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Technical Paper

Optical Sensor for the Needle Lift Detection in the Common Rail Injector

2019-09-09
2019-24-0193
The detection of needle displacement within a Common Rail injector is a crucial step to suitably characterize the behaviour of an injector. The needle motion is traditionally measured by means of an eddy current sensor. Apart from its high cost, scientific literature highlights its drawbacks, such as the introduction of mechanical weakness on the control piston as well as the electromagnetic disturbance affecting data acquisition. In order to provide an improved quality of signal, other solutions have been developed, which require a large number of components, leading to increased layout complexity. This layout can create a packing issue while mounting the sensor on the test rig. A novel sensor (UK Patent Application No.1819731.9) using fibre optic cable has been designed and built to overcome the limitations typically associated with needle displacement transducers.
Technical Paper

Flame Kernel Growth and Propagation in an Optical Direct Injection Engine Using Laser Ignition

2017-10-08
2017-01-2243
The demand for more efficient and clean engines have prompted the research and development of new engine technologies. Automotive engines expected to run with leaner mixtures and higher compression ratios. Lean burn is effective to increase fuel economy whilst reducing emissions but unreliable ignition of the lean mixtures by the conventional spark plug is one of the problems which causes concerns to the engine designers. Laser ignition is a promising technology and holds many benefits over the spark ignition because it can extend the ignitability of lean mixtures with flexibility of the ignition location and absence of electrode degradation for improved engine performance with lean burn. In this study, high-speed photography is used to investigate the flame kernel growth and propagation in an optical direct injection engine using laser ignition by an Nd:YAG laser.
Technical Paper

Study of Near Nozzle Spray Characteristics of Ethanol under Different Saturation Ratios

2016-10-17
2016-01-2189
Atomization of fuel sprays is a key factor in controlling the combustion quality in the direct-injection engines. In this present work, the effect of saturation ratio (Rs) on the near nozzle spray patterns of ethanol was investigated using an ultra-high speed imaging technique. The Rs range covered both flash-boiling and non-flash boiling regions. Ethanol was injected from a single-hole injector into an optically accessible constant volume chamber at a fixed injection pressure of 40 MPa with different fuel temperatures and back pressures. High-speed imaging was performed using an ultrahigh speed camera (1 million fps) coupled with a long-distance microscope. Under non-flash boiling conditions, the effect of Rs on fuel development was small but observable. Clear fuel collision can be observed at Rs=1.5 and 1.0. Under the flash boiling conditions, near-nozzle spray patterns were significant different from the non-flash boiling ones.
Technical Paper

Improving Cold Start and Transient Performance of Automotive Diesel Engine at Low Ambient Temperatures

2016-04-05
2016-01-0826
Ambient temperature has significant impact on engine start ability and cold start emissions from diesel engines. These cold start emissions are accounted for substantial amount of the overall regulatory driving cycle emissions like NEDC or FTP. It is likely to implement the low temperature emissions tests for diesel vehicles, which is currently applicable only for gasoline vehicles. This paper investigates the potential of the intake heating strategy on reducing the driving cycle emissions from the latest generation of turbocharged common rail direct injection diesel engines at low ambient temperature conditions. For this investigation an air heater was installed upstream of the intake manifold and New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) tests were conducted at -7°C ambient temperature conditions for the different intake air temperatures. Intake air heating reduced the cranking time and improved the fuel economy at low ambient temperatures.
Technical Paper

Influence of Coolant Temperature on Cold Start Performance of Diesel Passenger Car in Cold Environment

2016-02-01
2016-28-0142
Diesel engines are the versatile power source and is widely used in passenger car and commercial vehicle applications. Environmental temperature conditions, fuel quality, fuel injection strategies and lubricant have influence on cold start performance of the diesel engines. Strategies to overcome the cold start problem at very low ambient temperature include preheating of intake air, coolant, cylinder block. The present research work investigates the effect of coolant temperatures on passenger car diesel engine’s performance and exhaust emission characteristics during the cold start at cold ambient temperature conditions. The engine is soaked in the -7°C environment for 6 hours. The engine coolant is preheated to the desired coolant temperatures of 10 and 20°C by an external heater and the start ability tests were performed.
Technical Paper

