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Technical Paper

Flight Optimization Model on Global and Interval Ranges for Conceptual Studies of MEA Systems

2019-09-16
2019-01-1906
In development of more electric aircraft applications, it is important to discuss aircraft energy management on various level of aircraft operation. This paper presents a computationally efficient optimization model for evaluating flight efficiency on global and interval flight ranges. The model is described as an optimal control problem with an objective functional subjected to state condition and control input constraints along a flight path range. A flight model consists of aircraft point-mass equations of motion including engine and aerodynamic models. The engine model generates the engine thrust and fuel consumption rate for operation condition and the aerodynamic model generates the drag force and lift force of an aircraft for flight conditions. These models is identified by data taken from a published literature as an example. First, approximate optimization process is performed for climb, cruise, decent and approach as each interval range path.
Technical Paper

Gradationally Controlled Voltage Inverter for More Electric Aircrafts

2019-09-16
2019-01-1913
Over recent decades, there has been a lot of progress toward a more electric aircraft (MEA) to reduce emissions and fuel consumption. In MEAs, many subsystems that previously used hydraulic or pneumatic power have been replaced by electrical systems with inverters and electrical machines. Therefore, MEAs reduce the weight, i.e. fuel consumption, and maintenance cost. To achieve advanced electrical systems, the weight of inverters has significant importance. In this work, a gradationally controlled voltage (GCV) inverter is proposed to reduce the weight and enhance reliability. A GCV inverter can supply gradational quasi-sinusoidal voltages combining two different voltages from a 3-phase 3-level (main) inverter and three single-phase H-bridge (sub) inverters. A dc power supply is required only for the main inverter. A main inverter with Si-IGBTs supplies the fundamental voltage by only one switching in the fundamental period.
Technical Paper

A Study of Air/Fuel Integrated Thermal Management System

2015-09-15
2015-01-2419
This paper describes the concept of an air/fuel integrated thermal management system, which employs the VCS (Vapor Cycle System) for the refrigeration unit of the ECS (Environment Control System), while exchanging the heat between the VCS refrigerant and the fuel into the engine, and presents a feasibility study to apply the concept to the future all electric aircraft systems. The heat generated in an aircraft is transferred to the ECS heat exchanger by the recirculation of air and exhausted into the ram air. While some aircraft employ the fluid heat transfer loop, the transferred heat is exhausted into the ram air. The usage of ram air for the cooling will increase the ram drag and the fuel consumption, thus, less usage of ram air is preferable. Another source for heat rejection is the fuel. The heat exchange with the fuel does not worsen the fuel consumption, thus, the fuel is a preferable source.
Technical Paper

Study of VCS Design for Energy Optimization of Non-Bleed Electric Aircraft

2014-09-16
2014-01-2225
To improve an energy optimization issue of ECS for MEA, we propose our concept in which ACS is replaced with VCS. A VCS is generally evaluated as auxiliary or limited cooling system of an aircraft. Cooling demand of commercial aircraft usually becomes large due to ventilation air at hot day conditions. In case of using conventional VCS for whole cooling demand, the ECS becomes too heavy as aircraft equipment. Though ACS's light weight is advantageous, the issue that VCS will be available for aircraft ECS is important for saving energy. ECS of commercial aircraft should work for three basic functions, i.e. pressurization, ventilation, and temperature control. The three functions of the ECS for bleed-less type of MEA can be distributed among equipment of the ECS. MDFAC works for pressurization and ventilation. Therefore, we should select appropriate system for only temperature control.
Technical Paper

Thermal Management System Concept with an Autonomous Air-Cooled System

2014-09-16
2014-01-2213
Electrical power management is a key technology in the AEA (All-Electric Aircraft) system, which manages the supply and demand of the electrical power in the entire aircraft system. However, the AEA system requires more than electrical power management alone. Adequate thermal management is also required, because the heat generated by aircraft systems and components increases with progressive system electrification, despite limited heat-sink capability in the aircraft. Since heat dissipation from power electronics such as electric motors, motor controllers and rectifiers, which are widely introduced into the AEA, becomes a key issue, an efficient cooling system architecture should be considered along with the AEA system concept. The more-electric architecture for the aircraft has been developed; mainly targeting reduced fuel burn and CO2 emissions from the aircraft, as well as leveraging ease of maintenance with electric/electronic components.
Technical Paper

