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Technical Paper

Simulation and Optimization of a Low Frequency Vibration Issue for Commercial Truck

2016-04-05
2016-01-0474
A low frequency vibration issue around 3.2 Hz occurs during a commercial heavy truck program development process, and it is linked to extremely uncomfortable driving and riding experiences. This work focuses on an analytical effort to resolve the issue by first building a full vehicle MBS (multi-body-system) model, and then carrying out vibration response analyses. The model validation is performed by using full vehicle testing in terms of structural modes and frequency response characteristics. In order to resolve the issue which is excited by tire non-uniformity, the influence of the cab suspension, frame modes, front leaf spring system and rear tandem suspension is analyzed. The root cause of the issue is found to be the poor isolation of the rear tandem suspension system. The analytical optimization effort establishes the resolution measure for the issue.
Technical Paper

Application of Beamforming to Side Mirror Aeroacoustic Noise Optimization

2016-04-05
2016-01-0475
Excessive wind noise is one of the most complained problems by owners of new vehicles as evidenced by JD Power Initial Quality Study (IQS) in recent years. After the vehicle speed surpasses 100 km/h, wind noise is gradually becoming the dominant noise source. In an effort to reduce aeroacoustic noise level, Beamforming (BF) is a very effective noise source identification technique used during vehicle wind noise development phases. In this work, based on the planar BF methodology, a large semi-circle microphone array is designed in accordance with the desired resolution and dynamic range pertaining to actual noise source distribution on a typical passenger vehicle. Acoustic array calibration and mapping deformation correction are accomplished by multi-point source method, and the Doppler Effect due to wind is corrected by the location calibration method.
Technical Paper

Electric Vehicle Interior Noise Contribution Analysis

2016-04-05
2016-01-1296
Noise excitation sources are different between electric vehicles and conventional vehicles due to their distinct propulsion system architecture. This work focuses on an interior noise contribution analysis by experimental measurements and synthesis approach using a methodology established based on the principle of noise path analysis. The obtained results show that the structure-borne noise from the tire-road excitation acts as a major contributor to the overall interior noise level, and the structure-borne noise from the power plant system contributes noticeably as well, whereas contributions from the electric motor and tire are relatively insignificant.
Technical Paper

Noise Control during Idle Charging for Hybrid Vehicles

2016-04-05
2016-01-1322
A hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) will start the engine which drives its motor to charge the battery even at idle whenever the battery power is detected to be insufficient. The activation of idle battery charging could lead to serious NVH problems if powertrain parameters are not designed or calibrated properly. This work is focused on a noise issue encountered during idle charging for a specific prototype vehicle, and investigates control strategies to contain the noise level. Based on basic principles of automobile vibration and noise control along with the specific characteristics of the hybrid vehicle architecture, this work analyzes and elucidates methods of the engine idle charging noise control from the perspectives of powertrain modal alignment, idle speed optimization, and electric motor control algorithm.
Technical Paper

Exterior Noise Source Identification and Contribution Analyses for Electric Vehicles

2016-04-05
2016-01-1324
The primary noise sources of electric vehicles differ from that of traditional vehicles due to the fundamental differences in their powertrain architecture. In this work, some exterior noise test methods for electric vehicles are briefly introduced first, which include a pass-by noise measurement method during acceleration on the proving ground as well as a similar measurement in a semi-anechoic room. The obtained results based on those two methods from a production electric vehicle are compared and analyzed. Then the mechanism of the source, path, and contribution is illustrated, and a model of path-source-contribution for electric vehicles is established. The model validation is subsequently carried out by correlating the calculated outcomes with the measured results under real operating conditions. Finally, by using the model, contribution analyses are carried out to identify the primary exterior noise sources.
Journal Article

Automotive Brake Squeal Simulation and Optimization

2016-04-05
2016-01-1298
This work carries out complex modal analyses and optimizations to resolve an 1800 Hz front brake squeal issue encountered in a vehicle program development phase. The stability theory of complex modes for brake squeal simulation is briefly explained. A brake system finite element model is constructed, and the model is validated by the measurement in accordance with the SAE 2521 procedure. The key parameters for evaluating the stability of the brake system complex modes are determined. The modal contributions of relevant components to unstable modes are analyzed and ranked. Finally, in order to resolve the squeal issue, the design improvements of rotor, caliper and pad are proposed and numerical simulations are carried out. The obtained results demonstrate that the optimized rotor and pad design can alleviate the squeal issue significantly while the optimized clipper design could essentially eliminate the squeal issue.
Journal Article

Resolution of a Low Speed Vehicle Vibration Issue in EV Mode for a Hybrid Vehicle Prototype

2016-04-05
2016-01-1307
A vehicle vibration issue emerged for a hybrid prototype during low speed driving in EV mode. This work is focused on the effort to identify the root cause and resolve the issue. The endeavor begins by performing a motor test in moderate acceleration with an imposed constant torque load. All relevant information is simultaneously recorded, including vehicle speed, vibration of motor structure and seat track, motor rpm, voltage and current signals, etc. Then analyses are carried out to strive for a better understanding of the vibration characteristics and identify its mechanism. It is found that the torque ripple from the driving motor is the root cause of the low speed vehicle vibration in EV mode, and the torque ripple is found to be induced by the current distortion resulted from the current sensor drift and electromagnetic interference due to high current signals.
Technical Paper

