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Technical Paper

New CEC Gasoline Direct Injection Fuels Test – Comparison of Deposits and Spray Performance from New and Used injectors.

2019-11-21
2019-28-2392
The use of deposit control additives in European market gasoline is well documented for maintaining high levels of engine cleanliness and subsequent sustained fuel and emissions performance. Co-ordinating European Council (CEC) industry fuels tests have played a crucial role in helping to drive market relevant, effective and low-cost deposit control additives into European market fuels. Until now, there has not been a Gasoline Direct Injection engine test available to fuel marketers in any market globally. However, a new CEC engine test is currently being developed to address that gap. Based on an in-house VW injector coking test, it shows promise for becoming a useful tool with which to develop and measure the performance of deposit control additives. A key requirement of industry tests should be to replicate issues seen in consumer vehicles, thereby providing a platform for relevant solutions.
Technical Paper

Characterizing Propane Flash Boiling Spray from Multi-Hole GDI Injector

2018-04-03
2018-01-0278
In this research, propane flash boiling sprays discharged from a five-hole gasoline direct injector were studied in a constant volume vessel. The fuel temperature (Tfuel) ranged from 30 °C to 90 °C, and the ambient pressure (Pamb) varied from 0.05 bar to 11.0 bar. Different flash boiling spray behavior compared to that under sub-atmospheric conditions was found at high Pamb. Specifically, at the sub-atmospheric pressures, the individual flashing jets merged into one single jet due to the strong spray collapse. In contrast, at Pamb above 3.0 bar and Tfuel above 50 °C, the spray collapse was mitigated and the flashing jets were separated from each other. Further analyses revealed that the mitigation of spray collapse at high Pamb was ascribed to the suppression of jet expansion. In addition, it was found that the spray structure was much different at similar Rp, indicating that Rp lacked the generality in describing the structure of flash boiling sprays.
Technical Paper

Study of Near Nozzle Spray Characteristics of Ethanol under Different Saturation Ratios

2016-10-17
2016-01-2189
Atomization of fuel sprays is a key factor in controlling the combustion quality in the direct-injection engines. In this present work, the effect of saturation ratio (Rs) on the near nozzle spray patterns of ethanol was investigated using an ultra-high speed imaging technique. The Rs range covered both flash-boiling and non-flash boiling regions. Ethanol was injected from a single-hole injector into an optically accessible constant volume chamber at a fixed injection pressure of 40 MPa with different fuel temperatures and back pressures. High-speed imaging was performed using an ultrahigh speed camera (1 million fps) coupled with a long-distance microscope. Under non-flash boiling conditions, the effect of Rs on fuel development was small but observable. Clear fuel collision can be observed at Rs=1.5 and 1.0. Under the flash boiling conditions, near-nozzle spray patterns were significant different from the non-flash boiling ones.
Journal Article

Experimental Investigation of Different Blends of Diesel and Gasoline (Dieseline) in a CI Engine

2014-10-13
2014-01-2686
Combustion behaviour and emissions characteristics of different blending ratios of diesel and gasoline fuels (Dieseline) were investigated in a light-duty 4-cylinder compression-ignition (CI) engine operating on partially premixed compression ignition (PPCI) mode. Experiments show that increasing volatility and reducing cetane number of fuels can help promote PPCI and consequently reduce particulate matter (PM) emissions while oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions reduction depends on the engine load. Three different blends, 0% (G0), 20% (G20) and 50% (G50) of gasoline mixed with diesel by volume, were studied and results were compared to the diesel-baseline with the same combustion phasing for all experiments. Engine speed was fixed at 1800rpm, while the engine load was varied from 1.38 to 7.85 bar BMEP with the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) application.
Journal Article

An Investigation into the Characteristics of DISI Injector Deposits Using Advanced Analytical Methods

2014-10-13
2014-01-2722
There is an increasing recognition of injector deposit (ID) formation in fuel injection equipment as direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine technologies advance to meet increasingly stringent emission legislation and fuel economy requirements. While it is known that the phenomena of ID in DISI engines can be influenced by changes in fuel composition, including increasing usage of aliphatic alcohols and additive chemistries to enhance fuel performance, there is however still a great deal of uncertainty regarding the physical and chemical structure of these deposits, and the mechanisms of deposit formation. In this study, a mechanical cracking sample preparation technique was developed to assess the deposits across DISI injectors fuelled with gasoline and blends of 85% ethanol (E85).
Technical Paper

