhouse gas emissions. This study investigated three greenhouse gases emitted from road transport using a probe vehicle: CO₂, N₂O and CH₄ emissions as a function temperature. It should be highlighted that methane is a greenhouse gas that similarly to carbon dioxide contributes to global warming and climate change. An oxidation catalyst was used to investigate CO₂, N₂O and CH₄ GHG emissions over a real-world driving cycle that included urban congested traffic and extra-urban driving conditions. The results were determined under hot start conditions, but in congested traffic the catalyst cooled below its light-off temperature and this resulted in considerable N₂O emissions as the oxidation catalyst temperature was in the N₂O formation band. This showed higher N₂O during hot start than for diesel fuel and B100 were compared. The B100 fuel was Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME), derived from waste cooking oil, which was mainly RME.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Various Driving Parameters and Emissions for Passenger Cars Driven With and Without Stops at Intersections under Different Test Cycles

2012-04-16
2012-01-0880
Different driving test cycles, the Leeds-West Park (LWP) loop and the Leeds-High Park (LHP) or HPL-A and B (Leeds-Hyde Park Loop-A or B, hereafter referred as HPL-A or B cycle) loop were selected for this urban intersection research and results are presented in this study. Different emissions-compliant petrol passenger cars (EURO 1, 2, 3 and 4) were compared for their real-world emissions. A reasonable distance of steady state speed was needed and for the analysis made in this paper were chosen vehicle speeds at ~20, ~30 and ~40 km/h. Specific spot of periods of driving at the speeds mentioned above were identified, then the starting and ending point was found and the total emissions in g for that period divided by the distance was calculated. A typical urban driving cycle including a loop and a section of straight road was used for the comparison test as it was similar to the legislative ECE15 urban driving cycle.
Technical Paper

Controlling Particulate Matter Emissions in Vehicles Using Different Strategies under the Heavy-Duty Test Cycle

2012-04-16
2012-01-0885
Since 1997 in Belgium, the market share of vehicles equipped with diesel engine has grown up from 50% to nearly 80%. Most of the drivers are using diesel cars for private or company purposes and gasoline powered engine vehicles sales dropped dramatically since then. This evolution is clearly a game-changer regarding the type of regulated emissions we can find as dominant. Tests and analysis for this work focused on diesel passenger cars and one of the main drivers for that was the great demand of new cars fitted with exhaust aftertreatment devices (DPF, DOC, LBC etc.). In this paper the performance of soot filters were measured and presented, based not on the NEDC but on the heavy duty 13-Mode test cycle which emphasize mainly at low-speed driving conditions, such as all passenger cars are running currently, and is also characterized by low average engine loads and low exhaust temperatures.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Three Different Mixtures of Ecofuels Used on a Perkins Engine on a Test Bed

2010-10-05
2010-01-1970
This paper describes and analyzes the results of investigations of application of heavy alcohols as an ingredient of diesel fuel. Three different mi xtures of butanol (as heavy alcohol), rape oil (as vegetable oil) and conventional diesel fuel (this mixture was called the biomixdiesel-BMD) were tested using a Perkins engine on a test bed. Contrary to existing experiences both the maximum power output and the maximum torque of the engine were higher in the whole range of the speed of the engine crankshaft when the engine biomixdiesel (BMD) was reinforced. The addition of the component biomix to fuel influenced the specific fuel consumption. Generally, with the larger part of the biomix components the specific fuel consumption were higher. Also the engine power was higher and one should expect that in exploitation the specific fuel consumption should not increase. It is very important that this fuel could be used to reinforce old, already existing and the future diesel engines.
Journal Article

Influence of Cold Start and Ambient Temperatures on Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions, Global Warming Potential (GWP) and Fuel Economy for SI Car Real World Driving

2010-04-12
2010-01-0477
The transport sector is one of the major contributors to greenhouse gas emissions. This study investigated three greenhouse gases emitted from road transport using a probe vehicle: CO₂, N₂O and CH₄ emissions as a function of cold start and ambient temperatures. A real-world driving cycle has been developed at Leeds and referred as LU-BS, which has an urban free flow driving pattern. The test vehicle was driven on the same route by the same driver on different days with different ambient temperatures. All the journeys were started from cold. An in-vehicle FTIR emission measurement system was installed on a EURO2 emission compliance SI car for emissions measurement at a rate of 0.5 Hz. This emission measurement system was calibrated on a standard CVS measurement system and showed an excellent agreement on the CO₂ measurement with the CVS results. The N₂O and CH₄ were calibrated by calibration gas bottles.
Journal Article

