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Technical Paper

Expansion of external EGR effective region and influence of dilution on boosted operation of a downsized turbocharged GDI engine

2019-12-19
2019-01-2252
Engine downsizing is an effective technology to lower automotive CO2 emissions. However, the high load low speed regions are plagued with knocking combustion that are usually overcome by retarding the ignition. This interferes with the efficiency gains due to very late combustion. This paper reports the use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on a Ford Ecoboost 1l downsized gasoline turbocharged direct injection (GTDI) engine to improve efficiency by optimising combustion phasing unlocked by the improved knock resistance with EGR dilution. Further ignition system upgrades are tested for impact towards further efficiency improvements. 75mJ (standard) and 120mJ (high energy) ignition systems were compared. The experimental results showed that the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) can be improved by 5.6% with EGR dilution at 25%. When considering combined effects of EGR and high energy ignition upon engine fuel economy, the BSFC gain improves to 7.9%.
Technical Paper

Integrated CFD-Experimental Methodology for the Study of a Dual Fuel Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

2019-09-09
2019-24-0093
This paper deals with the experimental and numerical investigation of a 2.0 litre single cylinder Heavy Duty Diesel Engine fuelled by natural gas and diesel oil in Dual Fuel mode. Due to the gaseous nature of the main fuel and to the high compression ratio of the diesel engine, reduced emissions can be obtained. An experimental study has been carried out at three different load level (25%, 50% and 75% of full engine load). Basing on experimental data, the authors recreated a 45° mesh sector of the engine cylinder and performed CFD simulations for the cases at 50% and 75% load levels. Numerical simulations were carried out on the 3D code Ansys FORTE. The aim of this work is to study combustion phenomena and, in particular, the interaction between natural gas and diesel oil, respectively represented by methane and n-dodecane. A reduced kinetic scheme for methane auto-ignition was implemented while for n-dodecane two set of reactions were utilised.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Combustion and Emission Characteristics of Stoichiometric Stratified Flame Ignited (SFI) Hybrid Combustion in a 4-Stroke PFI/DI Gasoline Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0960
Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI), also known as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), can improve the fuel economy of gasoline engines and simultaneously achieve ultra-low NOx emissions. However, the difficulty in combustion phasing control and violent combustion at high loads limit the commercial application of CAI combustion. To overcome these problems, stratified mixture, which is rich around the central spark plug and lean around the cylinder wall, is formed through port fuel injection and direct injection of gasoline. In this condition, rich mixture is consumed by flame propagation after spark ignition, while the unburned lean mixture auto-ignites due to the increased in-cylinder temperature during flame propagation, i.e., stratified flame ignited (SFI) hybrid combustion.
Technical Paper

Potentials of External Exhaust Gas Recirculation and Water Injection for the Improvement in Fuel Economy of a Poppet Valve 2-Stroke Gasoline Engine Equipped with a Two-Stage Serial Charging System

2018-04-03
2018-01-0859
Engine downsizing is one of the most effective means to improve the fuel economy of spark ignition (SI) gasoline engines because of lower pumping and friction losses. However, the occurrence of knocking combustion or even low-speed pre-ignition at high loads is a severe problem. One solution to significantly increase the upper load range of a 4-stroke gasoline engine is to use 2-stroke cycle due to the double firing frequency at the same engine speed. It was found that a 0.7 L two-cylinder 2-stroke poppet valve gasoline engine equipped with a two-stage serial boosting system, comprising a supercharger and a downstream turbocharger, could replace a 1.6 L naturally aspirated 4-stroke gasoline engine in our previous research, but its fuel economy was close to that of the 4-stroke engine at upper loads due to knocking combustion.
Technical Paper

Exploring the NOx Reduction Potential of Miller Cycle and EGR on a HD Diesel Engine Operating at Full Load

2018-04-03
2018-01-0243
The reduction in nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines requires the development of more advanced combustion and control technologies to minimize the total cost of ownership (TCO), which includes both the diesel fuel consumption and the aqueous urea solution used in the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) aftertreatment system. This drives an increased need for highly efficient and clean internal combustion engines. One promising combustion strategy that can curb NOx emissions with a low fuel consumption penalty is to simultaneously reduce the in-cylinder gas temperature and pressure. This can be achieved with Miller cycle and by lowering the in-cylinder oxygen concentration via exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). The combination of Miller cycle and EGR can enable a low TCO by minimizing both the diesel fuel and urea consumptions.
Technical Paper