The Comparative Study of Gasoline and n-butanol on Spray Characteristics

2014-10-13
2014-01-2754
n-butanol has been recognized as a promising alternative fuel for gasoline and may potentially overcome the drawbacks of methanol and ethanol, e.g. higher energy density. In this paper, the spray characteristics of gasoline and n-butanol have been investigated using a high pressure direct injection injector. High speed imaging and Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) techniques were used to study the spray penetration and the droplet atomization process. The tests were carried out in a high pressure constant volume vessel over a range of injection pressure from 60 to 150 bar and ambient pressure from 1 to 5 bar. The results show that gasoline has a longer penetration length than that of n-butanol in most test conditions due to the relatively small density and viscosity of gasoline; n-butanol has larger SMD due to its higher viscosity. The increase in ambient pressure leads to the reduction in SMD by 42% for gasoline and by 37% for n-butanol.
Technical Paper

Effects of Biodiesel Feedstock on the Emissions from a Modern Light Duty Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1394
Biodiesel is an oxygenated alternative fuel made from vegetable oils and animal fats via transesterification and the feedstock of biodiesel is diverse and varies between the local agriculture and market scenarios. Use of various feedstock for biodiesel production result in variations in the fuel properties of biodiesel. In this study, biodiesels produced from a variety of real world feedstock was examined to assess the performance and emissions in a light-duty engine. The objective was to understand the impact of biodiesel properties on engine performances and emissions. A group of six biodiesels produced from the most common feedstock blended with zero-sulphur diesel in 10%, 30% and 60% by volume are selected for the study. All the biodiesel blends were tested on a light-duty, twin-turbocharged common rail V6 engine. Their gaseous emissions (NOx, THC, CO and CO2) and smoke number were measured for the study.
Technical Paper

Investigation on the Spray Characteristics of DMF- Isooctane Blends using PDPA

2014-04-01
2014-01-1408
Little research has been done on spray characteristics of 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF), since the breakthrough in its production method as an alternative fuel candidate. In this paper, the spray characteristics of pure fuels (DMF, Isooctane) and DMF-Isooctane blends under different ambient pressures (1 bar, 3 bar and 7 bar) and injection pressures (50 bar, 100 bar and 150 bar) were studied using Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) and high speed imaging. Droplet velocity, size distribution, spray angle and penetration of sprays were examined. Based on the results, DMF had larger SMD and penetration length than isooctane. The surface tension of fuel strongly influenced spray characteristics. Increasing the surface tension by 26 % resulted in 12 % increase in SMD. Higher ambient pressure increased the drag force, but SMD was not influenced by the increased drag force. However, the increased ambient pressure reduced the injection velocity and We number resulting in higher SMD.
Journal Article

High Speed Imaging Study on the Spray Characteristics of Dieseline at Elevated Temperatures and Back Pressures

2014-04-01
2014-01-1415
Dieseline combustion as a concept combines the advantages of gasoline and diesel by offline or online blending the two fuels. Dieseline has become an attractive new compression ignition combustion concept in recent years and furthermore an approach to a full-boiling-range fuel. High speed imaging with near-parallel backlit light was used to investigate the spray characteristics of dieseline and pure fuels with a common rail diesel injection system in a constant volume vessel. The results were acquired at different blend ratios, and at different temperatures and back pressures at an injection pressure of 100MPa. The penetrations and the evaporation states were compared with those of gasoline and diesel. The spray profile was analyzed in both area and shape with statistical methods. The effect of gasoline percentage on the evaporation in the fuel spray was evaluated.
Journal Article

Transient Emissions Characteristics of a Turbocharged Engine Fuelled by Biodiesel Blends

2013-04-08
2013-01-1302
The effects of different biodiesel blends on engine-out emissions under various transient conditions were investigated in this study using fast response diagnostic equipment. The experimental work was conducted on a modern 3.0 L, V6 high pressure common rail diesel engine fuelled with mineral diesel (B0) and three different blends of rapeseed methyl esters (RME) (B30, B60, B100 by volume) without any modifications of engine parameters. DMS500, Fast FID and Fast CLD were used to measure particulate matter (PM), total hydrocarbon (THC) and nitrogen monoxide (NO) respectively. The tests were conducted during a 12 seconds period with two tests in which load and speed were changed simultaneously and one test with only load changing. The results show that as biodiesel blend ratio increased, total particle number (PN) and THC were decreased whereas NO was increased for all the three transient conditions.
Technical Paper

