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Journal Article

4 L Light Duty LPG Engine Evaluated for Heavy Duty Application

2010-05-05
2010-01-1463
Many applications of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) to commercial vehicles have used their corresponding diesel engine counterparts for their basic architecture. Here a review is made of the application to commercial vehicle operation of a robust 4 L, light-duty, 6-cylinder in-line engine produced by Ford Australia on a unique long-term production line. Since 2000 it has had a dedicated LPG pick-up truck and cab-chassis variant. A sequence of research programs has focused on optimizing this engine for low carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions. Best results (from steady state engine maps) suggest reductions in CO₂ emissions of over 30% are possible in New European Drive Cycle (NEDC) light-duty tests compared with the base gasoline engine counterpart. This has been achieved through increasing compression ratio to 12, running lean burn (to λ = 1.6) and careful study (through CFD and bench tests) of the injected LPG-air mixing system.
Technical Paper

The Performance and Emissions of the Turbocharged Always Lean Burn Spark Ignition (TC-ALSI) Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-1235
This paper extends previous development of the ALSI concept, by investigating the performance delivered with a turbocharged version of this engine. The research is based on extensive experimental research with lean burn, high compression ratio engines using hydrogen, LPG, CNG and gasoline fuels. It also builds on recent experience with highly boosted spark ignition gasoline and LPG engines and single cylinder engine research used extensively for model calibration. The final experimental foundation is the wide ranging evaluation of jet assisted ignition that generally allows a lean limit mixture shift of more than one unit of lambda with consequential benefits of improved thermal efficiency and close to zero NOx. The paper describes the capability of the ultra lean burn spark ignition engine with the mild boost needed provided by a Honeywell turbocharger.
Technical Paper

The Always Lean Burn Spark Ignition (ALSI) Engine – Its Performance and Emissions

2009-04-20
2009-01-0932
This paper is based on extensive experimental research with lean burn, high compression ratio engines using LPG, CNG and gasoline fuels. It also builds on recent experience with highly boosted spark ignition gasoline and LPG engines and single cylinder engine research used for model calibration. The final experimental foundation is an evaluation of jet assisted ignition that generally allows a lean mixture shift of more than one unit in lambda with consequential benefits of improved thermal efficiency and close to zero NOx. The capability of an ultra lean burn spark ignition engine is described. The concept is operation at air-fuel ratios similar to the diesel engine but with essentially homogenous charge, although some stratification may be desirable. To achieve high thermal efficiency this engine has optimized compression ratio but with variable valve timing which enables reduction in the effective compression ratio when desirable.
Technical Paper

Exploring the Charge Composition of SI Engine Lean Limits

2009-04-20
2009-01-0929
In this paper the experimental performance of the lean limits is examined for two different types of engines the first a dedicated LPG high compression ratio 2-valve per cylinder engine (Ford of Australia MY 2001 AU Falcon) and the second a gasoline moderate compression 4-valve per cylinder variant of the same engine (Ford of Australia MY 2006 BF Falcon). The in-cylinder composition at the lean limit over a range of steady state operating conditions is estimated using a quasi-dimensional model. This makes it possible to take into account the effects of both residual fraction and fresh charge diluents (EGR and excess air) that allow the exploration of a modeled lean limit performance [1, 2]. The results are compared to the predictions from a model for combustion variability applied to the quasi-dimensional model operating in optimization mode.
Technical Paper

Gas Assisted Jet Ignition of Ultra-Lean LPG in a Spark Ignition Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-0506
Gas assisted jet ignition is an advanced prechamber ignition process that allows ignition of ultra lean mixtures in an otherwise standard spark ignition engine. The results presented in this paper indicate that in a gas assisted jet ignition system fuelled with LPG in both the main chamber and prechamber, the lean limit can be extended to between λ = 2-2.35, depending on the load and speed. Although the fuel combinations that employ H2 as the prechamber fuel can extend the lean limit furthest (λ = 2.5-2.6), the extension enabled by the LPG-LPG prechamber-main chamber combination provides lower NOx emission levels at similar λ. In addition, when LPG is employed in place of gasoline as the main chamber fuel, hydrocarbon emissions are significantly reduced, however with a slight penalty in indicated mean effective pressure due to the gaseous state of the LPG.
Technical Paper

Why Liquid Phase LPG Port Injection has Superior Power and Efficiency to Gas Phase Port Injection

2007-08-05
2007-01-3552
This paper reports comparative results for liquid phase versus gaseous phase port injection in a single cylinder engine. It follows previous research in a multi-cylinder engine where liquid phase was found to have advantages over gas phase at most operating conditions. Significant variations in cylinder to cylinder mixture distribution were found for both phases and leading to uncertainty in the findings. The uncertainty was avoided in this paper as in the engine used, a high speed Waukesha ASTM CFR, identical manifold conditions could be assured and MBT spark found for each fuel supply system over a wide range of mixtures. These were extended to lean burn conditions where gaseous fuelling in the multi-cylinder engine had been reported to be at least an equal performer to liquid phase. The experimental data confirm the power and efficiency advantages of liquid phase injection over gas phase injection and carburetion in multi-cylinder engine tests.
Technical Paper