Development of a Turbulence-induced Breakup Model for Gasoline Spray Simulation

2015-04-14
2015-01-0939
The design and optimization of a modern spray-guided gasoline direct injection engine require a thorough understanding of the fuel spray characteristics and atomization process. The fuel spray Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling technology can be an effective means to study and predict spray characteristics, and as a consequence, to drastically reduce experimental work during the engine development process. For this reason, an accurate numerical simulation of the spray evolution process is imperative. Different models based on aerodynamically-induced breakup mechanism have been implemented to simulate spray atomization process in earlier studies, and the effect of turbulence from the injector nozzle is recently being concerned increasingly by engine researchers. In this study, a turbulence-induced primary breakup model coupled with aerodynamic instability is developed.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study on the Effects of Split Injection in Stoichiometric Dual-Fuel Compression Ignition (SDCI) Combustion

2015-04-14
2015-01-0847
Stoichiometric dual-fuel compression ignition (SDCI) combustion has superior potential in both emission control and thermal efficiency. Split injection of diesel reportedly shows superiority in optimizing combustion phase control and increasing flexibility in fuel selection. This study focuses on split injection strategies in SDCI mode. The effects of main injection timing and pilot-to-total ratio are examined. Combustion phasing is found to be retarded in split injection when overmixing occurs as a result of early main injection timing. Furthermore, an optimised split injection timing can avoid extremely high pressure rise rate without great loss in indicated thermal efficiency while maintaining soot emission at an acceptable level. A higher pilot-to-total ratio always results in lower soot emission, higher combustion efficiency, and relatively superior ITE, but improvements are not significant with increased pilot-to-total ratio up to approximately 0.65.
Technical Paper

A Turbulence and Cavitation Induced Breakup Model for Fuel Spray Modeling

2014-10-13
2014-01-2737
Fuel spray atomization process is known to play a key role in affecting mixture formation, combustion efficiency and soot emissions in direct injection engines. The fuel spray Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling technology can be an effective means to study and predict spray characteristics such as penetration, droplet size and droplet velocity, and as a consequence, to drastically reduce experimental work during the engine development process. For this reason, an accurate numerical simulation of the spray evolution process is imperative. Different approaches and various models based on aerodynamically induced breakup mechanism have been implemented to simulate spray atomization process in earlier studies, and the effects of turbulence and cavitation from the injector nozzle is recently being concerned increasingly by engine researchers. In this study, an enhanced turbulence and cavitation induced primary breakup model combining aerodynamic breakup mechanism is developed.
Technical Paper

Impact of Cold Ambient Conditions on Cold Start and Idle Emissions from Diesel Engines

2014-10-13
2014-01-2715
The cold start performance of a diesel engine has been receiving more attention as the European Commission emission regulations directed to include cold start emissions in the legislative emission driving cycles. The cold start performance of diesel engines is influenced by the ambient temperature conditions, engine design, fuel, lubricant and engine operating conditions. The present research work investigates the effect of cold ambient conditions on the diesel engine's performance and the exhaust emission (gaseous and particulate emissions) characteristics during the cold start and followed by idle. The engine startability and idling tests were carried out on the latest generation of diesel engine in a cold cell at various ambient temperatures ranging between +20°C and −20°C. Higher fuel consumption and peak speed were observed at very cold ambient compared to those at normal ambient during the cold start.
Technical Paper

A Study of Methodology for the Investigation of Engine Transient Performance

2014-10-13
2014-01-2714
Automotive engines especially turbocharged diesel engines produce higher level of emissions during transient operation than in steady state. In order to improve understanding of the engine transients and develop advanced technologies to reduce the transient emissions, the engine researchers require accurate data acquisition and appropriate post-processing techniques which are capable of dealing with noise and synchronization issues. Four alternative automated methods namely FFT (Fast Fourier Transform), low-pass, linear and zero-phase filters were implemented on in-cylinder pressure. The data of each individual cycle was compared and analyzed for the suitability of combustion diagnostic. FFT filtering was the best suited method since it eliminated most pressure fluctuation and provided smooth rate of heat release profiles for each cycle.
Technical Paper

Investigation on the Performance of Diesel Oxidation Catalyst during Cold Start at L ow Temperature Conditions