Phenomenology of EGR in a Light Duty Diesel Engine Fuelled with Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil (HVO), Used Vegetable Oil Methyl Ester (UVOME) and Their Blends

2013-04-08
2013-01-1688
HVO contains paraffin only and UVOME is methyl ester with long chain alkyl while mineral diesel is complex compound and contains lots of aromatic and Naphthenic. This paper compares the effects of EGR on the two different types of biodiesels blends compared to diesel. The combustion performance and emissions of biodiesel blends of UVOME and HVO were investigated in a turbocharged direct injection V6 diesel engine with EGR swept from 0% to the calibration setting for diesel. The EGR sweep tests with increment of 5% were conducted at the engine speed of 1500 RPM for the load of between 72 Nm to 143 Nm, using sulfur-free diesel blended with UVOME and HVO at 30% and 60% by volume respectively. As the EGR rate was increased, the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) for each fuel was reduced at lower load but increased at higher load. The BSFC of mineral diesel was lower than UVOME blends and similar to the HVO blends.
Technical Paper

Impacts of Low-Level 2-Methylfuran Content in Gasoline on DISI Engine Combustion Behavior and Emissions

2013-04-08
2013-01-1317
Research studies show that 2-methylfuran (MF) is a promising gasoline alternative regarding its positive effect on engine performance and emissions. Before using pure MF in spark ignition engines, it is more likely to be used in a low-level blended form in gasoline. An experimental research study was carried out to investigate the impacts of low-level MF content in gasoline (volumetric 10% MF in blend) on direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) engine combustion behavior and emissions. The tests were conducted on a single-cylinder spray-guided DISI research engine at an engine speed of 1500 rpm under stoichiometric conditions. The engine loads of 3.5 ~ 8.5 bar IMEP were tested and gasoline-optimized spark timing was used. Furthermore, the effects of spark timing, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and valve overlap on NOx emissions were tested.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of DMF and Gasoline Spray and Mixture Preparation in a GDI Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-1592
2, 5-Dimethylfuran (DMF) has been receiving increasing interest as a potential alternative fuel to fossil fuels, owing to the recent development of new production technology. However, the influence of DMF properties on the in-cylinder fuel spray and its evaporation, subsequent combustion processes as well as emission formation in current gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines is still not well understood, due to the lack of comprehensive understanding of its physical and chemical characteristics. To better understand the spray characteristics of DMF and its application to the IC engine, the fuel sprays of DMF and gasoline were investigated by experimental and computational methods. The shadowgraph and Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) techniques were used for measuring spray penetration, droplet velocity and size distribution of both fuels.
Technical Paper

An Optical Study of DMF and Ethanol Combustion Under Dual-Injection Strategy

2012-04-16
2012-01-1237
The new fuel, 2, 5-dimenthylfuran, known as DMF, captured worldwide attention since the discovery of its new production method. As a potential bio-fuel, DMF is competitive to gasoline in many areas, such as energy density, combustion efficiency and emissions. However, little work has been performed on its unconventional combustion mode. In this work, high speed imaging and thermal investigation are carried out to study DMF and gasoline dual-injection on a single cylinder, direct injection spark ignition optical engine. This dual-injection strategy combines direct injection (DI) and port fuel injection (PFI) simultaneously which means two different fuels can blend in the cylinder with any ratio. It provides a flexible way to use bio-fuels with gasoline. DMF DI with gasoline PFI and ethanol DI with gasoline PFI are studied under different injection proportions (by volume) and IMEPs.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Optical Study on Combustion of DMF and DMF Fuel Blends

2012-04-16
2012-01-1235
The bio-fuel, 2,5 - dimethylfuran (DMF) is currently regarded as a potential alternative fuel to gasoline due to the development of new production technology. However, little is known about the flame behavior in an optical engine. In this paper, high speed imaging (with intensifier) was used during the combustion of DMF and its blends with gasoline and ethanol (D50, D85, E50D50 and E85D15) in an SI optical engine. The flame images from the combustion of each fuel were analyzed at two engine loads: 3bar and 4bar IMEP. For DMF, D50 and E50D50, two modes were compared: DI and PFI. The average flame shapes (in 2D) and the average flame speeds were calculated and combined with mass fraction burned (MFB) data. The results show that when using DMF, the rate of flame growth development and flame speed is higher than when using gasoline. The differences in flame speed between DMF and gasoline is about 10% to 14% at low IMEP.
Technical Paper

