Refine Your Search

Topic

Affiliation

Search Results

Technical Paper

0D Modeling of Real-Driving NOx Emissions for a Diesel Passenger Vehicle

2018-09-10
2018-01-1761
NOx emissions from diesel passenger vehicles affect the atmospheric environment. It is difficult to evaluate the NOx emissions influenced by environmental conditions such as humidity and temperature, traffic conditions, driving patterns, etc. In the authors’ previous study, real-driving experiments were performed on city and highway routes using a diesel passenger car with only an exhaust gas recirculation system. A statistical prediction model of NOx emissions was considered for simple estimations in the real world using instantaneous vehicle data measured by the portable emissions measurement system and global positioning system. The prediction model consisted of explanatory variables, such as velocity, acceleration, road gradient, and position of transmission gear. Using the explanatory variables, NOx emissions on the city and highway routes was well predicted using a diesel vehicle without NOx reduction devices.
Technical Paper

Visualization of the Heat Transfer Surface of EGR Cooler to Examine Soot Adhesion and Abruption Phenomena

2017-03-28
2017-01-0127
Among the emerging technologies in order to meet ever stringent emission and fuel consumption regulations, Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) system is becoming one of the prerequisites particularly for diesel engines. Although EGR cooler is considered to be an effective measure for further performance enhancement, exhaust gas soot deposition may cause degradation of the cooling. To address this issue, the authors studied the visualization of the soot deposition and removal phenomena to understand its behavior. Based on thermophoresis theory, which indicates that the effect of thermophoresis depends on the temperature difference between the gas and the wall surface exposed to the gas, a visualization method using a heated glass window was developed. By using glass with the transparent conductive oxide: tin-doped indium oxide, temperature of the heated glass surface is raised.
Technical Paper

Degradation of DeNOx Performance of a Urea-SCR System in In-Use Heavy-Duty Vehicles Complying with the New Long-Term Regulation in Japan and Estimation of its Mechanism

2016-04-05
2016-01-0958
Degradation of the deNOx performance has been found in in-use heavy-duty vehicles with a urea-SCR system in Japan. The causes of the degradation were studied, and two major reasons are suggested here: HC poisoning and deactivation of pre-oxidation catalysts. Hydrocarbons that accumulated on the catalysts inhibited the catalysis. Although they were easily removed by a simple heat treatment, the treatment could only partially recover the original catalytic performance for the deNOx reaction. The unrecovered catalytic activity was found to result from the decrease in conversion of NO to NO2 on the pre-oxidation catalyst. The pre-oxidation catalyst was thus studied in detail by various techniques to reveal the causes of the degradation: Exhaust emission tests for in-use vehicles, effect of heat treatment on the urea-SCR systems, structural changes and chemical changes in active components during the deactivation were systematically investigated.
Journal Article

The Effects of Ignition Environment and Discharge Waveform Characteristics on Spark Channel Formation and Relationship between the Discharge Parameters and the EGR Combustion Limit

2015-09-01
2015-01-1895
In order to realize the high compression ratio and high dilution combustion toward improvement in thermal efficiency, the improvement in stability of ignition and initial phase of combustion under the high gas flow field is the major challenge. In terms of the shift on the higher power side of the operating point by downsizing and improvement of real world fuel consumption, the improvement of ignitability is increasingly expected in the wide operating range also including high load and high engine speed region. In this study, the effects of the gas pressure, gas flow velocity near the spark gap at ignition timing, and discharge current characteristics on spark channel formation were analyzed, focusing on restrike event and spark channel stretching in the spark channel formation process. And the relationship between the average discharge current until 1 ms and the EGR combustion limit was considered.
Technical Paper

A Study on N2O Formation Mechanism and Its Reduction in a Urea SCR System Employed in a DI Diesel Engine

2012-09-10
2012-01-1745
N₂O is known to have a significantly high global warming potential. We measured N₂O emissions in engine-bench tests by changing the NO/NH₃ ratio and exhaust gas temperature at the oxidation catalyst inlet in a heavy-duty diesel engine equipped with a urea SCR (selective catalytic reduction) system. The results showed that the peak N₂O production ratio occurred at an exhaust gas temperature of around 200°C and the maximum value was 84%. Moreover, the N₂O production ratio increased with increasing NO/NH₃. Thus, we concluded that N₂O is produced via the NO branching reaction. Based on our results, two methods were proposed to decrease N₂O formation. At low temperatures ~200°C, NO should be reduced by controlling diesel combustion to lower the contribution of NO to N₂O production. This is essential because the SCR system cannot reduce NOx at low temperatures.
Technical Paper

