Refine Your Search

Topic

Search Results

Technical Paper

A Comparative Study on Influence of EIVC and LIVC on Fuel Economy of a TGDI Engine Part II: Influences of Intake Event and Intake Valve Closing Timing on the Cylinder Charge Motion

2017-10-08
2017-01-2246
The present paper is Part II of an investigation on the influences of the late intake valve closing (LIVC) and the early intake valve closing (EIVC) on the engine fuel consumptions at different loads and speeds. The investigation was conducted with two 1.5L turbo-charged gasoline direct injection (TGDI) engines, one with a low-lift intake cam and the other with a high-lift intake cam. The focus of this paper is the cylinder charge motion. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analyses were conducted on the characteristics of the cylinder charge motion for the load points 6 bar-bmep / 2000 rpm, 12 bar-bmep / 3000 rpm, and 19 bar-bmep / 1500 rpm, representing naturally aspirated and boost-mode operations without and with scavenging during the valve overlap.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study on Influence of EIVC and LIVC on Fuel Economy of A TGDI Engine Part I: Friction Torques of Intake Cams with Different Profiles and Lifts

2017-10-08
2017-01-2245
In order to better understand how the Atkinson cycle and the Miller cycle influence the fuel consumption at different engine speeds and loads, an investigation was conducted to compare influences of early intake valve closing (EIVC) and late intake valve closing (LIVC) on the fuel consumption of a 1.5L turbo-charged gasoline direct injection (TGDI) engine. The engine was tested with three different intake cams, covering three intake durations: 251 degCA (the base engine), 196 degCA (the Miller engine), and 274 degCA (the Atkinson engine). Compression ratios are 9.5:1 for the base engine and 11.4:1 for the Atkinson and Miller engines, achieved with piston modifications. Results of this investigation will be reported in three papers focusing respectively on characteristics of the engine friction, in-cylinder charge motions for different intake events, and combustion and fuel economy without and with EGR for the naturally aspirated mode and boost mode.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study on Influence of EIVC and LIVC on Fuel Economy of A TGDI Engine Part III: Experiments on Engine Fuel Consumption, Combustion, and EGR Tolerance

2017-10-08
2017-01-2232
The present paper is Part III of an investigation on the influences of the late intake valve closing (LIVC) and the early intake valve closing (EIVC) on the engine fuel consumptions at different loads and speeds. The investigation was conducted with two 1.5L turbo-charged gasoline direct injection (TGDI) engines, one with a low-lift intake cam (the Miller engine) and the other with a high-lift intake cam (the Atkinson engine). This paper focuses on the influence of the intake-valve-closing timing on the fuel economy with and without exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). It was found that the Miller engine had a lower friction than the Atkinson engine; however, the impact of the difference in engine frictions on the fuel economy was mainly for low-speed operations. Across the engine speed range, the Miller engine had longer combustion durations than the Atkinson engine as a result of the impact of EIVC on the cylinder charge motion.
Journal Article

Influence of Crankcase Oil Properties on Low-Speed Pre-Ignition Encountered in a Highly-Boosted Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

2016-10-17
2016-01-2270
This paper reports an experimental investigation on the influence of the crankcase oil properties on the engine combustion in the low-speed pre-ignition (LSPI) zone. The investigation was conducted on a highly boosted 1.5L TGDI engine operated at the low-speed-end maximum torque, at which LSPI events were observed most frequently. Six different engine oils were tested, covering SAE 0W-20, 0W-30, 0W-40, 5W-20, 5W-30 and 5W-40. In order to evaluate the evaporative characteristics of the crankcase oil, for each of the selected engine oils, the tests were conducted at two different coolant temperatures, 90°C and 105°C. Because SAE 5W-30 was the base oil for the engine under study, for this particular oil, the investigation was extended to the impact of different levels of the mixture enrichment.
Technical Paper

Influence of Fuel Dilution of Crankcase Oil on Ignitability of Oil Particles in a Highly Boosted Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

2015-09-29
2015-01-2811
The relationship between fuel dilution of the crankcase oil and low-speed pre-ignition (LSPI) was studied experimentally with a highly-boosted 1.8L turbocharged gasoline direct injection (TGDI) engine fueled with RON93 gasoline. It was found that properties of oil particles entered the engine cylinder were affected significantly by fuel dilution. The gasoline content in the oil represents those with long carbon chain or heavy species in gasoline, with much lower boiling points and auto ignition temperatures than those for the undiluted engine oil. Thus, dilution of the engine oil by these gasoline species lowers the volatility and the minimum auto ignition temperature of the engine oil. With 15% fuel content in the oil, the flash point and the fire point of the SAE 5W30 oil dropped from 245 °C to 90 °C and from 265 °C to 150 °C, respectively.
Journal Article