Effect of Multifunctional Fuel Additive Package on Fuel Injector Deposit, Combustion and Emissions using Pure Rape Seed Oil for a DI Diesel

2009-11-02
2009-01-2642
This work investigates the effect of a multifunctional diesel fuel additive package used with RapeSeed Oil (RSO) as a fuel in a DI heavy duty diesel engine. The effects on fuel injectors’ cleanliness were assessed. The aim was to maintain combustion performance and preventing the deterioration of exhaust emissions associated with injector deposit build up. Two scenarios were investigated: the effect of deposit clean-up by a high dose of the additive package; and the effect of deposit prevention using a moderate dose of the additive package. Engine combustion performance and emissions were compared for each case against use of RSO without any additive. The engine used was a 6 cylinder, turbocharged, intercooled Perkins Phaser Engine, fitted with an oxidation catalyst and meeting the Euro II emissions limits. The tests were conducted under steady state conditions of 23kW and 47kW power output at an engine speed of 1500 rpm.
Technical Paper

Influence of Ignition Timing on the Exhaust Emissions of a Ford Escort Fuelled by Various Ethanol and Petrol Mixtures

2009-09-13
2009-24-0140
The influence of the ignition timing on the exhaust emissions of an old technology vehicle fuelled by various ethanol/petrol mixtures was investigated. All tests were carried out on a 1300cc Ford Escort equipped with a carburettor and without a catalytic converter. The reference petrol fuel E0 and the blends E10, E20 and E50 were used, at three different constant speeds of 30, 50 and 90 km/h, under full load with wide open throttle while the vehicle was on a chassis dynamometer. All measurements were taken at three different settings of the advance angle, at 0°, 4° and 12° BTDC. With the use of an exhaust gas analyser, the concentrations of CO, CO2, HC, O2 and NOX in the exhaust gases at the tailpipe were recorded. For the evaluation of the results the lambda value was calculated from the available recorded data. Changing the ignition timing, while using the blends E10, E20 and E50, had the same effects on the emissions as the reference fuel E0.
Technical Paper

Ignition Timing Impact on the Performance of an Old Technology Vehicle Fuelled by Ethanol/Petrol Blends

2009-06-15
2009-01-1968
The scope of this work was to study the impact of the ignition timing on the engine’s performance on an old technology vehicle fuelled by ethanol/petrol blends. Many previous studies have been published on the subject, but most of them were carried on SI engines using bench dynamometers. In this work, a 1.3 L Ford Escort equipped with a carburettor and without a catalytic converter was tested on a chassis dynamometer. Blends with ethanol concentrations of 10%, 20% and 50% per volume were used and the results were compared with the reference LRP fuel. All tests were performed at three different constant speeds of 30, 50 and 90 km/h, under full load with wide open throttle. Torque and rpm of the engine were recorded by the chassis dynamometer’s software. The fuel consumption was measured by means of the gravimetric method. All measurements were taken at three different settings of the advance angle, at 0°, 4° and 12° BTDC.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Aldehyde and VOC Emissions during Cold Start and Hot Engine Operations using 100% Biofuels for a DI Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-1515
Aldehydes and other Volatile Organic compounds (VOC) are assessed under cold start and steady state conditions using a Perkins Phaser 6 litre diesel engine. A comparison is made between petroleum diesel fuel (PD), 100% biodiesel (WME) and 100% rapeseed oil (RSO). A Temet FTIR was used to determine aldehydes including formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein. The diesel engine was cold started at room temperature using a step start up procedure that kept the power output constant at two steady state conditions: 23kW and 47kW. Very little difference was observed between petroleum diesel and biodiesel aldehyde emissions at either steady state conditions or during cold start. There was, however, an increase in aldehydes at steady state for rapeseed oil, particularly at low load, but only for from ∼10ppm to 25 ppm for formaldehyde (i.e. 0.12g/kWh to 0.37g/kWh). During cold start conditions, the emissions were significantly higher for rapeseed oil than for petroleum diesel.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Fuel Pre-Heating on Combustion and Emissions with 100% Rapeseed Oil for a DI Diesel Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-0486
This work investigates the heating of unprocessed rapeseed oil as a means to improve fuel delivery by reducing the fuel viscosity, and to assess the effects on combustion performance. The results show that a simple low power heater with thermal insulation around the fuel line and pump can effectively raise the operational fuel temperature at delivery to the pump. The results show that even with a moderate temperature increase, the fuel flow limitations with rapeseed oil are reduced and the legislated gaseous emissions are reduced at steady state conditions. As one of the main reasons for the conversion of straight oils to the methyl ester, ie biodiesel, is to reduce the viscosity, this work shows that heating the oil can have a similar effect. An emissions benefit is observed with biodiesel compared to rapeseed oil but this is not large. There is also a significant greenhouse gas and cost benefit associated with straight vegetable oils.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Real World Emissions in Urban Driving for Euro 1-4 Vehicles Using a PEMS