BSFC Improvement and NOx Reduction by Sequential Turbo System in a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-0712
Reduction of exhaust emissions and BSFC has been studied using a high boost, a wide range and high-rate EGR in a Super Clean Diesel, six-cylinder heavy duty engine. In the previous single-turbocharging system, the turbocharger was selected to yield maximum torque and power. The selected turbocharger was designed for high boosting, with maximum pressure of about twice that of the current one, using a titanium compressor. However, an important issue arose in this system: avoidance of high boosting at low engine speed. A sequential and series turbo system was proposed to improve the torque at low engine speeds. This turbo system has two turbochargers of different sizes with variable geometry turbines. At low engine speed, the small turbocharger performs most of the work. At medium engine speed, the small turbocharger and large turbocharger mainly work in series.
Technical Paper

A Study of Control Strategy for Combution Mode Switching Between HCCI and SI With the Blowdown Supercharging System

2012-04-16
2012-01-1122
To find an ignition and combustion control strategy in a gasoline-fueled HCCI engine equipped with the BlowDown SuperCharging (BDSC) system which is previously proposed by the authors, a one-dimensional HCCI engine cycle simulator capable of predicting the ignition and heat release of HCCI combustion was developed. The ignition and the combustion models based on Livengood-Wu integral and Wiebe function were implemented in the simulator. The predictive accuracy of the developed simulator in the combustion timing, combustion duration and heat release rate was validated by comparing to experimental results. Using the developed simulator, the control strategy for the engine operating mode switching between HCCI and SI combustion was explored with focus attention on transient behaviors of air-fuel ratio, A/F, and gas-fuel ratio, G/F.
Journal Article

A Study of Newly Developed HCCI Engine With Wide Operating Range Equipped With Blowdown Supercharging System

2011-08-30
2011-01-1766
To extend the operating range of a gasoline HCCI engine, the blowdown supercharging (BDSC) system and the EGR guide were developed and experimentally examined. The concepts of these techniques are to obtain a large amount of dilution gas and to generate a strong in-cylinder thermal stratification without an external supercharger for extending the upper load limit of HCCI operation whilst keeping dP/dθmax and NOx emissions low. Also, to attain stable HCCI operation using the BDSC system with wide operating conditions, the valve actuation strategy in which the amount of dilution gas is smaller at lower load and larger at higher load was proposed. Additionally to achieve multi-cylinder HCCI operation with wide operating range, the secondary air injection system was developed to reduce cylinder-to-cylinder variation in ignition timing. As a result, the acceptable HCCI operation could be achieved with wide operating range, from IMEP of 135 kPa to 580 kPa.
Technical Paper

Effective BSFC and NOx Reduction on Super Clean Diesel of Heavy Duty Diesel Engine by High Boosting and High EGR Rate

2011-04-12
2011-01-0369
Reduction of exhaust emissions and BSFC was studied for high pressure, wide range, and high EGR rates in a Super-clean Diesel six-cylinder heavy duty engine. The GVW 25-ton vehicle has 10.52 L engine displacement, with maximum power of 300 kW and maximum torque of 1842 Nm. The engine is equipped with high-pressure fuel injection of a 200 MPa level common-rail system. A variable geometry turbocharger (VGT) was newly designed. The maximum pressure ratio of the compressor is about twice that of the previous design: 2.5. Additionally, wide range and a high EGR rate are achieved by high pressure-loop EGR (HP-EGR) and low pressure-loop EGR (LP-EGR) with described VGT and high-pressure fuel injection. The HP-EGR can reduce NOx concentrations in the exhaust pipe, but the high EGR rate worsens smoke. The HP-EGR system layout has an important shortcoming: it has great differences of the intake EGR gas amount into each cylinder, worsens smoke.
Journal Article

Extension of Operating Range of a Multi-Cylinder Gasoline HCCI Engine using the Blowdown Supercharging System

2011-04-12
2011-01-0896
The objective of this study is to develop a practical technique to achieve HCCI operation with wide operation range. To attain this objective, the authors previously proposed the blowdown supercharge (BDSC) system and demonstrated the potential of the BDSC system to extend the high load HCCI operational limit. In this study, experimental works were conducted with focusing on improvement of combustion stability at low load operation and the reduction in cylinder to cylinder variation in ignition timing of multi-cylinder HCCI operation using the BDSC system. The experiments were conducted using a slightly modified production four-cylinder gasoline engine with compression ratio of about 12 at constant engine speed of 1500 rpm. The test fuel used was commercial gasoline which has RON of 91. To improve combustion stability at low load operation, the valve actuation strategy for the BDSC system was newly proposed and experimentally examined.
Technical Paper