Impact of Fuel Injection on Dilution of Engine Crankcase Oil for Turbocharged Gasoline Direct-Injection Engines

2015-04-14
2015-01-0967
Turbocharged gasoline direct injection (TGDI) engines often have a flat torque curve with the maximum torque covering a wide range of engine speeds. Increasing the high-speed-end torque for a TGDI engine provides better acceleration performance to the vehicle powered by the engine. However, it also requires more fuel deliveries and thus longer injection durations at high engine speeds, for which the multiple fuel injections per cycle may not be possible. In this study, results are reported of an experimental investigation of impact of fuel injection on dilution of the crankcase oil for a highly-boosted TGDI engine. It was found in the tests that the high-speed-end torque for the TGDI engine had a significant influence on fuel dilution: longer injection durations resulted in impingement of large liquid fuel drops on the piston top, leading to a considerable level of fuel dilution.
Journal Article

An Experimental Investigation on Low Speed Pre-Ignition in a Highly Boosted Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-0758
The biggest challenge in developing Turbocharged Gasoline Direct Injection (TGDI) engines may be the abnormal combustion phenomenon occurring at low speeds and high loads, known as low-speed pre-ignition (LSPI). LSPI can trigger severe engine knocks with intensities much greater than those of spark knocks and thus characterized as super knocks. In this study, behavior and patterns of LSPI were investigated experimentally with a highly-boosted 1.5L TGDI engine. It was found that LSPI could occur as an isolated event, a couple of events in sequence, or a trail of events. Although occurring randomly among the engine cylinders, LSPI took place frequently when the engine was operated at low speeds and high loads in the zone where scavenging was employed for boosting engine torques at low speeds, typically < 2500 rpm.
Technical Paper

Mitigating Intensities of Super Knocks Encountered in Highly Boosted Gasoline Direct Injection Engines

2015-03-30
2015-01-0084
Turbocharged gasoline direct injection (TGDI) engines can achieve a very high level of brake mean effective pressure and thus the engines can be downsized. The biggest challenge in developing highly-boosted TGDI engines may be how to mitigate the pre-ignition (PI) triggered severe engine knocks at high loads and low engine speeds. Since magnitudes of cylinder pressure fluctuations during aforementioned engine knocks reach those for peak firing pressures in normal combustion, they are characterized as super knocks. It is widely believed that the root cause for super knocks is the oil particles entering the engine cylinder, which pre-ignite the cylinder mixture in late of the compression stroke. It is neither possible nor practical to completely eliminate the oil particles from the engine cylinder; a reasonable approach to mitigate super knocks is to weaken the conditions favoring super knocks.
Technical Paper

Characterizing Thermal Behavior of an Air-Cooled Lithium-Ion Battery System for Hybrid Electrical Vehicle Applications Using Finite Element Analysis Approach

2013-04-08
2013-01-1520
Thermal behavior of a Lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery module under a user-defined cycle corresponding to hybrid electrical vehicle (HEV) applications is analyzed. The module is stacked with 12 high-power 8Ah pouch Li-ion battery cells connected in series electrically. The cells are cooled indirectly with air through aluminum cooling plate sandwiched between each pair of cells. The cooling plate has extended cooling surfaces exposed in the cooling air flow channel. Thermal behavior of the battery system under a user specified electrical-load cycle for the target hybrid vehicle is characterized with the equivalent continuous load profile using a 3D finite element analysis (FEA) model for battery cooling. Analysis results are compared with measurements. Good agreement is observed between the simulated and measured cell temperatures. Improvement of the cooling system design is also studied with assistance of the battery cooling analyses.
Journal Article

Characterizing Thermal Runaway of Lithium-ion Cells in a Battery System Using Finite Element Analysis Approach

2013-04-08
2013-01-1534
In this study, thermal runaway of a 3-cell Li-ion battery module is analyzed using a 3D finite-element-analysis (FEA) method. The module is stacked with three 70Ah lithium-nickel-manganese-cobalt (NMC) pouch cells and indirectly cooled with a liquid-cooled cold plate. Thermal runaway of the module is assumed to be triggered by the instantaneous increase of the middle cell temperature due to an abusive condition. The self-heating rate for the runaway cell is modeled on the basis of Accelerating Rate Calorimetry (ARC) test data. Thermal runaway of the battery module is simulated with and without cooling from the cold plate; with the latter representing a failed cooling system. Simulation results reveal that a minimum of 165°C for the middle cell is needed to trigger thermal runaway of the 3-cell module for cases with and without cold plate cooling.
Technical Paper