Split-Injection Strategies under Full-Load Using DMF, A New Biofuel Candidate, Compared to Ethanol in a GDI Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-0403
It is well known that direct injection (DI) is a technology enabler for stratified combustion in spark-ignition (SI) engines. At full load or wide-open throttle (WOT), partial charge stratification can suppress knock, enabling greater spark advance and increased torque. Such split-injection or double-pulse injection strategies are employed when using gasoline in DI (GDI). However, as the use of biofuels is set to increase, is this mode still beneficial? In the current study, the authors attempt to answer this question using two gasoline-alternative biofuels: firstly, ethanol; the widely used gasoline-alternative biofuel and secondly, 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF); the new biofuel candidate. These results have been benchmarked against gasoline in a single-cylinder, spray-guided DISI research engine at WOT (λ = 1 and 1500 rpm). Firstly, single-pulse start of injection (SOI) timing sweeps were conducted with each fuel to find the highest volumetric efficiency and IMEP.
Journal Article

Dual-Injection as a Knock Mitigation Strategy Using Pure Ethanol and Methanol

2012-04-16
2012-01-1152
For spark ignition (SI) engines, the optimum spark timing is crucial for maximum efficiency. However, as the spark timing is advanced, so the propensity to knock increases, thus compromising efficiency. One method to suppress knock is to use high octane fuel additives. However, the blend ratio of these additives cannot be varied on demand. Therefore, with the advent of aggressive downsizing, new knock mitigation techniques are required. Fortuitously, there are two well-known lower alcohols which exhibit attractive knock mitigation properties: ethanol and methanol. Both not only have high octane ratings, but also result in greater charge-cooling than with gasoline. In the current work, the authors have exploited these attractive properties with the dual-injection, or the dual-fuel concept (gasoline in PFI and fuel additive in DI) using pure ethanol and methanol.
Journal Article

Effects of Combustion Phasing, Injection Timing, Relative Air-Fuel Ratio and Variable Valve Timing on SI Engine Performance and Emissions using 2,5-Dimethylfuran

2012-04-16
2012-01-1285
Ethanol has long been regarded as the optimal gasoline-alternative biofuel for spark-ignition (SI) engines. It is used widely in Latin and North America and is increasingly accepted as an attractive option across Europe. Nevertheless, its low energy density requires a high rate of manufacture; in areas which are deficient of arable land, such rates might prove problematic. Therefore, fuels with higher calorific values, such as butanol or 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF) deserve consideration; a similar yield to ethanol, in theory, would require much less land. This report addresses the suitability of DMF, to meet the needs as a biofuel substitute for gasoline in SI engines, using ethanol as the biofuel benchmark. Specific attention is given to the sensitivity of DMF to various engine control parameters: combustion phasing (ignition timing), injection timing, relative air-fuel ratio and valve timing (intake and exhaust).
Journal Article

Spray Characteristics Study of DMF Using Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer

2010-05-05
2010-01-1505
2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF) is currently regarded as a potential alternative fuel to gasoline due to the development of new production technology. In this paper, the spray characteristics of DMF and its blends with gasoline were studied from a high pressure direct injection gasoline injector using the shadowgraph and Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) techniques, This includes the spray penetration, droplet velocity and size distribution of the various mixtures. In parallel commercial gasoline and ethanol were measured in order to compare the characteristics of DMF. A total of 52 points were measured along the spray so that the experimental results could be used for subsequent numerical modeling. In summary, the experimental results showed that DMF and its blends have similar spray properties to gasoline, compared to ethanol. The droplet size of DMF is generally smaller than ethanol and decreases faster with the increase of injection pressure.
Journal Article

The Particle Emissions Characteristics of a Light Duty Diesel Engine with 10% Alternative Fuel Blends

2010-05-05
2010-01-1556
In this study, the particle emission characteristics of 10% alternative diesel fuel blends (Rapeseed Methyl Ester and Gas-to-Liquid) were investigated through the tests carried out on a light duty common-rail Euro 4 diesel engine. Under steady engine conditions, the study focused on particle number concentration and size distribution, to comply with the particle metrics of the European Emission Regulations (Regulation NO 715/2007, amended by 692/2008 and 595/2009). The non-volatile particle characteristics during the engine warming up were also investigated. They indicated that without any modification to the engine, adding selected alternative fuels, even at a low percentage, can result in a noticeable reduction of the total particle numbers; however, the number of nucleation mode particles can increase in certain cases.
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