Extension of Lean and Diluted Combustion Stability Limits by Using Repetitive Pulse Discharges

2010-04-12
2010-01-0173
A newly developed small-sized IES (inductive energy storage) circuit with a semiconductor switch at turn-off action was successfully applied to an ignition system. This IES circuit can generate repetitive nanosecond pulse discharges. An ignition system using repetitive nanosecond pulse discharges was investigated as an alternative to conventional spark ignition systems in the previous papers. Experiments were conducted using constant volume chamber for CH₄ and C₃H₈-air mixtures. The ignition system using repetitive nanosecond pulse discharges was found to improve the inflammability of lean combustible mixtures, such as extended flammability limits, shorted ignition delay time, with increasing the number of pulses for CH₄ and C₃H₈-air mixtures under various conditions. The mechanisms for improving the inflammability were discussed and the effectiveness of IES circuit under EGR condition was also verified.
Technical Paper

Reduction of NOx and PM for a Heavy Duty Diesel Using 50% EGR Rate in Single Cylinder Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-1120
For reducing NOx emissions, EGR is effective, but an excessive EGR rate causes the deterioration of smoke emission. Here, we have defined the EGR rate before the smoke emission deterioration while the EGR rate is increasing as the limiting EGR rate. In this study, the high rate of EGR is demonstrated to reduce BSNOx. The adapted methods are a high fuel injection pressure such as 200 MPa, a high boost pressure as 451.3 kPa at 2 MPa BMEP, and the air intake port that maintains a high air flow rate so as to achieve low exhaust emissions. Furthermore, for withstanding 2 MPa BMEP of engine load and high boosting, a ductile cast iron (FCD) piston was used. As the final effect, the installations of the new air intake port increased the limiting EGR rate by 5%, and fuel injection pressure of 200 MPa raised the limiting EGR rate by an additional 5%. By the demonstration of increasing boost pressure to 450 kPa from 400 kPa, the limiting EGR rate was achieved to 50%.
Journal Article

Effect of Fuel and Thermal Stratifications on the Operational Range of an HCCI Gasoline Engine Using the Blow-Down Super Charge System

2010-04-12
2010-01-0845
In order to extend the HCCI high load operational limit, the effects of the distributions of temperature and fuel concentration on pressure rise rate (dP/dθ) were investigated through theoretical and experimental methods. The Blow-Down Super Charge (BDSC) and the EGR guide parts are employed simultaneously to enhance thermal stratification inside the cylinder. And also, to control the distribution of fuel concentration, direct fuel injection system was used. As a first step, the effect of spatial temperature distribution on maximum pressure rise rate (dP/dθmax) was investigated. The influence of the EGR guide parts on the temperature distribution was investigated using 3-D numerical simulation. Simulation results showed that the temperature difference between high temperature zone and low temperature zone increased by using EGR guide parts together with the BDSC system.
Technical Paper

Effective NOx Reduction in High Boost, Wide Range and High EGR Rate in a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-1438
The emission reduction from diesel engines is one of major issues in heavy duty diesel engines. Super Clean Diesel (SCD) Engine for heavy-duty trucks has also been researched and developed since 2002. The main specifications of the SCD Engine are six cylinders in-line and 10.5 l with a turbo-intercooled and cooled EGR system. The common rail system, of which the maximum injection pressure is 200 MPa, is adopted. The turbocharger is capable of increasing boost pressure up to 501.3 kPa. The EGR system consists of both a high-pressure loop (HP) EGR system and a low-pressure loop (LP) EGR system. The combination of these EGR systems reduces NOx and PM emissions effectively in both steady-state and transient conditions. The emissions of the SCD Engine reach NOx=0.2 g/kWh and PM=0.01 g/kWh with aftertreatment system. The adopted aftertreatment system includes a Lean NOx Trap (LNT) and Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF).
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study of a Gasoline HCCI Engine Using the Blow-Down Super Charge System

2009-04-20
2009-01-0496
The objective of this study is to extend the high load operation limit of a gasoline HCCI engine. A new system extending the high load HCCI operation limit was proposed, and the performance of the system was experimentally demonstrated. The proposed system consists of two new techniques. The first one is the “Blow-down super charging (BDSC) system”, in which, EGR gas can be super charged into a cylinder during the early stage of compression stroke by using the exhaust blow-down pressure wave from another cylinder phased 360 degrees later/earlier in the firing order. The other one is “EGR guide” for generating a large thermal stratification inside the cylinder to reduce the rate of in-cylinder pressure rise (dP/dθ) at high load HCCI operation. The EGR guides consist of a half-circular part attached on the edge of the exhaust ports and the piston head which has a protuberant surface to control the mixing between hot EGR gas and intake air-fuel mixture.
Technical Paper