Influence of Terminal Tabs/Busbar Ohmic Heat on Maximum Cell Temperature of a Li-ion Battery System for PHEV Applications

2012-04-16
2012-01-0119
The battery packs for plug-in hybrid electrical vehicle (PHEV) applications are relatively small in the charge depleting (CD) mode but fairly large in the charge sustaining (CS) mode for their duties in comparison to the battery packs for hybrid electrical vehicle (HEV) applications. Thus, the heaviest battery thermal load for a PHEV pack is encountered at the end of the CD mode. Because the cells in PHEV battery packs are generally larger than those in the HEV packs in both capacity and size, control of the maximum cell temperature and the maximum differential cell temperature for the cells in a PHEV pack with high packing efficiency is a challenge for the cooling system design. The maximum cell temperatures locate in the areas near the terminal tabs where the current densities are highest.
Journal Article

Thermal Analysis of a High-Power Lithium-Ion Battery System with Indirect Air Cooling

2012-04-16
2012-01-0333
Thermal behavior of a lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery module for hybrid electrical vehicle (HEV) applications is analyzed in this study. The module is stacked with 12 high-power pouch Li-ion battery cells. The cells are cooled indirectly with air through aluminum fins sandwiched between each two cells in the module, and each of the cooling fins has an extended cooling surface exposed in the cooling air flow channel. The cell temperatures are analyzed using a quasi-dimensional model under both the transient module load in a user-defined cycle for the battery system utilizations and an equivalent continuous load in the cycle. The cell thermal behavior is evaluated with the volume averaged cell temperature and the cell heat transfer is characterized with resistances for all thermal links in the heat transfer path from the cell to the cooling air. Simulations results are compared with measurements. Good agreement is observed between the simulated and measured cell temperatures.
Journal Article

Thermal Analysis of a Li-ion Battery System with Indirect Liquid Cooling Using Finite Element Analysis Approach

2012-04-16
2012-01-0331
The performance and life of Li-ion battery packs for electric vehicle (EV), hybrid electrical vehicle (HEV), and plug-in hybrid electrical vehicle (PHEV) applications are influenced significantly by battery operation temperatures. Thermal management of a battery pack is one of the main factors to be considered in the pack design, especially for those with indirect air or indirect liquid cooling since the cooling medium is not in contact with the battery cells. In this paper, thermal behavior of Li-ion pouch cells in a battery system for PHEV applications is studied. The battery system is cooled indirectly with liquid through aluminum cooling fins in contact with each cell and a liquid cooled cold plate for each module in the battery pack. The aluminum cooling fins function as a thermal bridge between the cells and the cold plate. Cell temperature distributions are simulated using a finite element analysis approach under cell utilizations corresponding to PHEV applications.
Technical Paper

A Model-Based Analysis on Size Distribution and Rate of Evaporation for Fuel Drops in a Gasoline Spray in the Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-1264
Good understanding of fuel sprays in the engine cylinder is crucial to optimizing the operation of direct injection gasoline engines. In this paper, a detailed analysis is conducted on direct gasoline injection sprays from a multi-hole injector. Penetrations and angles of the sprays are characterized with a homogeneous model for the fuel spray. The drop size distributions in the sprays are analyzed using an empirical distribution model. Predicted spray penetrations, spray angles, and drop size distributions under three different injection pressures are compared with the measurements for injection pressures = 40, 100 and 150 bar and good agreements are observed. Transient evaporation rates are also studied for fuel drops in an environment simulating the cylinder condition during the intake stroke of a direct injection gasoline engine.
Journal Article

Thermal Characterization of a Li-ion Battery Module Cooled through Aluminum Heat-Sink Plates

2011-09-13
2011-01-2248
The temperature distribution is studied theoretically in a battery module stacked with 12 high-power Li-ion pouch cells. The module is cooled indirectly with ambient air through aluminum heat-sink plates or cooling plates sandwiched between each pair of cells in the module. Each of the cooling plates has an extended cooling fin exposed in the cooling air channel. The cell temperatures can be controlled by changing the air temperature and/or the heat transfer coefficient on the cooling fin surfaces by regulating the air flow rate. It is found that due to the high thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of the cooling plates, heat transfer of the cooling plate governs the cell temperature distribution by spreading the cell heat over the entire cell surface. Influence of thermal from the cooling fins is also simulated.
Journal Article