2009-04-20
2009-01-0941
An on-board emission measurement system (PEMS), the Horiba OBS 1300, was installed in Euro 1-4 SI cars of the same model to investigate the impact of vehicle technology on exhaust emissions, under urban driving conditions with a fully warmed-up catalyst. A typical urban driving loop cycle was used with no traffic loading so that driver behavior without the influence of other traffic could be investigated. The results showed that under real world driving conditions the NOx emissions exceeded the legislated values and only at cruise was the NOx emissions below the legislated value. The higher NOx emissions during real-world driving have implications for higher urban Ozone formation. With the exception of the old EURO1 vehicle, HC and CO emissions were under control for all the vehicles, as these are dominated by cold start issues, which were not included in this investigation.
Technical Paper

Emissions Generated from a Suzuki Liane Running on Unleaded Gasoline and LPG under the Same Load Conditions

2008-10-07
2008-01-2637
Green fuels or alternative fuels are growing fast now days and can be used in every passenger car but also in many commercial vehicles. In various countries all around Europe such as Italy, Netherlands and Belgium LPG is a reasonable alternative fuel for small and medium cars. This study evaluated the performance of a Suzuki Liane fitted with a multipoint in-line gas fuel injection system. During the tests various exhaust gasses (CO, CO2, NOx, O2 and HC) and temperatures were measured in different load condition on a chassis dynamometer. All tests were conducted in the engines laboratory at Karel de Grode Hogeschool (KDG) in Antwerp, Belgium. The car was tested on a chassis dynamometer similar to the one described in [1], [2], [3] and various loads were applied at different gear settings. All measurements were taken under full load and four different gears (2nd gear, 3rd gear, 4th gear and 5th gear) were selected in the gear box.
Technical Paper

An Old Ford Escort 1.6 was Tested on a Chassis Dynamometer and Compared with a New Volvo V70 2.5, Using the Same Blends of Cottonseed Biodiesel and Neat Diesel

2008-10-07
2008-01-2611
In this study the influence of various blends biodiesel on steady state exhaust emissions was determined using, in terms of technology, two different cars. A first series of tests were conducted in Greece and a second series of tests were conducted in Belgium. An old technology Ford Escort 86 model, 1.6L, 4 cylinders with indirect injection system engine was used on a chassis dynamometer in Greece and a Volvo V70 2.5L was tested in Belgium. The Ford Escort test car was not equipped with an engine Electronic Control Unit (ECU) and run on the dynamometer with full load on three different gear settings (second gear, third gear and fourth gear). The Belgian car was a modern Volvo V70 2.5 L Turbo diesel. Seven fuels were used in both cases, a high sulfur diesel in Greece, and blends of 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% by weight biodiesel in neat diesel or (B10), (B20), (B30), (B40), (B50) and (B100) respectively.
Journal Article

Study of the Effects of Ethanol Use on a Ford Escort Fitted with an Old Technology Engine

2008-10-07
2008-01-2608
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects on the engine's efficiency and exhaust gas emissions by the use of ethanol/gasoline blends in conventional technology vehicles. The fuels E0, E10, E20 and E50 were tested in a 1300cc old technology vehicle without a catalytic converter. The measurements of the engine's brake torque, revolutions and fuel consumption were accomplished on a chassis dynamometer for different engine loads and with different gear ratios. Regarding the exhaust gas emissions, the concentrations of CO2 , CO, HC and NOx were recorded. The results have shown that increasing the ethanol percentage in the blend has decreased the CO and HC emissions but increased the NOx emissions. For fuels E10 and E20 an increase on the engine's brake torque and power along with a decrease in fuel consumption were observed. For E50, both brake torque and power were reduced. The CO2 emissions were increased as the ethanol concentration increased.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Regulated and Non-Regulated Cold Start Emissions using a EURO3 SI Car as a Probe Vehicle under Real World Urban Driving Conditions

