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Technical Paper

Consideration of Effective Chassis Control in Electric Vehicle

In this study, we focus on “camber angle control” and “derivative steering assistance” using “steer-by-wire” as maneuverability and stability improvement techniques that are appropriate for the electric vehicle (EV) era. Movements that produce a negative camber angle generate camber thrust, and vehicle motion performance improvements extend from the fact that the tire side force is increased by the camber thrust effect. In our experimental vehicle, a proportional steering angle system was used to create negative camber angle control via an electromagnetic actuator that allowed us to confirm improvements to both the effectiveness and stability of steering control in restricted cornering areas. More specifically, we determined that it is possible to improve critical cornering performance by executing ground negative camber angle control in proportion to the steering angle.
Journal Article

Effect of Steering Assistance Control by External Information Feedback Control and Chassis Control

In this study, we report on the development of a steering assistance control system that feeds back information on the outside environment collected by laser sensors to the vehicle driver. The system consists of an emergency avoidance assistance control program that performs obstacle detection and avoidance, as well as a cornering assistance control program that operates by detecting the white lines painted on roadways. Driving simulator experiments were conducted in order to confirm the effectiveness of these functions, as well as to improve understanding of the synergistic effects of the steering assistance and chassis control functions: camber angle control and derivative steering assistance (DSA) control.
Journal Article

Effect of Three Controls (Camber Angle Control, Derivative Steering Assistance Control, and Inside-Outside Wheel Braking Force and Driving Force Control in Body Slip Angle Area

In this research, we examine the three controls inside-outside wheel braking force and driving force, camber angle, and the derivative steering assistance to determine how angle differences affect cornering performance and controllability. This is accomplished by comparing body slip angle area differences in a closed loop examination of the grip to drift area using a driving simulator. The results show that inside-outside wheel braking force and driving force control in the area just before critical cornering occurs has a significant effect on vehicle stability. We also clarified that controlling the camber angle enhances grip-cornering force, and confirmed that the sideslip limit could be improved in the vicinity of the critical cornering area. Additionally, when the counter steer response was improved by the use of derivative steering assistance control in the drift area exceeding the critical cornering limit, corrective steering became easier.
Technical Paper

Effect of Direct Yaw Moment Control Based on Steering Angle Velocity and Camber Angle Control

It has been reported that steering systems with derivative terms have a heightened lateral acceleration and yaw rate response in the normal driving range. However, in ranges where the lateral acceleration is high, the cornering force of the front wheels decreases and hence becomes less effective. Therefore, we applied traction control for the inner and outer wheels based on the steering angle velocity to improve the steering effectiveness at high lateral accelerations. An experiment using a driving simulator showed that the vehicle's yaw rate response improved for a double lane change to avoid a hazard; this improves hazard avoidance performance. Regarding improved vehicle control in the cornering margins, traction control for the inner and outer wheels is being developed further, and much research and development has been reported. However, in the total skid margin, where few margin remains in the forward and reverse drive forces on the tires, spinout is unavoidable.
Technical Paper

Effect of Rear-Wheel Active Steering and Variable Steering Wheel Gear Ratio on Proportional Derivative Steering Assistance

In a new technology called “in wheel motor,” in which the motor is installed in the wheel, the electric vehicle can become more compact, which leads to a new type of mobility. Moreover, the front wheel steering is controlled by an electrical unit instead of the traditional mechanical unit of a steering wheel inside the car. In such a “steer-by-wire” method, the motor uses an electric signal. Because the degrees-of-freedom of this steer control are increased and a variety of steer controls based on the electric signal are possible, further improvement of the control stability is needed. In other words, the steer control technique can pose a problem for drivers, and so further research in this area is needed. That is, proportional derivative steering assistance can improve emergency evasion performance and the steering delay upon counter steering. Moreover, rear-wheel active steering can improve vehicle response during emergency evasion maneuvers.
Technical Paper

Consideration of Steering Control Method Corresponding to Electric Vehicle Age

The relation of the front wheel steering angle to the steering wheel angle in electric vehicles is changing due to the “steer-by-wire” method, which is based on an electric signal. With this method, excellent maneuverability is possible in various driving situations. Therefore, this steer control method technique is considered in this study. It was clarified that steer-bywire requires an improvement in the control stability in emergency maneuvers and the delay of counter steering in drift cornering without causing a sense of driver incompatibility. (Here, the sense of incompatibility was defined as feeling by which the harmony between the steer intention of the driver and the vehicle movement was lost.) (Here, the drift cornering shows cornering done in the area with counter steering where the rear wheel exceeded the maximum cornering force.) One control stability method is Proportional Derivative (PD) steering assistance, which is dependent on the anticipated driving situations.
Technical Paper