2014-10-13
2014-01-2712
Cold start is a critical operating condition for diesel engines because of the pollutant emissions produced by the unstable combustion and non-performance of after-treatment at lower temperatures. In this research investigation, a light-duty turbocharged diesel engine equipped with a common rail injection system was tested on a transient engine testing bed to study the starting process in terms of engine performance and emissions. The engine (including engine coolant, engine oil and fuel) was soaked in a cold cell at −7°C for at least 8 hours before starting the test. The engine operating parameters such as engine speed, air/fuel ratio, and EGR rate were recorded during the tests. Pollutant emissions (Hydrocarbon (HC), NOx, and particles both in mode of nucleation and accumulation) were measured before and after the Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC). The results show that conversion efficiency of NOx was higher during acceleration period at −7°C start than the case of 20°C start.
Technical Paper

Investigation on the Self-Stabilization Feature of HCCI Combustion

2014-10-13
2014-01-2663
The combustion timing, work output and in-cylinder peak pressure for HCCI engines often converge to a stable equilibrium point, which implies that the HCCI combustion may have a self-stabilization feature. It is thought that this behavior is due to the competing residual-induced heating and dilution of the reactant gas. As one of the most important features of HCCI combustion, the self-stabilization behavior can give great guidance to people for designing controller for HCCI engine control. The self-stabilization features of HCCI combustion had been observed by many researchers and mentioned in some publications. However, there is no report to experimentally analyze this phenomenon individually. Due to the fuel injection normally ending during the NVO process and the spark plug is turned off for HCCI engines, there is no direct control approach between the Intake Valve Close (IVC) and the start of combustion.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Multiple Premixed Compression Ignition Engine Fueled with Heavy Naphtha for High Efficiency and Low Emissions

2014-10-13
2014-01-2678
A study of Multiple Premixed Compression Ignition (MPCI) with heavy naphtha is performed on a light-duty single cylinder diesel engine. The engine is operated at a speed of 1600rpm with the net indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) from 0.5MPa to 0.9MPa. Commercial diesel is also tested with the single injection for reference. The combustion and emissions characteristics of the heavy naphtha are investigated by sweeping the first (−200 ∼ −20 deg ATDC) and the second injection timing (−5 ∼ 15 deg ATDC) with an injection split ratio of 50/50. The results show that compared with diesel combustion, the naphtha MPCI can reduce NOx, soot emissions and particle number simultaneously while maintaining or achieving even higher indicated thermal efficiency. A low pressure rise rate can be achieved due to the two-stage combustion character of the MPCI mode but with the penalty of high HC and CO emissions, especially at 0.5MPa IMEP.
Journal Article

An Investigation into the Characteristics of DISI Injector Deposits Using Advanced Analytical Methods

2014-10-13
2014-01-2722
There is an increasing recognition of injector deposit (ID) formation in fuel injection equipment as direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine technologies advance to meet increasingly stringent emission legislation and fuel economy requirements. While it is known that the phenomena of ID in DISI engines can be influenced by changes in fuel composition, including increasing usage of aliphatic alcohols and additive chemistries to enhance fuel performance, there is however still a great deal of uncertainty regarding the physical and chemical structure of these deposits, and the mechanisms of deposit formation. In this study, a mechanical cracking sample preparation technique was developed to assess the deposits across DISI injectors fuelled with gasoline and blends of 85% ethanol (E85).
Journal Article

Low Ambient Temperature Effects on a Modern Turbocharged Diesel engine running in a Driving Cycle

2014-10-13
2014-01-2713
Engine transient operation has attracted a lot of attention from researchers due to its high frequency of occurrence during daily vehicle operation. More emissions are expected compared to steady state operating conditions as a result of the turbo-lag problem. Ambient temperature has significant influences on engine transients especially at engine start. The effects of ambient temperature on engine-out emissions under the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) are investigated in this study. The transient engine scenarios were carried out on a modern 3.0 L, V6 turbocharged common rail diesel engine fuelled with winter diesel in a cold cell within the different ambient temperature ranging between +20 °C and −7 °C. The engine with fuel, coolant, combustion air and lubricating oil were soaked and maintained at the desired test temperatures during the transient scenarios.
Journal Article

Experimental Investigation of Different Blends of Diesel and Gasoline (Dieseline) in a CI Engine