Investigation of EGR and Miller Cycle for NOx Emissions and Exhaust Temperature Control of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2017-10-08
2017-01-2227
In order to meet increasingly stringent emissions standards and lower the fuel consumption of heavy-duty (HD) vehicles, significant efforts have been made to develop high efficiency and clean diesel engines and aftertreatment systems. However, a trade-off between the actual engine efficiency and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission remains to minimize the operational costs. In addition, the conversion efficiency of the diesel aftertreatment system decreases rapidly with lower exhaust gas temperatures (EGT), which occurs at low load operations. Thus, it is necessary to investigate the optimum combustion and engine control strategies that can lower the vehicle’s running costs by maintaining low engine-out NOx emissions while increasing the conversion efficiency of the NOx aftertreament system through higher EGTs.
Technical Paper

Effect of an ORC Waste Heat Recovery System on Diesel Engine Fuel Economy for Off-Highway Vehicles

2017-03-28
2017-01-0136
Modern heavy duty diesel engines can well extend the goal of 50% brake thermal efficiency by utilizing waste heat recovery (WHR) technologies. The effect of an ORC WHR system on engine brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) is a compromise between the fuel penalty due to the higher exhaust backpressure and the additional power from the WHR system that is not attributed to fuel consumption. This work focuses on the fuel efficiency benefits of installing an ORC WHR system on a heavy duty diesel engine. A six cylinder, 7.25ℓ heavy duty diesel engine is employed to experimentally explore the effect of backpressure on fuel consumption. A zero-dimensional, detailed physical ORC model is utilized to predict ORC performance under design and off-design conditions.
Technical Paper

Impact of Port Fuel Injection and In-Cylinder Fuel Injection Strategies on Gasoline Engine Emissions and Fuel Economy

2016-10-17
2016-01-2174
As the emission regulations for internal combustion engines are becoming increasingly stringent, different solutions have been researched and developed, such as dual injection systems (combined port and direct fuel injection), split injection strategies (single and multiple direct fuel injection) and different intake air devices to generate an intense in-cylinder air motion. The aim of these systems is to improve the in-cylinder mixture preparation (in terms of homogeneity and temperature) and therefore enhance the combustion, which ultimately increases thermal efficiency and fuel economy while lowering the emissions. This paper describes the effects of dual injection systems on combustion, efficiency and emissions of a downsized single cylinder gasoline direct injection spark ignited (DISI) engine. A set of experiments has been conducted with combined port fuel and late direct fuel injection strategy in order to improve the combustion process.
Technical Paper

The Upper-Load Extension of a Boosted Direct Injection Poppet Valve Two-Stroke Gasoline Engine

2016-10-17
2016-01-2339
Engine downsizing can effectively improve the fuel economy of spark ignition (SI) gasoline engines, but extreme downsizing is limited by knocking combustion and low-speed pre-ignition at higher loads. A 2-stroke SI engine can produce higher upper load compared to its naturally aspirated 4-stroke counterpart with the same displacement due to the double firing frequency at the same engine speed. To determine the potential of a downsized two-cylinder 2-stroke poppet valve SI gasoline engine with 0.7 L displacement in place of a naturally aspirated 1.6 L gasoline (NA4SG) engine, one-dimensional models for the 2-stroke gasoline engine with a single turbocharger and a two-stage supercharger-turbocharger boosting system were set up and validated by experimental results.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Low Load Ethanol Dual-Fuel Combustion using Single and Split Diesel Injections on a Heavy-Duty Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0778
The use of two different fuels to control the in-cylinder charge reactivity of compression ignition engines has been shown as an effective way to achieve low levels of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and soot emissions. The port fuel injection of ethanol on a common rail, direct injected diesel engine increases this reactivity gradient. The objective of this study is to experimentally characterize the controllability, performance, and emissions of ethanol-diesel dual-fuel combustion in a single cylinder heavy-duty engine. Three different diesel injection strategies were investigated: a late split, an early split, and an early single injection. The experiments were performed at low load, where the fuel conversion efficiency is typically reduced due to incomplete combustion. Ethanol substitution ratios varied from 44-80% on an energy input basis.
Technical Paper