An Analysis of a Lithium-ion Battery System with Indirect Air Cooling and Warm-Up

2011-09-13
2011-01-2249
Ideal operation temperatures for Li-ion batteries fall in a narrow range from 20°C to 40°C. If the cell operation temperatures are too high, active materials in the cells may become thermally unstable. If the temperatures are too low, the resistance to lithium-ion transport in the cells may become very high, limiting the electrochemical reactions. Good battery thermal management is crucial to both the battery performance and life. Characteristics of various battery thermal management systems are reviewed. Analyses show that the advantages of direct and indirect air cooling systems are their simplicity and capability of cooling the cells in a battery pack at ambient temperatures up to 40°C. However, the disadvantages are their poor control of the cell-to-cell differential temperatures in the pack and their capability to dissipate high cell generations.
Technical Paper

Comparative Study of Thermal Characteristics of Lithium-ion Batteries for Vehicle Applications

2011-04-12
2011-01-0668
Lithium ion batteries can be developed for vehicle applications from high power specification to high energy specification. Thermal response of a battery cell is the main factor to be considered for battery selection in the design of an electrified vehicle because some materials in the cells have low thermal stability and they may become thermally unstable when their working temperature becomes higher than the upper limit of allowed operating range. In this paper the thermal characteristics of different sizes and forms of commercially available batteries is investigated through electro-thermal analysis. The relation between cell capacity and cell internal resistance is also studied. The authors find that certain criteria can be defined for battery selection for electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. These criteria can be served as design guidelines for battery development for vehicle applications.
Technical Paper

A Rankine Cycle System for Recovering Waste Heat from HD Diesel Engines - Experimental Results

2011-04-12
2011-01-1337
A Rankine cycle system with ethanol as the working fluid was developed to investigate the fuel economy benefit of recovering waste heat from a 10.8-liter heavy-duty (HD) truck diesel engine. Recovering rejected heat from a primary engine with a secondary bottoming cycle is a proven concept for improving the overall efficiency of the thermodynamic process. However, the application of waste heat recovery (WHR) technology to the HD diesel engine has proven to be challenging due to cost, complexity, packaging and control during transient operation. This paper discusses the methods and technical innovations required to achieve reliable high performance operation of the WHR system. The control techniques for maintaining optimum energy recovery while protecting the system components and working fluid are described. The experimental results are presented and demonstrate that 3-5% fuel saving is achievable by utilizing this technology.
Technical Paper

A Rankine Cycle System for Recovering Waste Heat from HD Diesel Engines - WHR System Development

2011-04-12
2011-01-0311
Waste heat recovery (WHR) has been recognized as a promising technology to achieve the fuel economy and green house gas reduction goals for future heavy-duty (HD) truck diesel engines. A Rankine cycle system with ethanol as the working fluid was developed at AVL Powertrain Engineering, Inc. to investigate the fuel economy benefit from recovering waste heat from a 10.8L HD truck diesel engine. Thermodynamic analysis on this WHR system demonstrated that 5% fuel saving could be achievable. The fuel economy benefit can be further improved by optimizing the design of the WHR system components and through better utilization of the available engine waste heat. Although the WHR system was designed for a stand-alone system for the laboratory testing, all the heat exchangers were sized such that their heat transfer areas are equivalent to compact heat exchangers suitable for installation on a HD truck diesel engine.
Journal Article

A Thermodynamic Model for a Single Cylinder Engine with Its Intake/Exhaust Systems Simulating a Turbo-Charged V8 Diesel Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-1149
In this paper, a thermodynamic model is discussed for a single cylinder diesel engine with its intake and exhaust systems simulating a turbo-charged V8 diesel engine. Following criteria are used in determination of the gas exchange systems of the single cylinder engine (SCE): 1) the level of pressure fluctuations in the intake and exhaust systems should be within the lower and upper bounds of those simulated by the thermodynamic model for the V8 engine and patterns of the pressure waves should be similar; 2) the intake and exhaust flows should be reasonably close to those of the V8 engine; 3) the cylinder pressures during the combustion and gas exchange should be reasonably close to those of the V8 engine under the same conditions for the valve timing, fuel injection, rate of heat release and in-cylinder heat transfer. The thermodynamic model for the SCE is developed using the 1D engine thermodynamic simulation tool AVL BOOST.
X