2014-10-13
2014-01-2686
Combustion behaviour and emissions characteristics of different blending ratios of diesel and gasoline fuels (Dieseline) were investigated in a light-duty 4-cylinder compression-ignition (CI) engine operating on partially premixed compression ignition (PPCI) mode. Experiments show that increasing volatility and reducing cetane number of fuels can help promote PPCI and consequently reduce particulate matter (PM) emissions while oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions reduction depends on the engine load. Three different blends, 0% (G0), 20% (G20) and 50% (G50) of gasoline mixed with diesel by volume, were studied and results were compared to the diesel-baseline with the same combustion phasing for all experiments. Engine speed was fixed at 1800rpm, while the engine load was varied from 1.38 to 7.85 bar BMEP with the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) application.
Journal Article

High Speed Imaging Study on the Spray Characteristics of Dieseline at Elevated Temperatures and Back Pressures

2014-04-01
2014-01-1415
Dieseline combustion as a concept combines the advantages of gasoline and diesel by offline or online blending the two fuels. Dieseline has become an attractive new compression ignition combustion concept in recent years and furthermore an approach to a full-boiling-range fuel. High speed imaging with near-parallel backlit light was used to investigate the spray characteristics of dieseline and pure fuels with a common rail diesel injection system in a constant volume vessel. The results were acquired at different blend ratios, and at different temperatures and back pressures at an injection pressure of 100MPa. The penetrations and the evaporation states were compared with those of gasoline and diesel. The spray profile was analyzed in both area and shape with statistical methods. The effect of gasoline percentage on the evaporation in the fuel spray was evaluated.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Effect of Nozzle Diameter on Near-Field Spray Behavior of Diesel Sprays in Non-Evaporating Conditions

2014-04-01
2014-01-1405
The near-field diesel spray process in diesel engines is the intermediate one that connects the in-nozzle flow with far field spray process and high-speed imaging techniques with high-quality temporal and spatial resolution are required in order to record this short process (< 300 μs). In this study, a high-speed charge-coupled-device (CCD) camera with the speed of up to 1,000,000 fps was used to study the near-field spray process for a diesel injector with different nozzle diameters. The tests were carried out in a constant volume vessel over a range of injection pressure and ambient pressure in non-evaporating conditions. The observed zone of the spray was where penetration length is less than 18 mm. The development of spray penetration length against time after start of injection (ASOI) was used to evaluate the spray process. The significant difference on spray penetration length development is found when the nozzle diameter varied.
Technical Paper

Effects of Biodiesel Feedstock on the Emissions from a Modern Light Duty Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1394
Biodiesel is an oxygenated alternative fuel made from vegetable oils and animal fats via transesterification and the feedstock of biodiesel is diverse and varies between the local agriculture and market scenarios. Use of various feedstock for biodiesel production result in variations in the fuel properties of biodiesel. In this study, biodiesels produced from a variety of real world feedstock was examined to assess the performance and emissions in a light-duty engine. The objective was to understand the impact of biodiesel properties on engine performances and emissions. A group of six biodiesels produced from the most common feedstock blended with zero-sulphur diesel in 10%, 30% and 60% by volume are selected for the study. All the biodiesel blends were tested on a light-duty, twin-turbocharged common rail V6 engine. Their gaseous emissions (NOx, THC, CO and CO2) and smoke number were measured for the study.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study of EGR-Controlled Stoichiometric Dual-fuel Compression Ignition (SDCI) Combustion

2014-04-01
2014-01-1307
Using EGR instead of throttle to control the load of a stoichiometric dual-fuel dieseline (diesel and gasoline) compression ignition (SDCI) engine with three-way catalyst (TWC) aftertreatment is considered a promising technology to address the challenges of fuel consumption and emissions in future internal combustion engines. High-speed imaging is used to record the flame signal in a single-cylinder optical engine with a PFI+DI dual injection system. The premixed blue flame is identified and separated using green and blue channels in RGB images. The effects of injection timing on SDCI combustion are studied. An earlier injection strategy is found to be ideal for soot reduction; however, the ignition-injection decoupling problem results in difficulties in combustion control. It is also found that a split injection strategy has advantages in soot reduction and thermal efficiency.
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