System Concept Study of Electrical Management for Onboard Systems

2014-09-16
2014-01-2200
With the growth in onboard electrification referred to the movement of the More Electric Aircraft, or MEA, and constant improvement in ECO standards, aircraft electricity load has continued to soar. The airline and authors have discussed the nature of future aircraft systems in the next two decades, which envisages the further More Electric Aircraft or the All-Electric Aircraft, or AEA, concept helping provide some effective aviation improvements. The operators, pilots and maintenance crews anticipate improved operability, ease of maintenance and fuel saving, while meetings depends for high reliability and safety by electrification. As part of initial progress, the authors approach the methodology of energy management for aircraft systems.
Technical Paper

Power Management System for the Electric Taxiing System Incorporating the More Electric Architecture

2013-09-17
2013-01-2106
With airlines increasingly directing their attention to operating costs and environmental initiatives, the More Electric Architecture for Aircraft and Propulsion (MEAAP) is emerging as a viable solution for improved performance and eco-friendly aircraft operations. This paper focuses on electric taxiing that does not require the use of jet engines or the auxiliary power unit (APU) during taxiing, either from the departure gate to take-off or from landing to the arrival gate. Many researchers and engineers are considering introducing electric taxiing systems as part of efforts to improve airport conditions. To help cut aircraft emissions at airports, MEAAP seeks to introduce an electric taxiing system that would reduce the duration for which engines and APUs operate while on the ground. Given this goal, the aircraft electrical system deployed for use at airports must rely on a power source other than the jet engines or APU.
Technical Paper

System Design for the More Electric Engine Incorporated in the Electrical Power Management for More Electric Aircraft

2012-10-22
2012-01-2169
This paper describes a study on electrical power management for the More Electric Aircraft (or MEA) and the More Electric Engine (or MEE). This study explored power management solutions based on an integrated engine/power control system and a permanent magnet motor. In recent years, electrical power management has emerged as a key aspect of aircraft system design. In cases in which the Electromechanical Actuator (or EMA) systems are used for flight control, the power bus systems must also be designed to dissipate the power regenerated from flight control systems. In their study, the authors focused on achieving an optimal balance between aircraft power management and operational requirements of the aero-engines. The study results suggest an effective and novel power control concept based on integrated engine control technologies that ensure stable power systems.
Technical Paper

Fuel Pump System Configuration for the More Electric Engine

2011-10-18
2011-01-2563
This paper describes study for fuel pump system configuration which is suitable for the MEE (More Electric Engine) system. The MEE is a new engine system concept which intends engine efficiency improvement, which results in a reduction of engine fuel burn and CO₂ emissions from aircraft. Final configuration of the MEE will contain various engine systems, such as fuel system, oil system and electric generating system, but we focus on high efficiency fuel systems as a first step of the MEE development. The MEE is an advanced engine control technology utilizing recent innovations in electric motors and power electronics and replacing conventional engine accessories, such as AGB-driven pumps and hydraulic actuators with electric motor-driven pumps and EMAs (Electro-Mechanical Actuators), which are powered by generators. Because fuel pump system configuration is a key for the MEE fuel system, we conducted comparison of several pump systems and adopted a fixed displacement gear pump system.
Technical Paper

A Motor Control Design for the More Electric Aero Engine Fuel System

2011-10-18
2011-01-2619
This paper describes a concept related to fault-tolerant design for a redundant motor control system. The design comprises components driven by an electric motor, a motor controller, and a power source, referred to as the More Electric Aero Engine (or MEE). The MEE dramatically improves the engine efficiency and reduces fuel burn and CO2 emissions. However, the MEE system must demonstrate that it can ensure engine safety and reliability before it can take the place of conventional systems. The proposed unique redundant system presented in this paper incorporates Active-Active control and multi-winding motors. Engine fuel flow is controlled by the motor speed control of the MEE electric fuel pump, which uses this redundant system. This concept provides a solution for helping to ensure engine safety and reliability, since it enables a complete one-fail operational engine fuel system for the MEE. Another key technology for the MEE system involves a power generating solution.
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