2008-10-06
2008-01-2428
Regulated and non-regulated tailpipe exhaust emissions were measured under real world urban driving conditions using a set of in-vehicle FTIR emission measurement system, which is able to measure 65 emission components simultaneously at a rate of 0.5 Hz. A EURO3 emission compliant SI car was used as a probe vehicle. An urban driving cycle was used for the test and four repeated journeys were conducted. The results were compared to EU emissions legislation. The results show that the TWC needed approximately 200 seconds to reach full conversion efficiency. THC and NOx emissions exceeded the EURO 3 exhaust emission legislation. CO2 emissions were well above the type approval value of this type of the vehicle. Greenhouse gases (methane and nitrous oxide) and toxic hydrocarbons such as benzene were predominantly emitted during cold start period from 0 to 200 seconds of the engine start. The results had a reasonable repeatability for most of the emissions.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Exhaust Emissions by a Synthetic Lubricating Oil with Higher Viscosity Grade and Optimized Additive Package for a Heavy Duty DI Diesel Engine Test

2008-10-06
2008-01-2489
A 10W-50 G4 synthetic lubricating oil (EULUBE oil) was tested on a heavy duty DI diesel engine under two steady state conditions. The exhaust emissions were measured and compared to a 10W-30 CF semi-synthetic lubricating oil. The EULUBE oil contained the friction reduction additive to improve the fuel economy. The engine used was a 6 cylinder, turbocharged, intercooled Perkins Phaser Engine, with emission compliance of EURO 2, fitted with an oxidation catalyst. The exhaust samples were taken both upstream and downstream of the catalyst. Gaseous and particulates emissions were measured. Particulate size distribution was measured using ELPI and SMPS. The particulate samples were analysed for VOF, carbon and ash. A MEXA7100 gas analysis system was used for legislated gas analysis such as CO, CO2, NOx and total hydrocarbons. The results showed a significant reduction by synthetic lubricating oil in gaseous hydrocarbon emissions, total particulate mass, particulate carbon and ash.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Regulated and Unregulated Cold Start Emissions for Different Real World Urban Driving Cycles Using a SI Passenger Car

2008-06-23
2008-01-1648
An in-vehicle FTIR emission measurement system was used to investigate the exhaust emissions under different real world urban driving conditions. Five different driving cycles were developed based on real world urban driving conditions including urban free flow driving, junction maneuver, congested traffic and moderate speed cruising. The test vehicle was a EURO 2 emission compliant SI car equipped with temperature measurement along the exhaust pipe across the catalyst and real time fuel consumption measurement system. Both regulated and non-regulated emissions were measured and analyzed for different driving cycles. All journeys were started from cold. The engine warm up features and emissions as a function of engine warm up for different driving conditions were investigated.
Technical Paper

A New Volvo V70 2.5 and an Old Ford Escort 1.6 Were Tested and Compared on a Chassis Dynamometer, Using the Same Blends of Frying Biodiesel and Neat Diesel

2008-06-23
2008-01-1576
In this study the influence of various blends biodiesel on steady state exhaust emissions was determined using, in terms of technology, two different cars. A first series of tests were conducted in Greece and a second series of tests were conducted in Belgium. An old technology Ford Escort 1986 model, 1.6L, 4 cylinders with indirect injection system engine was used on a chassis dynamometer in Greece [1] and a Volvo V70 2.5L, 2003 model with a modern engine fitted on was tested in Belgium [2]. The Greek test car was not equipped with an engine Electronic Control Unit (ECU) and run on the dynamometer with full load on three different gear settings (second gear, third gear and fourth gear). The Belgian car was a modern Volvo V70 2.5L Turbo Diesel. Seven fuels were used in both cases, a high sulfur diesel, more than 300 ppm, in Greece, and blends of 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% by weight biodiesel in neat diesel or (B10), (B20), (B30), (B40), (B50) and (B100) respectively.
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