Optimized Design of a Cyclic Variability Constrained Lean Limit SI Engine at Optimum NOx and Efficiency Using a PSO Algorithm

2007-08-05
2007-01-3551
In recent times new tools have emerged to aid the optimization of engine design. The particle swarm optimizer, used here is one of these tools. However, applying it to the optimization of the S.I. engine for high efficiency and low NOx emission has shown the preference of ultra lean burn strategy combined with high compression ratios. For combined power, efficiency and emissions benefits, there are two restricting factors, limiting the applicability of this strategy, knocking and cyclic variability. In the ultra lean region, knocking is not an important issue but the variability is a major concern. This paper demonstrates the application of a variability model to limit the search domain for the optimization program. The results show that variability constrains the possible gains in fuel consumption and emission reduction, through optimizing cam phasing, mixture and spark timing. The fuel consumption gain is reduced by about 11% relative.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Hot and Cool EGR with Hydrogen Assisted Jet Ignition

2007-08-05
2007-01-3627
Hydrogen assisted jet ignition (HAJI) is a pre-chamber ignition system for standard gasoline fueled engines that involves the use of a chemically active turbulent jet to initiate combustion in lean fuel mixtures. HAJI burns the lean main charge rapidly and with almost no combustion variability, which allows for low hydrocarbon emissions and almost zero NOx, due to lower peak temperatures. This paper focuses on the effects of internal and cooled external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on combustion parameters, emissions and thermal efficiency in a single cylinder HAJI equipped CFR engine. Experimental results indicate that replacing air with EGR in λ=2 mixtures can shift the lean limit at which NOx is negligible to mixtures as rich as λ=1.3, without a large penalty in hydrocarbon emissions and thermal efficiency.
Technical Paper

Joint Efficiency and NOx Optimization Using a PSO Algorithm

2006-04-03
2006-01-1109
The challenge of tough fuel consumption reduction targets and near zero NOx emission standards can be met by optimization of the full range of engine design variables. Here these are explored through an engine simulation model and the application of an optimizing algorithm that can work in discontinuous data space. The combustion model has main features that include flame propagation, the effects of turbulence, chamber shape interaction and NOx formation. Two engine configurations are used to illustrate the application of the model and optimizer. Both allow the adoption of extra lean burn possible with LPG as fuel and EGR through an external route or cam phasing. In the first the compression ratio and cam profiles are fixed, in the second study they are also optimized.
Technical Paper

Lean Mixture Ignition Systems for CNG in Diesel Applications

2004-01-16
2004-28-0017
A high compression ratio, single cylinder, open chamber diesel engine was converted to operate on homogenously charged compressed natural gas (CNG) with the aim of minimising pollutant emissions such as oxides of nitrogen, particulate matter and carbon dioxide. Three ignition systems were tested including spark ignition (SI), diesel pilot ignition (DPI) and hydrogen assisted jet ignition (HAJI). Irrespective of ignition system used, the efficiency of the engine operating on CNG was significantly reduced at part load compared to diesel. This was predominantly due to a greater amount of unburnt hydrocarbons, higher cycle-by-cycle variability, slow and partial burns and increased heat transfer to the walls. DPI and HAJI systems were able to extend the lean limit to lambda 2.7 and 3.3 respectively, however this did not result in efficiency gains.
Technical Paper

Deterioration of Automotive Catalytic Converters: Physical Catalyst Characterisation

2001-09-24
2001-01-3691
The degree of physical deterioration of catalytic converters removed from two groups of motor vehicles with low and high odometer readings have been studied. The changes in the physical and chemical properties between the two catalyst groups were investigated using the XRD, BET and PIXE/PIGE techniques. Thermal damage was the main catalyst deterioration mechanism in both odometer groups. The low odometer group showed near-uniformity in both surface area loss (average 45 %) and degree of CeO2 sintering representing the baseline thermal deterioration from normal vehicle operation. High odometer catalysts displayed more complex deactivation mechanisms involving both chemical contamination and thermal deactivation such as support phase transformation, internal “hot zones” and contaminant-support interactions.
Technical Paper

Deterioration of Automotive Catalytic Converters (Part 2): Catalytic Performance Characterisation

2001-09-24
2001-01-3695
This is the second part of a two-part study that compared the degree of deterioration of catalytic converters taken from vehicles with low and high odometer readings. Part two details the catalytic performance characteristics of the catalysts that were physically characterised, according to chemical contamination and thermal degradation, previously in part one. The catalytic activity was determined using engine dynamometer and laboratory tests. The low odometer catalysts showed largely uniform light-off temperatures for CO, HC and NO that were increased in the order of 20 % relative to a new catalyst. The steady state activity was largely unaffected. The dominant deactivation mechanism of these catalysts was found to be the baseline thermal deterioration of the alumina washcoat under normal vehicle operating conditions. The deactivation shown in the high odometer catalysts was highly varied with the greatest loss of activity resulting from exposure to severe thermal conditions.
Technical Paper