Consideration of Steering Method Control Based on Driving Situations

Proportional Derivative (PD) steering assistance offers potential measures by which the control stability of a vehicle can be rapidly improved. However, for all Proportional Derivative (PD) steering methods, the inconvenience caused by the need to keep turning the steering wheel during cornering is significant. Because the steering return phenomenon of the steering wheel stop like this is not so preferable, it is preferable that the Proportional Derivative (PD) steering assistance is extremely weak (almost 0) in such a usual grip cornering driving. Alternatively, in the drift area of cornering where the grip area of the tires has been exceeded, Proportional Derivative (PD) steering assistance is helpful because the driver can control his counter steering extremely well. Furthermore, only a small amount of Proportional Derivative (PD) steering assistance is required in the drift area.
Technical Paper

Consideration of Suspension Mechanism with High Cornering Performance for a Formula Car

In the cornering performance of a formula car, turning is performed at a considerably high level. However, few studies have investigated the control of the camber angle. Therefore, a mechanism that swings to the negative camber side of the suspension in cornering was examined in the present study. A swinging suspension member structure was assumed when a lateral force acted on the tires, and the momentary rotation center of the swing suspension member was controlled so that the direction of the swing would be to the negative camber side. As a result, compliance of the negative camber was achieved. The layout of a preferable mechanism was first determined by geometrical analysis. The negative camber angle obtained with this mechanism changes according to the length of the link for the fixation of the swing suspension member, the installation position, and the angle. The specifications for achieving a proper compliance negative camber were then clarified.
Technical Paper

Investigation of a New Steering Method to Improve Control During Cornering

A new steering method to improve control during cornering is examined using a driving simulator, and the following findings were obtained. During cornering, there is a danger that it is not possible to finish curving is course out by the only differentiation steering. However, the driver can easily maintain a drift in the drift area when assisted by differentiation steering, and the behavior of the return to a straight course becomes stable. Therefore, since a remarkable effect was expected by controlling the steering method corresponding to the running condition, an examination experiment was performed. The shapes of the waves of initial steering at start up differ according to the running condition, and as a result, initial steering of the steering wheel is a two-step motion in J-turn running. In contrast, smooth steering proceeds without steps in the lane change running.
Technical Paper

Preferable Front and Rear Weight Distributions of a Formula Car

In general, the longitudinal position of the center of gravity of a vehicle has a great influence on lateral acceleration in critical cornering. Most rear-wheel-drive vehicles (front engine, rear-wheel drive) have a tendency to be over-steered because the driving power acts on the rear wheels, and so the forward weight distribution is large. As such, the vehicle has an under-steer tendency in this respect and an overall balance is achieved. On the other hand, because formula cars are very light compared to general vehicles, the used area of the vertical wheel load-maximum cornering force characteristic, differs greatly from general vehicles. That is, although general vehicles use a nonlinear area for the vertical wheel load-maximum cornering force characteristic of the tire, a comparatively light formula car uses an almost linear area in the vertical wheel load-maximum cornering force characteristic of the tire.
Technical Paper

Effect of Differential Steering Assist on Drift Running Performance

In this study, an effective technique for improving drift running performance was examined. Basically, a driver model with counter steering was examined with the assumption that the body slip angle, along with the body slip angle velocity, served as feedback. Next, the effectiveness of adding front wheel steer angle velocity feedback to steering angle compensation as a drift running performance improvement technique of a vehicle was analyzed.
Technical Paper

Influence of Steering Wheel Gear Ratio on Drift Control

A drift-turn experiment to assess the influence of differences in steering wheel gear ratios was undertaken using a driving simulator. It is relatively easy to maintain control of a commercial vehicle if the tire is in contact with the road surface and the steering wheel gear ratio is 15.0:1 to 18.0:1. Conversely, in the event of a change in traction such as the rear wheel meeting a drift area, a steering wheel gear ratio of 7.5:1 to 9.0:1 is required to maintain control of the vehicle, even when the vehicle became unstable. Moreover, the stability of the vehicle deteriorates in drift running if the steering gear ratio is reduced too much. That is, the steering gear ratio in which the drift angle is maintained most easily is in the range 7.5∼9.0. And, a drift performance evaluation index D n=x was determined and was found to agree with the subjective ratings. Thus, evaluating drift control for drift cornering using the drift performance evaluation index was assumed to be effective.
Technical Paper

Technology for Measuring the Damping Force of Shock Absorbers and the Constant of Coil Springs Mounted on a Motorcycle by the Un-sprung Mass Vibration Method

Technology for measuring and diagnosing the damping force of motorcycle shock absorbers and determining the constant of coil springs when mounted in-vehicle is difficult. Resultantly, it is clear that only the damping force can be detected by eliminating the spring force effect and the un-sprung mass, when the displacement of the wheel is zero.