The Modeling and Design of a Boosted Uniflow Scavenged Direct Injection Gasoline (BUSDIG) Engine

2015-09-01
2015-01-1970
Engine downsizing of the spark ignition gasoline engine is recognized as one of the most effective approaches to improve the fuel economy of a passenger car. However, further engine downsizing beyond 50% in a 4-stroke gasoline engine is limited by the occurrence of abnormal combustion events as well as much greater thermal and mechanical loads. In order to achieve aggressive engine downsizing, a boosted uniflow scavenged direct injection gasoline (BUSDIG) engine concept has been proposed and researched by means of CFD simulation and demonstration in a single cylinder engine. In this paper, the intake port design on the in-cylinder flow field and gas exchange characteristics of the uniflow 2-stroke cycle was investigated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD). In particular, the port orientation on the in-cylinder swirl, the trapping efficiency, charging efficiency and scavenging efficiency was analyzed in details.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Methane Slip Using Premixed Micro Pilot Combustion in a Heavy-Duty Natural Gas-Diesel Engine

2015-09-01
2015-01-1798
An experimental study has been carried out with the end goal of minimizing engine-out methane emissions with Premixed Micro Pilot Combustion (PMPC) in a natural gas-diesel Dual-Fuel™ engine. The test engine used is a heavy-duty single cylinder engine with high pressure common rail diesel injection as well as port fuel injection of natural gas. Multiple variables were examined, including injection timings, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) percentages, and rail pressure for diesel, conventional Dual-Fuel, and PMPC Dual-Fuel combustion modes. The responses investigated were pressure rise rate, engine-out emissions, heat release and indicated specific fuel consumption. PMPC reduces methane slip when compared to conventional Dual-Fuel and improves emissions and fuel efficiency at the expense of higher cylinder pressure.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Gaseous and PM Emissions of 4-Stroke CAI/HCCI and SI Combustion in a DI Gasoline Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-1549
Direct injection gasoline engines have the potential for improved fuel economy through principally the engine down-sizing, stratified charge combustion, and Controlled Auto Ignition (CAI). However, due to the limited time available for complete fuel evaporation and the mixing of fuel and air mixture, locally fuel rich mixture or even liquid fuel can be present during the combustion process of a direct injection gasoline engine. This can result in significant increase in UHC, CO and Particulate Matter (PM) emissions from direct injection gasoline engines which are of major concerns because of the environmental and health implications. In order to investigate and develop a more efficient DI gasoline engine, a camless single cylinder DI gasoline engine has been developed. Fully flexible electro-hydraulically controlled valve train was used to achieve spark ignition (SI) and Controlled Autoignition (CAI) combustion in both 4-stroke and 2-stroke cycles.
Book

Laser Diagnostics and Optical Measurement Techniques in Internal Combustion Engines

2012-07-30
The increasing concern about CO2 emissions and energy prices has led to new CO2 emission and fuel economy legislation being introduced in world regions served by the automotive industry. In response, automotive manufacturers and Tier-1 suppliers are developing a new generation of internal combustion (IC) engines with ultra-low emissions and high fuel efficiency. To further this development, a better understanding is needed of the combustion and pollutant formation processes in IC engines. As efficiency and emission abatement processes have reached points of diminishing returns, there is more of a need to make measurements inside the combustion chamber, where the combustion and pollutant formation processes take place. However, there is currently no good overview of how to make these measurements.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study on Spark Assisted Compression Ignition (SACI) Combustion with Positive Valve Overlap in a HCCI Gasoline Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-1126
The spark-assisted compression ignition (SACI) is widely used to expend the high load limit of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI), as it can reduce the high heat release rate effectively while partially maintain the advantage of high thermal efficiency and low NOx emission. But as engine load increases, the SACI combustion traditionally using negative valve overlap strategy (NVO) faces the drawback of higher pumping loss and limited intake charge availability, which lead to a restricted load expansion and a finite improvement of fuel economy. In this paper, research is focused on the SACI combustion using positive valve overlap (PVO) strategy. The characteristics of SACI combustion employing PVO strategy with external exhaust gas recirculation (eEGR) are investigated. Two types of PVO strategies are analyzed and compared to explore their advantages and defects, and the rules of adjusting SACI combustion with positive valve overlap are concluded.
Journal Article