Improvement of NOx Reduction Rate of Urea-SCR System by NH3 Adsorption Quantity Control

2008-10-06
2008-01-2498
A urea SCR system was combined with a DPF system to reduce NOx and PM in a four liters turbocharged with intercooler diesel engine. Significant reduction in NOx was observed at low exhaust gas temperatures by increasing NH3 adsorption quantity in the SCR catalyst. Control logic of the NH3 adsorption quantity for transient operation was developed based on the NH3 adsorption characteristics on the SCR catalyst. It has been shown that NOx can be reduced by 75% at the average SCR inlet gas temperature of 158 deg.C by adopting the NH3 adsorption quantity control in the JE05 Mode.
Technical Paper

Comprehensive Characterization of Particulate Emissions from Advanced Diesel Combustion

2007-07-23
2007-01-1945
The applicability of several popular diesel particulate matter (PM) measurement techniques to low temperature combustion is examined. The instruments' performance in measuring low levels of PM from advanced diesel combustion is evaluated. Preliminary emissions optimization of a high-speed light-duty diesel engine was performed for two conventional and two advanced low temperature combustion engine cases. A low PM (<0.2 g/kg_fuel) and NOx (<0.07 g/kg_fuel) advanced low temperature combustion (LTC) condition with high levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and early injection timing was chosen as a baseline. The three other cases were selected by varying engine load, injection timing, injection pressure, and EGR mass fraction. All engine conditions were run with ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel. An extensive characterization of PM from these engine operating conditions is presented.
Technical Paper

SOF Component of Lubricant Oil on Diesel PM in a High Boosted and Cooled EGR Engine

2007-04-16
2007-01-0123
The engine in the research is a single cylinder DI diesel using the emission reduction techniques such as high boost, high injection pressure and broad range and high quantity of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). The study especially focuses on the reduction of particulate matter (PM) under the engine operating conditions. In the experiment the authors measured engine performance, exhaust gases and mass of PM by low sulfur fuel such as 3 ppm and low sulfur lubricant oil such as 0.26%. Then the PM components were divided into soluble organic fraction (SOF) and insoluble organic fraction (ISOF) and they were measured at each engine condition. The mass of SOF was measured from the fuel fraction and lubricant oil fraction by gas chromatography. Also each mass of soot fraction and sulfate fraction was measured as components of ISOF. The experiment was conducted at BMEP = 2.0 MPa as full load condition of the engine and changing EGR rate from 0% to 40 %.
Technical Paper

Emission Characteristics of a Urea SCR System under Catalysts Activated and De-Activated Conditions

2006-04-03
2006-01-0639
Urea SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) system has high potential of reducing NOx. But such as system durability and safety under deteriorated catalysts conditions have not been well enough clarified because it is new technology for vehicles. In this paper, current NOx emission level of an engine equipped with urea SCR system is discussed and then exhaust emission characteristics were analyzed when the SCR catalyst and/or oxidation catalyst lose their functions. When both SCR and oxidation catalyst were de-activated, not only NOx but also PM increased remarkably, which were much more than the engine-out emissions. Oxidation catalyst downstream of SCR catalyst was effective to suppress such deteriorations.
Technical Paper

Development of a Real-time NH3 Gas Analyzer Utilizing Chemi-luminescence Detection for Vehicle Emission Measurement

2004-10-25
2004-01-2907
Recently, after-treatment techniques for diesel engine emission have made remarkable progress with the development of suitable De-NOx catalysts. The urea-injection SCR system is one of the candidates for a high efficiency De-NOx method for diesel engine emissions. This system reduces NOx through a reaction with ammonia (NH3) that is generated from injected urea. In this system, it is very important to control the amount and timing of the urea injection so as to minimize the NH3 gas slip. Therefore, NH3 gas measurement is becoming important during the development of NOx after-treatment systems even though NH3 is not a target component of the current emission regulations. In this paper, a new NH3 gas analyzer utilizing a chemi-luminescence detection (CLD) method has been developed. The new NH3 analyzer consists of dual detectors (DCLDs) and a furnace for a NH3 oxidization catalyst. Real-time concentration of NH3 can be calculated from the difference of NOx readings of two detectors.
X