Gear Whine Resolution by Tooth Modification and Multi-Body Dynamics Analysis

2016-04-05
2016-01-1061
Gear whine noise impacts customer perception of vehicle interior quietness in general and sound quality in particular. It has been a frequently occurred annoying phenomenon during vehicle development and much discussed topic regarding transmission NVH refinement in automotive industry. This work pertains to a transmission gear whine issue encountered in prototype evaluations during a vehicle program development process. The effort centers itself on the optimization of transmission gear macroscopic and microscopic parameters to fix the issue which is deemed unacceptable for customers. Specifically, by using multi-body dynamics approach, this work carries out a transmission system whine noise simulation based on optimal gear macro parameter selection and micro tooth flank modification. The obtained results show that the proposed design changes could successfully resolve the issue, which is verified by subsequent test measurement and confirmed by subjective evaluations.
Technical Paper

Impact of Sunroof Deflector on Interior Sound Quality

2015-06-15
2015-01-2324
When a sunroof opens to let in fresh air while driving, there might be several noise issues associated with it. The most common and painful one is the wind throb issue, which is nevertheless largely resolved by implementing a sufficiently high wind deflector along the front edge of the sunroof. However, with the wind throb suppressed, other sound quality issues might emerge. The most notable one is the hissing noise issue, which becomes increasingly objectionable with the increase of vehicle speed. This work looks into the impact of sunroof deflector on interior sound quality with the consideration of wind throb, hissing noise and booming noise in terms of psychoacoustic attributes that could be felt subjectively. The goal is to achieve a better understanding of the sound quality associated with the sunroof deflector design, and inspire a balanced design, potentially targeting the most NVH demanding customers in the premium vehicle segment.
Technical Paper

Internal Pressure Characteristics when Evaluating Dynamic Door Blow Out Deflection

2015-06-15
2015-01-2327
Wind noise is one of the most influential NVH attributes that impact customer sensation of vehicle interior quietness. Among many factors that influence wind noise performance, the amount of dynamic door deflection under the pressure load due to fast movement of a vehicle plays a key roll. Excessive deflection could potentially lead to loss of sealing contact, causing aspiration leakage, which creates an effectual path through which the exterior aerodynamically induced noise propagates into the vehicle cabin. The dynamic door deflection can be predicted using CFD and CAE approaches which, in addition to modeling the structure correctly, require a correct pressure loading composed of external and internal pressure distributions. The determination of external pressure distributions can be fulfilled fairly straightforward by using commercial CFD codes such as Fluent, Star CCM+, Powerflow and others.
Journal Article

Automobile Wind Noise Speed Scaling Characteristics

2015-04-14
2015-01-1531
Wind noise, an aeroacoustic phenomenon, is an important attribute that influences customer sensation of interior quietness in a moving vehicle. As a vehicle travels faster, occupants' sensation of wind noise becomes increasingly objectionable. The purpose of this work is to investigate the increase of wind noise level perceived by a driver in response to an increase in wind speed. Specifically, it explores how much the level of wind noise at the DOE (driver outboard ear) would vary in response to a change in wind speed based on the test data obtained in a wind tunnel from ten vehicles that belong to several different passenger vehicle segments. The first part of this work studies the change of the SPL (sound pressure level) in response to a change in wind speed U. It shows that the SPL(dBA) approximately scales to U5.7 at the DOE and to U6.3 in the far-field, which could be interpreted as the dominance of dipoles.
Technical Paper

Application of Near-field Acoustic Holography to Low Temperature Engine Start-up Noise Issue Resolution

2015-04-14
2015-01-1666
An issue of engine squealing in low temperature range (around −25°C) right after start-up emerged for a significant number of vehicles in a vehicle program. The earlier effort had focused on typical common culprits such as the pulley-belt systems etc. However, much effort, by subjective listening and guestimating hardware replacement, yielded no fruitful results for more than a year. The application of near-field acoustic holography on top of the engine in a climate chamber quickly identified several noise source locations. Further noise source identification effort on top, front and left side of the engine pinpointed the top three noise source locations: the idler pulley and water pump on front, the air compressor on right side, and the air intake throttle on top. Then a series of experiments were subsequently conducted, leading to a conclusion that the idler pulley was the source of the issue.
Technical Paper

Coupled Fluid-Structure Analysis for Exhaust System NVH

2014-04-01
2014-01-0020
The purpose of this work is to analytically investigate automotive exhaust system noise generation and propagation phenomena. The turbulent exhaust gas flow interacts with the exhaust system structure, and as a result of this interaction, the structure vibrates and radiates noise. In the meantime, pressure wave becomes acoustic wave at its outlet. This study focuses on an exhaust system and carrying out transient fluid-structure analysis by using an explicit finite element solver that is capable of solving the Navier Stokes equations for turbulent, compressible viscous fluids as well as the field equations for solid structures in a fully coupled fashion. The time domain signals obtained from the transient analysis are post-processed to yield frequency domain data, sound pressure levels, noise source pattern as well as the selected acoustic field contour snapshots.
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