Direct Injection Compressed Natural Gas Combustion and Visualisation

2000-06-19
2000-01-1838
This paper details the development of a compressed natural gas (CNG) engine with ultra lean burn low emissions potential. Hydrogen assisted jet ignition (HAJI) is used to achieve reliable combustion and low NOx emissions, whilst direct injection is used to improve thermal efficiency and decrease hydrocarbon (HC) emissions. It is found that port inducted propane, port inducted CNG and directly injected CNG all produce negligible levels of CO and NOx when operating at air/fuel ratios higher than λ = 1.8. Furthermore, direct injection of CNG produced approximately 100 ppm C6 less HC emissions than port induction of CNG, and port induction of CNG decreased the HC emissions by around a factor of a third to a half in comparison with port induction of propane.
Technical Paper

The Systematic Evaluation of Twelve LP Gas Fuels for Emissions and Fuel Consumption

2000-06-19
2000-01-1867
The effects on bi-fuel car exhaust emissions, fuel consumption and acceleration performance of a range of LPG fuels has been determined. The LPGs tested included those representing natural gas condensate and oil refineries' products to include a spectrum of C3:C4 and paraffiinic:olefinic mixtures. The overall conclusions are that exhaust emissions from the gaseous fuels for the three-way catalyst equipped cars tested were lower than for gasoline. For all the LPGs, CO2 equivalent emissions are reduced by 7% to 10% or more compared with gasoline. The cars' acceleration performance indicates that there was no sacrifice in acceleration times to various speeds, with any gaseous fuel in these OEM developed cars.
Technical Paper

Effects of a Wide Range of Drive Cycles on the Emissions from Vehicles of Three Levels of Technology

1995-02-01
950221
Exhaust emission tests were performed on a fleet of vehicles comprising a range of engine technology from leaded fuel control methods to closed loop three-way catalyst meeting 1992 U.S. standards but marketed in Australia. Each vehicle was tested to 5 different driving cycles including the FTP cycles and steady speed driving. Research had shown that for hot-start operation the major driving pattern parameters which influence fuel consumption and exhaust emissions are average speed and PKE (the positive acceleration kinetic energy per unit distance). Plots from analysis of micro-trip fuel use and emissions rates from the test cycles may be presented as contours in PKE. It follows that the micro trip emissions from a range of driving cycles including, regulated e.g. FTP city and unregulated e.g. LA-92, recently developed EPA cycles or from other cities e.g. Bangkok can be superimposed.
Technical Paper

HAJI Operation in a Hydrogen-Only Mode for Emission Control at Cold Start

1995-02-01
950412
The HAJI (Hydrogen Assisted Jet Ignition) system for S.I. engines utilises direct injection of small amounts of hydrogen to enhance the combustion of a variety of automotive fuels. Although not the primary purpose of HAJI, the hardware, once in place, also lends itself to the possibility of hydrogen-only running during a cold start. Cold-start simulations have been performed using a single cylinder engine. Results are presented, comparing hydrogen-only tests with standard HAJI operation and normal spark-ignition operation. HAJI and spark ignition tests were carried out with gasoline as the main-chamber fuel. Emission levels and combustion stability characteristics were recorded as the engine warmed up. The differences between the various fueling/ignition scenarios are presented and the implications for possible automotive applications are discussed in light of current and proposed emissions legislation.
Technical Paper

Optimum Control of an S.I. Engine with a λ=5 Capability

1995-02-01
950689
HAJI (Hydrogen Assisted Jet Ignition) is an advanced combustion initiation system for otherwise standard S.I engines. It utilises the fluid mechanics of a turbulent, chemically active jet, combined with the reliability of spark igniting rich hydrogen mixtures. The result is an extremely robust ignition system, capable of developing power from an engine charged with air-fuel mixtures as lean as λ = 5. Experiments have been performed using a single cylinder engine operating on gasoline in the speed range of 600-1800 r/min. Data are presented in the form of maps which describe fuel efficiency, combustion stability and emissions with respect to load, speed, air-fuel ratio and throttle. The results are incorporated into a model of a known engine and vehicle and this is used to estimate performance over the Federal drive-cycle.
Technical Paper

A New Look at Oxygen Enrichment 1) The Diesel Engine

1990-02-01
900344
New concepts in oxygen enrichment of the inlet air have been examined in tests on two direct injection diesel engines, showing: significant reduction in particulate emissions (nearly 80% at full load), increased thermal efficiency if injection timing control is employed, substantial reductions in exhaust smoke under most conditions, ability to burn inferior quality fuels which is economically very attractive and achivement of turbo-charged levels of output with consequential benefits of increased power/mass and improved thermal efficiency. The replacement of an engine's turbocharger and intercooling system with a smaller turbocharger and polymeric membrane elements to supply the oxygen enriched stream should allow improved transient response. NOx emission remain a problem and can only be reduced to normally aspirated engine levels at some efficiency penalty.
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