Investigating the engine behavior of a hybrid vehicle and its impact on regulated emissions during on-road testing.
This paper presents the emissions results and operational behavior of two hybrid vehicles over EU legislative Real Driving Emissions (RDE) and other on-road testing cycles. The behavior of one hybrid vehicle during real world driving is investigated, including analyses of air-fuel ratio and catalyst temperature changes, in order to elucidate the reasons for the emissions results seen in the other hybrid vehicle over an RDE cycle. It was observed that the catalyst cooled down over time when the hybrid vehicle SI (Spark Ignition) engine was turned off, meaning that when the engine restarted the catalyst efficiency was decreased until it was able to light-off once again. This leads to increases in the tailpipe emissions of CO, NOx and hydrocarbons after the engine restarts. In addition to this problem, the engine restarts demanded fuel enrichment, which resulted in incomplete combustion and further increases in CO and PN emissions.