Pneumatic Regenerative Engine Braking Technology for Buses and Commercial Vehicles

2011-09-13
2011-01-2176
In this paper, a novel cost-effective air hybrid powertrain concept for buses and commercial vehicles, Brunel Regenerative Engine Braking Device (RegenEBD) technology, is presented and its performance during the braking process is analysed using the Ricardo WAVE engine simulation programme. RegenEBD is designed to convert kinetic energy into pneumatic energy in the compressed air saved in an air tank. Its operation is achieved by using a production engine braking device and a proprietary intake system design. During the braking operation, the engine switches from the firing mode to the compressor mode by keeping the intake valves from fully closed throughout the four-strokes by installing the Variable Valve Exhaust Brake (VVEB) device on the intake valves. As a result, the induced air could be compressed through the opening gap of intake valves into the air tank through the modified intake system.
Technical Paper

Experiment and Analysis of a Direct Injection Gasoline Engine Operating with 2-stroke and 4-stroke Cycles of Spark Ignition and Controlled Auto-Ignition Combustion

2011-08-30
2011-01-1774
Over recent years, in order to develop more efficient and cleaner gasoline engines, a number of new engine operating strategies have been proposed and many of them have been studied on different engines but there is a lack of different comparison between various operating strategies. In this work, a single cylinder direct injection gasoline engine equipped with an electro-hydraulic valvetrain system has been commissioned and used to achieve seven different operation modes, which are 4-stroke throttle-controlled SI, 4-stroke intake valve throttled SI, 4-stroke positive valve overlap SI, 4-stroke negative valve overlap CAI, 4-stroke exhaust rebreathing CAI, 2-stroke CAI and 2-stroke SI. Their performance and emission characteristics are presented and discussed.
Technical Paper

Continuous Load Adjustment Strategy of a Gasoline HCCI-SI Engine Fully Controlled by Exhaust Gas

2011-04-12
2011-01-1408
Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) technology is promising to reduce engine exhaust emissions and fuel consumption. However, it is still confronted with the problem of its narrow operation range that covers only the light and medium loads. Therefore, to expand the operation range of HCCI, mode switching between HCCI combustion and transition SI combustion is necessary, which may bring additional problems to be resolved, including load fluctuation and increasing the complexity of control strategy, etc. In this paper, a continuously adjustable load strategy is proposed for gasoline engines. With the application of the strategy, engine load can be adjusted continuously by the in-cylinder residual gas fraction in the whole operation range. In this research, hybrid combustion is employed to bridge the gaps between HCCI and traditional SI and thus realize smooth transition between different load points.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Split Injection in a Single Cylinder Optical Diesel Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0605
Over the last decade, the diesel engine has made dramatic progress in its performance and market penetration. However, in order to meet future emissions legislations, Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) and particulate matters' (PM) emissions will need to be reduced simultaneously. Nowadays researchers are focused on different combustion modes which can have a great potential for both low soot and low NOx. In order to achieve this, different injection strategies have been investigated. This study investigates the effects of split injection strategies with high levels of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on combustion performance and emissions in a single-cylinder direct injection optical diesel engine. The investigation is focused on the effects of injection timing of split injection strategies. A Ricardo Hydra single-cylinder optical engine was used in which conventional experimental methods like cylinder pressure data, heat release analysis and exhaust emissions analysis were applied.
Journal Article

The Performance Characteristics of an Production Oriented Air Hybrid Powertrain

2010-04-12
2010-01-0821
In a previous paper [ 1 ], the authors have proposed a cost effective air hybrid concept based on a proprietary intake system and cam profile switching (CPS) system [ 2 ]. It was shown through engine simulations that the pneumatic hybrid operation could be achieved with about 15% regenerative efficiency. The proposed air hybrid operation can be achieved with proven technologies and engine components and hence it represents a cost-effective, reliable and quick deployable solution for low carbon vehicles. In this work, a four-cylinder 2 litre diesel engine has been modelled to operate on refined air hybrid engine configurations and the braking and motoring performance of each configuration have been studied. Both air hybrid systems can be constructed with production technologies and incur minimum changes to the existing engine design.
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